Ulawulo lomhlaba luza kuba njani kwixesha elizayo? Umbono weCadastre 2034

Ukucebisa ukuba umhlaba ungabonakala kanjani ngo-2034 akubonakali ngathi yinto elula, ukuba sibona ukuba zingaphi iinguqu ezenzekileyo kule minyaka ingama-20 idlulileyo. Nangona kunjalo, ukuzilolonga lilinge lesibini kwinto eyenziweyo kwiminyaka engama-20 phambi kweCadastre 2014. Ukunikela ingqalelo encinci kwezi ngxelo kungabiza umntu, iziko okanye isizwe sonke.

Ukucinga ukuba kwi-2034 i-cadastre iya kulungiswa kwaye ihlaziywe ngabemi ngokuzithandela kuvakala ngathi ayingcolisi. Kodwa yile nto uhlaziyo lweemaphu luvakala ngathi ngaphambi kokuba sazi iMephu yeOpenStreet, ebuza ukuba ingaba iziko lemifanekiso kufuneka libekhona okanye ukuba sisebenzisa esi sibonelelo ukukhuthaza imephu yokusebenzisana phakathi kwabafundi kwaye sizinikezela kuphela kwizenzo eziqhelekileyo, kwaye Ukuhlaziywa kwamagalelo asisiseko angenakuphepheka anje ngemodeli yendlela ehambelanayo kunye nokuhlaziywa rhoqo kwemifanekiso yesathelayithi.

Imibono yeCastastre kwixesha elizayo le-20 iminyaka

Utshintsho lwengcinga kwiCadastre ludla ngokuba nzima ngakumbi, kuba ukusetyenziswa kwalo kungqongqo ngakumbi kunokubonisa ezinye izikali. Unxibelelwano lwayo kwimicimbi yezomthetho, yezemali kunye nezoqoqosho idala ukuxhomekeka kungekuphela ngokwenkcukacha kodwa nakwiinkqubo. Nangona kunjalo, njenge Imidwebo yeemifanekiso ingafa ngexesha elihle kakhulu lozukoNjengoko itekhnoloji idemokhrasi kwaye neemfuno zolwazi lwexesha lokwenyani ziyenziwa, ubungqongqo bokuchaneka, utyikityo lobuchwephesha kunye nokuhamba kwendlela kubeka umngcipheko wokungahlangabezani nemfuno yebango elingenakuguqulwa. Njengomzekelo, masikhe siqwalasele ukuba zingaphi iintyilalwazi esizithengelileyo abantwana bethu kutshanje abazisebenzisayo ukwenza imisebenzi yabo yemihla ngemihla; o bangaphi abafundi abahlala kwilayibrari yesikolo ukugqiba ii-asayinimenti zabo; Ngaphandle kwemibuzo yezifundo enayo i-wikipedia, ukusetyenziswa kwayo, ukuhlaziywa ngokudibeneyo kunye nokuhambelana nenjini yokukhangela kuGoogle, ithumela onke amathala eencwadi kwiimyuziyam.

Enye into ekufuneka uyiqwalasele kwimiba ye-cadastre yinto yokuba iimeko ezingumxholo phakathi kwamazwe azilingani ngokubaluleka. Kumazwe aseYurophu asele ene-100% yokugubungela isiseko sepropathi yabo kwinqanaba likazwelonke kunye nomsebenzi okumgangatho ophakathi wenkonzo yoluntu, ukumodareyitha kathathu nakwimilinganiselo emine kungxamisekile. Imeko ehluke ngokupheleleyo kumazwe ane-2D egubungelayo engagqitywanga, ingcinga epheleleyo iphelelwe lixesha kwaye ngaphezu kwako konke apho utshintsho lwezopolitiko lukhokelela ekugxothweni kweqela liphela ootitshala onamava, onokuphulukana nobugcisa babo ngokuthatha ulwazi kwiidrives ezinzima kunye-oko kungasenza sihleke-ukuze babe nenxaxheba emlilweni kwi-ofisi kasodolophu apho phakathi kwezinye izinto ezikhoyo efuna ukucima urhwaphilizo.

Umbono wobhaliso lomhlaba kwiminyaka engama-20 kwixa elizayo awuzenzi ngathi ubhejo olusekwe kwi-cabal okanye kwiindlela ezichasene noko kukhoyo. Endaweni yoko, ngumthambo osekwe kwingqondo eqhelekileyo yeendlela ezilungileyo esele zisetyenziswa kunye notyekelo lweengcali olufumanisa iindlela ezingenakujikwa. Kodwa akufuneki sitsho ngaphandle ukuba iindlela ezicetywayo zingakhokelela ekwamkelweni kweendlela ezimfutshane; njengokuba kunjalo kwiimeko ezininzi e-Afrika apho abemi basuka bengazi i-telephony ene-wired baya kwi-mobile-generation mobile phone. Esi sizathu sokuba kutheni iimodeli ezinje ngeCadastre efanelekileyo babandakanyiwe kwiingxoxo zokuphazamisa ubuvangeli kule nto; yesicelo esikhoyo sezigidi zeepropathi ekufuneka zinikezwe itayitile kunye nokwamkelwa kwabemi entabeni abathanda itayitile enomgangatho «ngaphezulu okanye kuncinci»Kodwa apho kukho imida ecwangciswe kunye nabamelwane babo; endaweni yokungabi nanto kwaye ulindele ukuba elinye ipolitiki limnike into enokwenzeka kwakhona.

Inkcazo kwiminyaka eyi-20 ezandleni zesidenge-mbono - sinokwenza ukuqonda Inkqubo yeSizwe yoLawulo lwePropati, evulekileyo kuthethathethwano noluntu, ngemibono yamalungelo, uthintelo kunye noxanduva ngaphambi kokuthathwa njengomgangatho; -Ukuphambana- kunye namandla okulawula okugunyazisayo kunye nobuzwilakhe bunako ukucima iindlela eziqhelekileyo ukuba aziqinisekisi ukusebenza ngexesha, iindleko, ukulandeleka kunye nokwenza izinto elubala. Ngeli xesha abaxhasi beendlela eziqhelekileyo banethuba lokuphendula, iya kuba iguqula intengiso esesikweni (isatifikethi sesiko kunye nenkululeko) kwiakhawunti yokujonga ipropathi yokwenene njengokufikelela ngoku okunikezelwa ziibhanki, kwaye iya kube icinga ngokuphuma endleleni. abalamli bethengiselwano nge-Ali-expression yewindows yokulandeleka ngexesha lokwenyani.

Kodwa hey, ngeli crazy ukubona abo kwilizwe lakho, ndiya kubuyela oko kutshiwo kumhlathi wokuqala loku kubhala, ukuba iingxelo Cadastral 2034 ngunyaka wesibini oko Cadastral 2014, leyo ufuna ukuqala ukuthetha.

Ngaphambi kweCadastre 2014

Cadastre into entsha, xa kuthelekiswa kwiLizwe Registry, nto leyo esekelwe kwi khowudi ukuba babe kwiinkulungwane ezininzi yokudityaniswa ngokusekelwe imigaqo yobhaliso olugqitha umthetho ipropati yengqondo, ifenitshala, zorhwebo okanye. Injongo lwemvume Cadastre weza ifomu emva kwexesha kunye iishifti wenguqulo yendaba intsingiselo behlabathi ngabantu: yokoyisa, iimfazwe, iirhafu, ukusetyenziswa koomatshini, computerization; Ukongezelela, amaza okuziphendukela kwemimiselo yezoqoqosho azisa iindlela zolawulo lweenkcukacha kunye nophuculo lwentsebenzo kwi-sensation eza kuthi njengeziqwenga ze-puzzle.

I-infographic isishwankathela ama-paradigms amakhulu amaCadastre ayenayo, kwixesha elihlukeneyo:

  • I-Paradigm ye-appraisal kunye nerhafu kumhlaba, ngokubaluleka komhlaba njengobutyebi obuzuzwe njenge-feudalism. Akumangalisi ukuba le ndlela ihlale ixesha elide kwiLatin America, kuthathelwa ingqalelo ukuba nasemva kwenkululeko yala mazwe evela eSpain, imodeli yezoqoqosho yaqhubeka nokuba lulungelelwaniso lobukhosi obabuzayo nobukoloniyali. Kwi-infographic esi sisiqwenga sokuqala sephazili, i-cadastre yezemali njengesicelo esisisiseko.
  • Iparadigm yemarike yomhlaba, kunye nendaleko yokuthuthuzela njengentsingiselo yomhlaba. Oku kuza notshintsho olwenziweyo phakathi kwe-1800 kunye ne-1950. Uninzi lweziseko zomhlaba ziyaqhubeka zisekwe kuloo paradigm yentengiso yomhlaba, yiyo loo nto isiqwenga somrhumo ngelo xesha yayisisemthethweni somthetho njengesicelo esincedisayo kwicandelo lezemali.
  • Iiparadim zokulawulwa komhlaba, ngombono womhlaba njengesixhobo. Oku kwavela nemibono emitsha yokwakhiwa kwakhona emva kwemfazwe, kanye xa amaziko oluntu amaninzi enovuselelo olunomdla, kubandakanya iCadastre kunye neRegistry. Le yayiyiminyaka ebalulekileyo kwiRegistry esekwe kwiNcwadi, isiya kwimithombo yeendaba ezinje nge-microfilming, kwaye kwimeko yeCadastre, impembelelo yezixhobo zamanye amazwe ixhase ukuphuculwa kweendlela zecadastral, ngakumbi ukhuseleko lwesizwe olunxulumene nemfazwe ebandayo. Ngenxa yoko, isiqwengana sezoqoqosho cadastre siphucula iindlela zovavanyo ezisusela kwiimodeli ezilula kwimixholo yeAnglo-Saxon ukuya kwiimodeli ezintsonkothileyo ngokusekwe kwindleko yokutshintsha kunye namaxabiso okuhla baqhubeka bade bafike kule mihla kumazwe amaninzi aseLatin America.
  • I-Paradigm yophuhliso oluzinzileyo, kunye nomhlaba njengobutyebi obufanayo. Oku kwazalwa ngohlaziyo lolwazi, ekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-80s, apho ukubakho kwezixhobo zedijithali kunokutshintsha imephu kunye nefayile yedijithali, kuthathwa ukubonisana kunye nokunxibelelana namanye amaqela anomdla kulwazi lwe-cadastral. Kwangokunjalo, umdla wokudityaniswa kweCadastre kunye neRegistry ngaphaya kokusebenzisana kunye nokutshintshiselana ngedatha, ukwenza lula kubemi ngokudityaniswa kweenkqubo.  Oku kwenzeke okokugqwetha obekufanele ukuba kuqokelele yonke into kwimishithi yobungakanani bephepha «Borges»Kwimibono yokubeka intambo phakathi kweCadastre kunye neRegistry ukuze zidityaniswe. Ukuqonda ukuba iinjongo ezininzi kukudityaniswa kweetyathanga lolawulo lomhlaba kwaye hayi kwisigaba sokubanjwa kube buhlungu kude kube namhlanje; ukwenzakalisa ummi olindele iinkonzo ezingcono.

Registry Land 2014

Kule meko yokugqibela, kwazalwa uCadastre 2014. Phakathi kwiminyaka yoo-20 i-International Federation yeJometriya (i-FIG) yenze enye yeendlela zayo zokubheja ukuvuselela indima yayo, ixhasa inyathelo eliqwalasele ukuba iCadastre kufuneka ibe njani kwiminyaka engama-2014 ezayo. Oku kusikhokelela ekubeni siqwalasele ezona ndlela zilungileyo kunye neendlela ezazisetyenziswa kwilizwe liphela, kulawulo lomhlaba; ngoqikelelo lwendlela iCadastre enokuthi ibekho ngayo ngo-XNUMX.

Ukusuka koku kwavela uxwebhu olunesiseko sefilosofi olunokuthi kubantu abaninzi namhlanje lubonakale lucacile, nangona kunjalo sithetha ngo-1994, ixesha elaqala ngalo nelapapashwa ngo-1998. Ngo-1994 iWindows 95 yayingeyonto isithembisayo, sasebenzisa iWindows 3.11 kumaqela, I-AutoCAD R13 yokulinganisa kweefestile ezingathandanga kangako ngaphambi komkhwa wescreen esimnyama se-R12, iMicrostation SE kwiklasikhi ye-Clipper Ustation eqhuba ngaphandle kwezixhobo ezixabisekileyo kodwa ezibizayo; Isoftware yasimahla yayiyimpazamo ye-nerd kwaye i-Intanethi yayisebenza kwiindawo ekuthiwa zibizwa njenge-Yahoo, i-Lycos, i-Excite kunye ne-Altavista ekwakufuneka ifumaneke kwi-intanethi okanye ngokukhwaza kwemodem eqhagamshelwe kwifowuni yasendlini.

Ukunqanda umngcipheko yixina iindlela elivela ibhola ngumkhenkce, imithambo kufuneka zisekelwe kwizinto ezingcono ekhoyo kunye neendlela banquli apho bathungelane isifundo cadastral ngokwemiqathango iinkqubo, izixhobo, ububanzi kunye nabadlali enxulumanisa ezinxulumene kwintsimi

Imibiko yeCadastre ye-6 2014.

1. Gqibezela imeko yommandla kuquka umgaqo karhulumente kunye nezithintelo

Le ndlela ikhokelele iCadastre yesiqhelo ukuba iyeke ukubona inxenye ethile yenyani, phantsi komgaqo obonisa ukungamkeleki njengokubhalisa nje okusesikweni okanye ukubekwa phambili kuqoqosho. Oku kuthetha ukuba i-cadastre igxila kwindima yayo "kwiinyani", kunye nefoto yokuba zinjani izinto kuloo mmandla, ifuna ukugcina ulwazi oluhlaziyiweyo malunga nokusesikweni nokungacwangciswanga. Ukongeza, umxholo wokugqibelela, ukuze izinto zomhlaba ziphakathi kwemida yeepropathi, ezinje ngezitalato, iibhedi zemilambo, iilwandle, njl. banokumodareyithwa ngendlela efanayo nepropathi kwinyani eqhubekayo, ukuthintela ukuba kwixa elizayo iipropathi ziyaqhubeka nokucela izilungiso ezingena kwiindawo ezisetyenziswa luluntu.

Omnye umda wale ngxelo kukudibanisa idatha engeyiyo eyasekhaya, echaphazela idomeyini, ukusetyenziswa, indawo yokuhlala okanye ukubekwa kweepropathi. Kuthetha ukuba isiseko sedatha esikhoyo esinikezela ngeenkonzo ezinje ngeendawo ezikhuselweyo, imingcipheko, izicwangciso zokucwangciswa kokusetyenziswa komhlaba, njl.njl., Zibandakanya imigaqo ukuze ubudlelwane bendawo neepropathi zibonakale njengeziphumo ezibonakalayo kwintengiso esesikweni. okanye izinto ngexesha igosa kufuneka lenze isiqinisekiso okanye linike ilayisensi. Kumgangatho we-ISO-19152, esi sibhengezo senza lula ubudlelwane bamaqela anomdla kwinyani yommandla kubudlelwane besibini kwisichazi iRRR (Amalungelo, izithintelo, uxanduva) kwaye ezi datha "ezingezizo ezomhlaba" zibizwa ngokuba zizinto zomthetho zomthetho.

Kanye kwimigca efanayo, ezinye iingxelo ezi-5 zaphakanyiswa kolo xwebhu lwe-Cadastre luka-2014 lwakhuthazwa yi-FIG ngo-1998. Umzekelo wetemplate oboniswe ngasekunene unengqiqo yefayile yolawulo lwefayile yeCadastre, enolawulo oluphambili lwedatha kwizinto eziyinyani ezinokwahluka phakathi kwamaziko athe athatha loo datha ngokweendlela ezahlukeneyo, aqinisekisa ukusebenzisana kunye nokuzimela ngokusemthethweni ngomgaqo wolawulo lwedatha eyomeleleyo yokuqinisa umgaqo osemthethweni:

  • Inombolo yesizwe eyingqayizivele eyenziwe kwisiqendu se-36,
  • Iziganeko zabo ezibonakalayo zivela kwiCadastre, iimpawu zabo zomthetho ezivela kwi-formalality / informality kunye nezilumkiso zesitenxo, iimpawu zabo eziqhelekileyo kunye namaqela anomdla.
  • Izilumkiso zeenkqubo ezihanjiswe (kufakwe) kwiinkqubo ezahlukeneyo zobume kodwa ezingakhange zifumane isisombululo okanye zihoxiswe.
  • Izilumkiso ezihambelanayo, ngokungafani phakathi kwezinto eziphathekayo kunye nezomthetho.

Ngaphantsi kwesi siphumo se-LADM essence, njenge:

  • Inkcazo yeenkqubo ezisekelwe kubadlali abadibeneyo kwinkqubo yokuthengiselana kwaye inomdla ngenxa yezizathu eziphambili kwiinkqubo ezihambelanayo okanye ngokucacileyo ngaphambi kokuba ummi onomdla wokufumana izinto ezilungileyo.
  • Iziphumo zobudlelwane bomthetho (zibhalwe ngendlela ebhaliweyo-kunye nobungaphantsi kobugcisa), kunye nokubonelela kwimiqulu yezithethe zangaphambili, ezibonakala zingasebenzi kodwa ezibonakalayo.
  • Iziphumo zemiphumo yendawo yokuthintela / ukunyaniseka.

Ukuba loo datha ivela kwiinkqubo zobufundisi zeCadastre, Registry, Regularization okanye iRegistry Registry ekhethekileyo, wonke umntu unokuzinikezela ekuphuculeni izizathu zakhe zobufundisi kwaye ummi okanye umsebenzisi wenkqubo unokuthemba ukuba le datha iyinyani yokugqibela. Ukusuka kwithebhu yenyani yezomthetho, umboniso ofanayo wephepha lokwenyani unokuba nezinto ezahlukeneyo ezinje ngee-liens, i-mortgge okanye amakhonkco kwezinye iirejista ezinje ngeNtengiso, Ubukrelekrele, uKhuseleko oluHambisekayo kwaye ngendlela efanayo, ukuba ubunyani bolawulo bekuboniswene, izinto ziya kubonakala amaziko asemthethweni omhlaba nawo anamaqela anomdla kuchaphazeleko / kuthintelo olwenza ipropathi yomdla. Kwinqanaba lamaziko karhulumente, le datha ipheleleyo kufuneka ibonakale ngaphandle kwezithintelo, ukuba imigaqo-nkqubo ijolise ekusebenzisaneni ngokwentengiselwano nasekuqhekezeni ubukhosi phakathi kwamaziko oluntu kunye nabalingisi abakhawulezileyo kubemi abanjengo notary, umasipala, umgcini wedolophu okanye umvavanyi. Ukuchaza ukuba yintoni le inokufikelela ngokuvulekileyo kubemi yinto nje yokungafihlisi kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo yokufumana inzuzo, kuba eyona nto iphambili (idatha eyiNgcaciso) inokuba simahla, kunye nabanye kuguqulelo olumnyama kunye nenqwelo yokuthenga. Oko kwenza ukuba kube lula ukuvelisa isatifikethi esikhawulezileyo esinedatha epheleleyo.

2. Akukho kwahlula phakathi kweemephu kunye neeirekhodi

Le ngxelo ingaphezulu nje kokucacileyo, nangona ngonyaka we-1994 ibiliphupha, kuthathelwa ingqalelo njengelinge lenzame eyaziwayo yabona i-CAD iqhotyoshelweyo ngehyperlink kwirekhodi yesiseko sendawo, kwaye phakathi kweyona fomati imbi kakhulu apho amasimi engenakwenziwa ootitshala boninzi kunobudlelwane obuninzi, njengakwabaninzi abanini okanye abanini abaninzi ngeendlela ezininzi; ngenxa yoko igama lomnini kufuneka liphindaphindwe kwiirekhodi ezininzi njengoko ziya kubonakala kwintsimi ... ngaphandle kokungena kwiinkcukacha zokukhawulelana nemida eli-16.

Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, le ngxelo ibeka izikhokelo ezinomdla kumxholo womhlaba osetyenzisiweyo kulawulo lomhlaba. Nangona kufanelekile ukukhumbula ukuba umbono wokuqala yayikukubhekisa "kulwahlulo olungenanto phakathi kwedatha yeCadastre kunye nedatha yeRejista yePropathi" hayi nje "imephu - irekhodi le-cadastral".

Oku kunika ubunzima ekusebenzisaneni nasekubekweni emgangathweni kwedatha yendawo evela kweminye imithetho ethi "izinto ezisemthethweni zomhlaba" zichaphazela ukusetyenziswa, indawo okanye ukuhlala kweepropathi; ukufikelela kwilogic yolwazi lwedatha echaza iinkonzo kulwakhiwo lwedatha yendawo kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo kunye nemithetho yokusebenzisana phakathi kweemodeli. Mhlawumbi umba ophumeleleyo koku yayikukukhula kwemigangatho ye-OGC etyhalelwa ezantsi sisoftware yasimahla kwaye yamkelwa ngenkohliso sisoftware ephetheyo.

3. Ukumodareyitha kuya kutshintsha indawo yeemephu zeefadastral

Le intsebenzo ephuculiweyo oku imizimba umgangatho ISO-19152, ekhangela ucinga elula yonxulumano (RRR) phakathi kweeklasi ukuba i- ngokwenene emzimbeni (abantu, mphandle), inyaniso ebezisenziwa (unit lolawulo unit lweendawo) kunye nemithombo yokurekhoda ulwazi (Umthombo).

Kuvakala kulula ukuyithetha, kwaye igrafu ekunene ibonakala ngathi ilula. Nangona ukuzisa oko kwi-ISO yokuphunyezwa kuyenze yabanzima ngakumbi kunokuba bekulindelwe kwimfuno yokuqala. Inzame yokuqala ebizwa I-Coreast Domain Model (CCDM), eyayibizwa ngokuba yiLADM, yaphela yaba yi-ISO kwi-2012.

Kwaye ukuba abanye bacinga ukuba i-ISO isenokungafuneki, abo kuthi bafunda iCadastre 2014 kuloo minyaka yokuqala bayazi ukuba umgaqo wesemantic ubuyimfuneko -kwaye usaqhubeka nokuba ngumceli mngeni-. Ukufundwa kokuqala kuvelise ukubhideka okuvela kwimixholo nakwimigaqo, ngakumbi abo basebenza ngezomthetho kwaye bekhetha ukubuza endaweni yokubeka umxholo ngokubhala uluhlu lwamagama. Njengomzekelo, igama elithi "cadastre - cadastre" alithathelwanga ukuba liguqulelwe kuba kwimixholo efana neHolland, iCadastre yiRegistry; xa beyizisa kumgangatho abawubiza ngokuba "ngumhlaba olawulo" othi ke uvakalise ukuba unomdla kwiSpanish njengo "lawulo lomhlaba"; Phambi kokuba kubonakale ngathi bubuso kuphela kwaye ayibubo bonke ubudlelwane bayo, i-Aenor iyiguqulela njenge "Territory Administration", ethi kumazwe amaninzi ibe sisiganeko esineempazamo esinxulunyaniswa nolawulo lwamaziko. Eminye imizekelo ligama elithi "ipasile", elithetha iiAnglo-Saxons zezemihlaba nezakhiwo kodwa kwimeko yokuthetha iSpanish ithanda ukubandlulula kwiindawo ezisemaphandleni kwaye ayibandakanyi uphuculo njengoko kubonisiwe ziikhowudi zoluntu.

Yiyo kanye le nto ifunwa yi-ISO-19152, ukubeka emgangathweni iisemantics ze "domain". Nangona isilela kuxwebhu olusebenzayo oluseka ifilosofi yayo kwaye ikhokele ukuphunyezwa kwayo; Ngenxa yokuba iimodeli ze-UML akukho lula ukuzithengisa kwabo bathatha izigqibo abalindele iziphumo zokugqibela zabemi.

Nantsi kukulungele ukucacisa ukuba ukulungiswa kunye nokwahlukana phakathi LADM kunye ne-ISO-19152.

I-LADM izalwe kumbono wehlabathi jikelele, malunga nezenzo kunye nemigangatho ye-20 iminyaka kwixesha elizayo kuLawulo lweMhlaba.  I-LADM ngendlela ethile ifilosofi.

Iziphumo eziqhelekileyo ze-ISO 19152 ezivela kwintlalo-ntlalontle yomhlaba wonke, ukulungelelanisa i-semantics yoLawulo lweMhlaba.  I-ISO ngumgangatho wokusebenzisa ifilosofi yeLADM.

Kule ngxaki yokwamkelwa komntwana kukho isidingo sokubhala, ngaphezulu kokugxila kwiimodeli ze-UML kunye nokwamkelwa kweetekhnoloji yokujonga amanqaku kunye neenkcazo kwimisitho; Kuya kuba ngumdla ukwenza inzame enkulu kwiziphumo zokwamkelwa kwinqanaba lenkqubo, ukuhlengahlengiswa kwamava kunye neendlela ezilungileyo eziqhuba ukuthengisa kwinqanaba labathathi-zigqibo. Kule meko, kukho imizekelo efana neHonduras, eyamkele phantse yonke ifilosofi ye-LADM kwinkqubo yayo ye-SURE-SINAP, kwaye ngaphandle kokuyifaka kumgaqo-nkqubo woluntu, yinto elula yokuba isekwe kwiCCDM ukusukela ngo-2005 iyivumele Ukuqhubekeka okunomdla ngaphandle kokungazinzi kweli lizwe kule minyaka ili-15 idlulileyo; okanye iimeko ezinje ngeNicaragua ngaphandle kokubonisa ukumiliselwa kwentloko esemgangathweni, yonke injini yokuthotyelwa kwe-SIICAR ithetha ukwamkelwa phantse kwenqanaba lesi-2 lokuthotyelwa komgangatho.

4. I-cadastre kwiifom zomzimba iya kuba yinto edlulileyo

Njengomphumo wale modeli kunye nokucinga kwakhona kweefomathi zomzimba, izindululo ziyavela ezinempembelelo kwimiba enje ngesidliso se-cadastral. Kumaxesha amandulo, izitshixo zecadastral zazilandelelana ukuya kutsho kumanani angama-30, apho izazisi zejografi kunye neempawu zolawulo zaxutywa; Ngelixa yayithandana nabasebenzisi ngaphakathi kweziko, kumsebenzisi wokugqibela babedinekile kwaye bengenakusetyenziswa kancinci ukuba uninzi lwala manani alunanto. Njengomzekelo, la magama abandakanya ukuba ngaba ipropathi ibisezilalini; ukuba oku kwenzekile ukuba kuthathelwe ingqalelo kwidolophu yayo ubunjalo bayo butshintshiwe kuba inani elidityanisiweyo belingafani. Uninzi lwaloo ngcinga luvela kulawulo lweefomathi ezibonakalayo, njengoko sikhumbula ukuba ekuqaleni umbono wedolophu-wasezilalini wawunxulunyaniswa nobungakanani bokuprinta iimephu zokugqibela, ezazifuna indawo ezinabantu abaninzi ukuba zilinganise u-1: 1,000 ngelixa isikali semimandla yasemaphandleni 1: 5,000 okanye 1: 10,000.

Ukucinga ngeefomathi zedijithali kukhokelela ekwaphuleni ezi zikim, ucinga ngento eyongeza ixabiso kummi odinga inani elilula kunye nemodeli apho ipropathi kufuneka iqhubeke nokugcina isazisi sayo ngaphandle kokutshintsha komasipala ngenxa yokuguqulwa komda woomasipala, nangona itshintshe imeko yayo engamiselwanga ngokusesikweni, ngaphandle kokutshintsha imeko yayo edolophini nasemaphandleni. Ayisiyo yokuba la macandelo awasafuneki, kodwa ukuba zikwiitheyibhile zempawu, anokutshintshwa nangaliphi na ixesha ngaphandle kwento etshintsha isazisi sayo; Ngaphandle kokuba, ewe, utshintsho luthetha ukuguqulwa kwejometri yalo.

Kananjalo oku kuvela ngeendlela ezichanekileyo zokuchonga, ezinje ngezo zisetyenziswa kwiinkqubo ezinjengeepaspoti, iinkqubo, iipleyiti zezithuthi (ukunika umzekelo). Inani elinemivo engama-30 liyakuba lolothando; singaba lapho umbala wemoto, inani leengcango elinazo, inani lamavili, uphawu kunye nokuba linani lamaxesha umniniyo athe walala ngesitulo sangasemva; kodwa ipleyiti incinci kwaye zinamanani ambalwa ahleliyo; Ipolisa lezendlela linenkumbulo embi kwaye lixakekile likhumbula inani ngokulula nokuba imoto ihamba ngesantya esiphezulu; kwaye emva koko kufuneka ingatshintshi ngexesha elide ikwisithuthi esinye. Ukusuka apho iindlela ezinokuguqula inani lisekwe kwinani leenombolo ezili-10 (isiseko 10) sibe yikhowudi yokudityaniswa kwala manani alishumi kunye nonobumba abangama-26 boonobumba (isiseko 36);

Umzekelo wesiseko se-10 ukuya kwisiseko sokuguqulwa kwe-36 yile: 0311000226 iya kuthetha 555TB6. Ithetha ukuba ngamanani amathandathu nje anokuxhasa ukuya kuthi ga kwiipropathi ezizodwa ezizigidi ezilishumi, zigcine ubungakanani obufanayo (amanani amathandathu) Njengoko ukuzenzekelayo kunokwenzeka ukwenza olu tshintsho kunye nokunxibelelana ngokuchasene namanani angaphambili; kubemi, ikhowudi ngumtya omfutshane, ngaphakathi ngeempawu zekhowudi zinokufihlwa okanye ngokulula inani elilandelelanayo kwinqanaba likazwelonke. Ukuvavanya ukuba isebenza njani le nto, ndicebisa le link yeGoogle.

http://www.unitconversion.org/numbers/base-10-to-base-36-conversion.html

5. Umsebenzi ohlangeneyo phakathi kwamashishini abucala kunye noluntu

Lo mkhwa unefuthe elikhulu kwiimodeli zentsebenziswano phakathi kukarhulumente namashishini abucala, efuna ukudlulisela kwicandelo labucala loo miba ingeyiyo ishishini elomeleleyo leziko likarhulumente. Kweminye iminyaka, iCadastre yenze uphando olupheleleyo ebaleni, kunye neebrigade zabantu abaqeshwe liziko; namhlanje kulula kakhulu ukukhupha lo msebenzi. Kwangokunjalo, ukufakwa ekhompyutheni nokukhupha idatha kwiirekhodi ezibonakalayo, ukuvumela icandelo labucala ukuba lenze loo misebenzi "yethutyana" okanye ubuncinci ukuba yenziwe kakuhle, yenziwa kube kanye, ukuthintela utyalomali kwizixhobo ezingasasebenziyo Imozulu.

Nangona kunjalo, ngumceli mngeni apho kuninzi okunokucwangciswa ngokokuhamba kancinci kunye nomngcipheko. Ukugqithisela i-ofisi engaphambili ebhankini kubonakala kulula kakhulu kwaye phantse kunyanzelekile, kodwa ukunikezela ukufumana ulwazi kufuna ezinye iintlobo zeziqinisekiso, hayi kukhuseleko kuphela kodwa nakwimfanelo yomthetho nolawulo.

6. Utyalo-mali kwiCadastre luya kuhlaziywa

Eli nqaku alinikeli ngaphezulu, kwaye sinethemba lokulichukumisa kuhlelo oluzayo. Kodwa ngokusisiseko lo mthetho-siseko usekwe kwinto yokuba ukubanjwa kolwazi, ukufuduka emzimbeni ukuya kwidijithali okanye ukwakhiwa kwenkqubo enkulu kwenziwa kube kanye. Kwaye yenziwe kakuhle. Umsebenzi wokuhlaziya olandelayo kunye nokuvela kwawo akufuneki kufuna iimali mboleko kwimibutho yamazwe aphesheya, kodwa kufanele ukuba kukwimatriki yotyalo-mali kwakhona lwezixhobo eziveliswe kulwakhiwo kwiimveliso ezintsha kunye neenkonzo.

Imibiko yeRejista yoMhlaba ye-2034

I-2014 uhlolo lwenziwe ngendlela uhambo lwalukho ngayo, ukuqhubela phambili kunye neziphumo ezintsha zokuqwalasela oko kuza kuza kwiminyaka elandelayo ye-20.

Kule ngongoma, sibheka izinto ezibalulekileyo eziye zachaphazela ukuguqulwa kolwazi kwi-cadastre, njengeziseko zeenkcukacha zendawo kunye nezibonelelo, ukuhlaziywa kwendawo yoluntu; Ngokufanayo, imibono eye yanikela umdla omtsha kwiCadastre njengoLawulo lweMhlaba, ukuPhathwa kwintsimi kunye nento enokulindela kwixesha elizayo ngokulula kwengqondo.

Yiyo loo nto kuvela iingxelo ezintsha ezi-6 kunye nemibuzo emi-6. NjengoCadastre 2014, kukutolika okusekwe kumxholo wento esele yenzekile. Amanye amazwe athe woyisa izikhewu zokuqala uzakwamkela ezinye zeendlela, kuba uzinzo lwabo kunye nebango sele lifuna enye into kwintengiso yabo; oku kuyakubengezela kwabanye abanokuzigcina indlela emfutshane yokuhlangana. Abanye, ngenxa yokufumana iimfuno ezisisiseko, baya kuhlala bezama ukugcwalisa ityala lezibhengezo zikaCadastre zika-2014.

1. Ixesha elifanelekileyo

Umxholo usemdala, ukuba iBorges iqokelele kumthombo ophuma kwi-1658:

Kuloo Mbuso, ubuGcisa beCartography bafezekisileyo ukufezekisa ukuba imephu yePhondo elilodwa lihlala kwiSixeko sonke, kwaye imephu yoBukhosi, iPhondo lonke. Ngexesha elide, la maMephu angabonakaliyo awanelisekanga kwaye iiKholeji zeCartographer ziphakanyise iMephu yoBukumkani, obubukhulu beBukhosi kwaye buhambelane ngokungqinelana nayo.

Ngaphantsi koMcebisi kwiCoprography, iZizukulwana ezilandelayo ziqonda ukuba le Mephu yayingenamsebenzi kwaye ingekho ngaphandle kobuGqubuthelo babanikezela kwi-Incelence ye-Sun ne-Winters. Eentlango zaseNtshona zonakalisiwe Imephu iMimbolo, ehleliwe yizilwanyana kunye nezicukucezi; kulo lonke ilizwe akukho mnye uhla lweeGraphical Disciplines.

Ihleli iyinkxalabo, ngakumbi kwimixholo apho ilibalekileyo ukuba nomhlaba wonke onophawu oluchanekileyo olulawulwayo lubaluleke ngakumbi kunokuba nesiqwengana esinye ngokuchanekileyo. Ngobuchwepheshe obunokwenzeka ngoku, le ngxelo ithi esi sihloko siza kuba nomdla ngokubanzi kule minyaka ingama-20 izayo; ngakumbi apho ukugubungela ummandla sele kugqithisiwe kwaye umdla kuphela kukuphucula ukuchaneka kwawo.

2. Izinto zoLwazi ngezoBomi kwiMalungelo, iziThotho kunye noxanduva

Olu luvo lwento ebesele icetyisiwe kwi-Cadastre 2014, ngokungafaniyo endaweni yokuba bubudlelane bendawo kuphela phakathi kwezinto ezisemthethweni zomhlaba kwiipropathi, banokuba zizinto ezineemodeli zabo ezandisiweyo. Umzekelo ngaphambi kwexesha yiRegistry yoLawulo oluKhethekileyo esele inamanye amazwe; Ndinyanzelisa, ngaphaya kobudlelwane phakathi kwamanqanaba, kukhokelela ekusetyenzisweni kweendlela zobhaliso kwezi zinto ziqinisekisa imbali yazo, ukuba semthethweni, umthandazo weqela elinomdla kunye nesimo sengqondo ngexesha lokusetyenziswa kwinqanaba.

Ngoko ke, ukuba i-cone yokulinganisa ukufika kwe-ekhumulo-moya, kwenzeka ukuba ilandelwe njengento leyo; ipropati engaphezu komthetho woluntu, kodwa kunye neenkcukacha ezithwele iipropati ezininzi zomthetho wangasese, unomntu ochasene nomthetho owenziweyo, umnikazi oliziko elisebenza ngalo, umhla osebenzayo wejometri yendawo ( ezintathu-dimensional) kwaye ingatshintshwa kuphela ngokuthengiselana.

3. Amandla okulawula i-3D

Oku kucacile. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku lembonakalo-ntathu ibimele, ubukhulu becala i-alphanumeric. Kuyenzeka ukuba ufike kwigumbi elingaphandle kwipropathi ethe tyaba usazi ikhowudi yayo yepropathi, inqanaba lolwakhiwo, inombolo yenqaba, inqanaba kunye nenombolo yendawo yokuhlala.

Umkhwa wamawele amaDijithali kunye neeSmartCities zikhokelela kwiindlela zokwenza imodeli ezinamacala amathathu ekusebenzeni kwesoftware kulawulo lweeasethi (ngaphakathi kweCadastre). Ewe, ngaphaya kokumelwa, uCadastre 2034 uthi banokulawulwa; kuthetha, faka iindlela zobhaliso ukuze uhlaziyo lwazo lungachukumisi kuphela kwaye lususe, kodwa zinxulunyaniswa nentengiselwano yomjikelo wobomi; Bayazalwa, ijiyometri yabo iyabanjwa, bayalinganiswa, baqala ukusebenza neenkqubo zabantu zemihla ngemihla, bayatshintsha, kwaye bafe nokufa.

Olu xanduva lwe-3D lolawulo luya kubandakanya ukwamkelwa kwezindlela ezintsha zokufumana ulwazi, ukusebenzisa amacebo akhoyo ngoku njengamafu kodwa kunye nemisebenzi yokuququzelela izinto ezilula kunye neemodeli zendawo ye-digital.

4. Ukuhlaziywa kwexesha langempela

Logama abadlali ababandakanyekayo kulawulo lomhlaba bedityanisiwe kwinkosi yokuthengiswa kwezindlu, ukuhamba ngokulandelelana okunokuthi kungqinelane kuya kuba yimfuneko. Njengomzekelo, ibhanki kufuneka ikwazi ukungena kwimali-mboleko ngaphandle komgcini-notari njengomlamli; Lilonke, ungumsebenzisi onikwe amandla phambi kwenkqubo kwaye nguye ongene kwisivumelwano nommi, ogunyazisa ukulala kwipropathi yakhe. Ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, urhulumente wakudala uza kukwazi ukubeka umbhalisi onqakraza kwiqhosha ngaphakathi amkele ubhaliso, ade adikwe kukucela iilayisensi kuba umnwe wakhe ubuhlungu, baya kumbeka esitratweni banikezele ngomsebenzi kuye kwiziko eligunyazisiweyo ebhankini. Ingcinga efanayo iyasebenza nakwabanye abadlali abathi ngoku bangenelele kwintengiselwano, enje ngomgcini wedolophu, umvavanyi, i-notary, umasipala, njl. Ngethuba nje abadlali behlangene, ukuhlaziywa kuya kuba ngexesha langempela kwaye ukhuphiswano luya kuba yiyona nkonzo efanelekileyo.

Kwaye ke, i-cadastre iya kuhlaziywa ngabantu, kwindawo apho baqhuba khona.

Oku kuvakala ngathi kuyaphambana, kodwa yile nto sele yenzekile ngebhanki. Ngaphambili, ibhanki ibikhupha ikhadi (ha, njengamakhadi etikiti lokuhamba), kwaye bekuyimfuneko ukuya ebhankini ukuyokukhupha imali, emva koko ngaloo mali uthenge, kwaye ukuba sinemali engaphezulu singaya ukuyifaka ebhankini okanye enkonkxeni yobisi phantsi kwebhedi. Namhlanje uvula iakhawunti yebhanki, kwaye bakunika ikhadi lebhanki kunye negama lokugqitha lokulawula kwi-Intanethi; Awusayi kuhoxisa ebhankini, kodwa kwi-ATM; iakhawunti yakho ihlaziywa ngexesha lokwenyani xa usenza ukuthenga kulo naliphi na ishishini, kwi-intanethi okanye ukudlulisela kwiqela lesithathu ukusuka kwiselfowuni yakho ngelixa useetekisini.

Umkhwa okhomba apho, wokuba umsebenzisi angene kwiakhawunti yakhe yoBhaliso lwePropathi kaZwelonke, kwaye abone apho iipropathi anazo, ukuba ufuna ukubambisa ngento anokuyenza ngokuthe ngqo ebhankini, ukuba ufuna ukuyithengisa angayenza ngqo, ukuba ufuna ukuphatha ilayisensi yokwakha okanye imvume yokusebenza ... njengoko sele isenzeka ebhankini! "Njengo-Uber," le nto ayinakumiswa ngamagosa e-regchaic cadastre-registry, nditsho nemanyano yabasebenzi. Imfuno nje yentengiso; ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokuba iinkqubo zibe semgangathweni, ukhuseleko kunye nokugqibelela kolwazi kuyomelezwa; Iimodeli zeshishini eziphazamisayo ziya kudityaniswa nezisombululo ezisekwe kubemi njengeyona nto iphambili.

Kule nkalo, iinkqubo ukuze ngoku isebenze ngokwahlukeneyo idibane njengoko intengiso yezindlu (irenti kunye neentengiso) apho B2B enjengezikim AirBnb bebulala imodeli eqhelekileyo kunye baziqokeleleyo omhlaba ngumsebenzisi ekupheleni; ofela ngendlela iarhente real estate, igqwetha owenza isivumelwano, lo Umvandlakanyi kwenza izifundo ngezakhono kwezoqoqosho, inkampani eqinisekisa ukuba ekhuselekileyo kwaye ngaphezu kwabo bonke urhulumente ukuba uyasokola ukwenza irhafu.

Kuyakwenzeka kwakhona ukuba iinkqubo zobhaliso lwepropathi ziya kudityaniswa, kwirejista "yeempahla ezikhoyo ezinokuthengiswa", oku kusebenza kwiimeko ezinje ngepropathi ehambayo (izithuthi), izinto zobukrelekrele, iimpahla zorhwebo (iinkampani, izabelo), phantsi kokulingana " Amasheya athengiswayo '. Ngenxa yoku, itekhnoloji njengeBlockChain nobukrelekrele yokufakelwa ziya kulisebenzisa kwezivumelwano ezikrelekrele-logic into liwele ekhoyo yedijithali ngokwasemzimbeni kunye ezilingana lalo cryptocurrency, kangangokuba securities liqinisekisiwe kwirejista apho urhulumente ayisekho ukuhamba.

Kwaye ke, i-cadastre-registry iya kuhlaziywa ngexesha langempela njengoko sele lenzeke kwezinye iimeko zokuphila kwansuku zonke.

Ikwangumbandela "wokwenza ubuntu ngokungxamisekileyo ukuba iRejista yaseCadastral-yoBhaliso ifezekise isidingo esikhulu emhlabeni." Kungenxa yeso sizathu lo mbuzo: Ngaba iCadastre yesiqhelo ikulungele ukuhlangabezana neendleko, ixesha kunye nokulandeleka kwesidingo sabantu abangama-70% abangenalo amalungelo epropathi? Kwaye asibhekiseli ekwenzeni ukwamkelwa kommandla kwiminyaka engama-50, kodwa kumaxesha aphezulu erekhodi leminyaka emi-6; nangona oku kufuneka sophule iiparadigms zokuhamba kwangoku kwenkqubo yobhaliso lwe-cadastral, sigxile kwinto eyongeza ixabiso kwikhonkco loLawulo loMhlaba.

Sibhekisa, ke ngoko, kule nkalo inxulumene nesi sibhengezo yimfuno yehlabathi yokubhalisa abantu abangenachazisi elamkelweyo yinkqubo esemthethweni, iipropathi ezingabhaliswanga kunye noluhlu lwamalungelo aba bantu abasebenzisayo lo mhlaba. Oku, ngaphandle kokubala ukuba kwinto esele ibhalisiwe, kukho ukungalungelelani okuphelelwe lixesha. Ukusombulula le ngxaki kule minyaka ingama-20 izayo kuthetha ukuphinda ucinge ngeendlela eziphazamisayo ezivumela ukunciphisa ixesha, iindleko kunye nenxaxheba enkulu yabemi.

5. Ihlabathi kunye neCadastre enokusebenzisana

Kuphela oko. Ukumiselwa komgangatho wentengiso, kunye nomchongi wento yendalo iphela. Kwaye kwinkunkuma inakho ikhowudi enamanani angama-30 etshintsha ngalo lonke ixesha ipropathi izaliswa ziintaba.

6. Amandla okulawula imida yemvelo

Oku kuthetha imephu yezinto ezingabonakaliyo, njengendawo yolondolozo lwendalo enomhlaba wonke, ukugcinwa kwamakhorali elwandle.

Imibuzo yendima ezayo yexesha elizayo leCadastre

Nge-Cadastre 2034, kuphakanyiswa iingxaki zomdla wehlabathi, apho kungenelela khona ukuba iCadastre ingenelele, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, iya kuphawula iiparadigms ezintsha zolawulo lweehabhu zolwazi olupheleleyo kwindawo ebumbeneyo edibeneyo. Le mibuzo yile:

1. Ukuthatha umhlaba Ngaba iCadastre iya kuba negalelo ekubhaliseni le ngcaciso?
2. Ukhuseleko lokutya Ngaba kuya kuba nomdla ekudibanisaneni nezinto ezikummandla wazo iimpawu kunye noluntu ngokusetyenziswa, ukufikelela nokufumaneka kwelungelo lokutya?
3. Ukutshintsha kwemozulu Ngaba kuya kubakho inzala kubhaliso lwamalungelo kunye nokuxhomekeke kwintlepheko ehambelana nokutshintsha kwemozulu?
4. Isihlwele Cadastre. Yintoni enokuthi yenziwe kwaye ingenakwenziwa kwi-cadastre yokusebenzisana?
5. I-cadastre eluhlaza. Umthetho wemida eluhlaza?
6. I-cadastre yehlabathi. Zeziphi iziseko eziyimfuneko kwiCadastre yehlabathi?


I-FIG 2019 - Hanoi 

Ukulungela injongo ye-cadastre ifana ne-Uber. Iijometri kufuneka zibandakanyeke, kuba ziyakwenzeka kunye okanye ngaphandle kwethu.

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