Ulawulo lomhlaba luya kuba njani ikamva? - Umbono weCadastre we-2034

Ukucebisa indlela ukulawulwa komhlaba kwi-2034 kungabonakali njengengcamango elula, ukuba sibona ukuba zininzi utshintsho ezenzeke kwiminyaka yokugqibela ye-20. Nangona kunjalo, umsebenzo ngowona wesibini umzamo kwinto esele yenziwe iminyaka eyi-20 ngaphambi kweCadastre 2014. Ukuqwalasela ingqalelo kule nkcazo kunokuba kubize umntu, ezinye iziko okanye lonke uhlanga.

2034 bacinga ukuba lo mhlaba uza kuphuhliswa ize ihlaziywe ngabemi izandi ngokuzithandela azihlambele. Kodwa evakala mapping ukuhlaziya phambi besisazi OpenStreet Map, nto leyo ubeka wathandabuza enoba kufuneka khona lweziko zokuzoba okanye ukuba resource sisebenzisa ukukhuthaza imaphu yentsebenziswano phakathi kwabafundi kwaye uzinikezele kuphela izenzo olumisiweyo, kwaye uhlaziyo kungeniswe base engaphephekiyo njenge efanayo imodeli imigodi kunye satellite imifanekiso ihlaziywa qho.

Imibono yeCastastre kwixesha elizayo le-20 iminyaka

Utshintsho oluthile kwiCadastre ludla luyinkimbinkimbi, kuba ukusebenzisa kwabo kunqongqo kunemephu yezinye izikali. Ukuqhagamshelana kwayo kumthetho, kwezemali, imiba yezoqoqosho kubangela ukuxhasana kungekuphela kwenkcazelo kodwa nakwiinkqubo. Nangona kunjalo, kunye ne Imidwebo yeemifanekiso ingafa ngexesha elihle kakhulu lozukoKumnyinyiva ukuba iteknoloji democratized kunye neemfuno ingxelo badalwe-time real, nakubungqongqo ngqo, uqinile zobungcali kunye nendlela flow kungena umngcipheko ukufeza mfuneko kwesidingo vuhlayiseki. Njengomzekelo, makhe sihlolisise ukuba zininzi ii-encyclopedias esandithengayo kubantwana bethu, basebenzisa ukwenza imisebenzi yabo yemihla ngemihla; okanye bangaphi abafundi abahlala elayibrari yesikolo ukugqiba umsebenzi wabo; Naphezu kwemibuzo efundiswayo ye-wikipedia, ukusetyenziswa kwayo, ukuhlaziywa kokusebenzisana kunye nokuhambelana ne-injini ye-Google yokusesha ithumela iilayibrari ngokupheleleyo kwiimyuziyam.

Enye into ekuqwalaselwe ngayo kwi-cadastre yinto yokuba imeko yeemeko phakathi kwamazwe ayilingani ngokubhekiselele kwizinto eziphambili. Emazweni aseYurophu asele anikezelo lwepropati yawo kwi-100% kwinqanaba likazwelonke kunye nomsebenzi oqhelekileyo wenkonzo karhulumente, ukulandelelanisa kwimilinganiselo emithathu kunye neyeyimizuzu engxamisekileyo. Iimeko ezichasene ngokupheleleyo nakwamanye amazwe anikezelwa i-2D engaphelelanga, ukucinga okupheleleyo kuphelelwe yisikhathi kwaye ngaphezu kwazo zonke apho utshintsho lwezopolitiko lukhokelela ekugxothweni kweqela lonke ootitshala abanolwazi, abanokulahlekelwa ubugcisa babo xa bephethe ulwazi kwiimoto ezinzima kwaye -oko kungasenza sihleke- ukuba ube yingxenye yomlilo kwiofisi yodolophu, ukuba phakathi kwezinye izinto ezithandayo, ufuna ukususa umkhondo wenkohlakalo.

Umbono we-cadastre iminyaka eyi-20 kwixesha elizayo alizenzeli ukubethelwa ngokubhekisele kwiiklabhu okanye ukuchasana noko kukho. Kunoko kuwusebenza ngokusetyenzisweni oluqhelekileyo lwezinto ezilungileyo ezisetyenziswayo kunye nezindlela apho iingcali zibona khona iindlela ezingenakwenzeka. Kodwa asimele siphumelele ukuba izithethe ezicetywayo zingakhokelela ekubeni kuthathwe amancinci; njengengxaki yeemeko ezininzi e-Afrika apho abemi behamba bengakwazi ukucelwa i-wire cell phone. Yisizathu sokuba kutheni iimodeli ezifana neCadastre efanelekileyo babandakanyiwe kwiingxoxo zokuphazamisa ubuvangeli kule nto; yesicelo esikhoyo sezigidi zeepropathi ekufuneka zinikezwe itayitile kunye nokwamkelwa kwabemi entabeni abathanda itayitile enomgangatho «ngaphezulu okanye kuncinci»Kodwa apho kukho imida ecwangciswe kunye nabamelwane babo; endaweni yokungabi nanto kwaye ulindele ukuba elinye ipolitiki limnike into enokwenzeka kwakhona.

Inkcazo kwiminyaka eyi-20 ezandleni zesidenge-mbono - sinokwenza ukuqonda Inkqubo yeSizwe yoLawulo lwePropati, evulelekileyo kubonisana nomphakathi, kunye neengcamango zamalungelo, izithintelo kunye noxanduva phambi kokuba ziqwalaselwe njengomgangatho osemgangathweni; -iyo yindoda enobudlelwane obuqhelekileyo kunye nokunyanzelwa kobuqhetseba obunokukwazi ukucima iindlela eziqhelekileyo ukuba aziqinisekisi kakuhle ukusebenza ngexesha, iindleko, ukulandelelana kunye nokungafihli. Xa abakhuseli beendlela eziqhelekileyo benethuba lokusabela, oku kuya kuguqula ukuthengisa ngokusemthethweni (isatifiketi sesithethe nenkululeko) kwi-akhawunti yangoku yepropati yangempela njengokuba kufumaneka iibhanki ngoku, kwaye uya kucinga ukuphuma kwindlela. abaxhamli be-transaction ngokusebenzisa iwindi ye-Ali-express traceability ngexesha langempela.

Kodwa hey, ngeli crazy ukubona abo kwilizwe lakho, ndiya kubuyela oko kutshiwo kumhlathi wokuqala loku kubhala, ukuba iingxelo Cadastral 2034 ngunyaka wesibini oko Cadastral 2014, leyo ufuna ukuqala ukuthetha.

Ngaphambi kweCadastre 2014

Cadastre into entsha, xa kuthelekiswa kwiLizwe Registry, nto leyo esekelwe kwi khowudi ukuba babe kwiinkulungwane ezininzi yokudityaniswa ngokusekelwe imigaqo yobhaliso olugqitha umthetho ipropati yengqondo, ifenitshala, zorhwebo okanye. Injongo lwemvume Cadastre weza ifomu emva kwexesha kunye iishifti wenguqulo yendaba intsingiselo behlabathi ngabantu: yokoyisa, iimfazwe, iirhafu, ukusetyenziswa koomatshini, computerization; Ukongezelela, amaza okuziphendukela kwemimiselo yezoqoqosho azisa iindlela zolawulo lweenkcukacha kunye nophuculo lwentsebenzo kwi-sensation eza kuthi njengeziqwenga ze-puzzle.

I-infographic isishwankathela ama-paradigms amakhulu amaCadastre ayenayo, kwixesha elihlukeneyo:

  • I-Paradigm ye-appraisal kunye nerhafu kumhlaba, kunye neyona nto ephambili yomhlaba njengobutyebi obuzuze kwifaudalism. Akumangalisi ukuba le ndlela iye yahlala ixesha elide eLatin America, ecinga ukuba nangona emva kokuzimela kwala mazwe aseSpeyin, imodeli yoqoqosho iqhubeka ibe yinto yokuqhelaniswa neentlondi ziza nekholoni. Kwi-infographic yile ngcezu yokuqala ye-puzzle, irastastre yerhafu njengesicelo esisisiseko.
  • Iparadigm yemarike yomhlaba, ngokuziphendulela kwenduduzo njengentsingiselo yomhlaba. Oku kwafika ngenguqu yezoshishino phakathi kwe-1800 ne-1950. Uninzi lweziseko zeklasi zomhlaba ziyaqhubeka zisekelwe kulo mboniso weemarike zomhlaba, ngoko ke iqela elibanjelwe ngelo xesha kwakuyi-cadastre esemthethweni njengesicelo esihambelana nomgaqo-mali.
  • Iiparadim zokulawulwa komhlaba, ngombono womhlaba njengemithombo. Oku kwavela kunye nemibono emitsha yokuvuselelwa emva kwempi, xa kwakukho amaziko amaninzi karhulumente ayenokulungiswa okuthakazelisayo, kuquka neCadastre neRegistry. Ezi minyaka ezibalulekileyo zikhukula imidiya iincwadi ezisekelwe ezifana ezifotiweyo Registry kunye Cadastral ukuba impembelelo kwezibonelelo ngamazwe yaxhasa yotshintsho ubuchule cadastral ngakumbi umdla ukhuseleko lwesizwe ezinxulumene Cold War. Ngenxa yoko, i-cadastre yecandelo lezoqoqosho ihlaziya iindlela zokulinganisela ezivela kwimimodeli eyenziwe lula kwiimeko ze-Anglo-Saxon kwiinkomfa ngokusekelwe kwiindleko zokutshintsha kunye neendleko zokunciphisa baqhubeka bade bafike kule mihla kumazwe amaninzi aseLatin America.
  • I-Paradigm yophuhliso oluzinzileyo, kunye nomhlaba njengomthombo oqhelekileyo osebenzayo. Oku kuzalwa revolution lolwazi, ekuqaleni kweminyaka ye 80, apho kungenzeka izixhobo zedijithali onokuzisebenzisa endaweni imephu kunye irekhodi digital, sigqibe thethwano kunye nentsebenziswano kunye namanye amaqela achaphazelekayo ulwazi cadastral. Ngokufanayo, inzala ukuhlanganiswa phakathi Land Registry ngaphaya ekunokusetyenziswana data wotshintshiselwano, lula ukuba abemi bamazwe ngokuhlanganisa iinkqubo. Oku kwenzeke okokugqwetha obekufanele ukuba kuqokelele yonke into kwimishithi yobungakanani bephepha «Borges»Kunye nemibono yokubeka intambo phakathi kweCadastre kunye neRejistri ukuze zixhume. Qonda ukuba ubumbano kukudibana kwexabiso lolawulo lomhlaba kwaye hayi kwisigaba sokuthathwa kube buhlungu ukuza kuthi ga namhlanje; Ukuchaphazela ummi ukuba into ayilindeleyo ziinkonzo ezingcono.

Registry Land 2014

Kulo mxholo wokugqibela uCadastro 2014 wazalwa. Ngeminyaka yee-nineties i-International Federation of abahloli (Isazobe) yenza enye yokubheja okusemandleni ukuze sivuselele indima yayo, ukuxhasa inyathelo eyavela kufuneka ibe yintoni kwiRejistri eNkulu Land phakathi kwiminyaka ezayo 20. Oku kukhokelela ekuqwalaseleni iindlela ezifanelekileyo kunye nezindlela ezazisetyenziswa emhlabeni wonke, ukulawula umhlaba; kunye nokubonakaliswa kwendlela iCadastre eya kuba ngayo kwi-2014.

Eli phepha kwabonakala isiseko yentanda ukuba abaninzi namhlanje kubacacele kakhulu, kodwa sithetha 1994, ixesha xa phulo laqala yaze yapapashwa 1998. To 1994 nje isithembiso Windows 95, sasiye Windows 3.11 zamaqela, AutoCAD R13 ukuba iifestile Ukulinganisa akazange ungathanda kakhulu phambi kokuba yesiqhelo mnyama screen R12, Microstation SE kwi ustation Clipper classic iyasebenza exhuberantes kodwa izixhobo ezixabisa Intergraph; software free yaba besimo Nerds kunye nomsebenzi intanethi kokubizwa-Intanethi ezifana Yahoo, Lycos, vusa kunye AltaVista ekufuneka zingafumaneka kwikhefi ye-intanethi okanye into yasebusuku le modem liqhagamshelene nefowuni yasendlini.

Ukunqanda umngcipheko yixina iindlela elivela ibhola ngumkhenkce, imithambo kufuneka zisekelwe kwizinto ezingcono ekhoyo kunye neendlela banquli apho bathungelane isifundo cadastral ngokwemiqathango iinkqubo, izixhobo, ububanzi kunye nabadlali enxulumanisa ezinxulumene kwintsimi

Imibiko yeCadastre ye-6 2014.

1. Gqibezela imeko yommandla kuquka umgaqo karhulumente kunye nezithintelo

Le ndlela ikhokelele kuCadastre oqhelekileyo wokuyeka ukubona kuphela inqobo yenyani, phantsi komgaqo okhethiweyo njengokurejista ubume okanye ukubekwa phambili ngaphezulu kwemali. Oku kuthetha ukuba i-cadastre igxile kwindima yayo "kwizinto eziyinyani", kunye nefoto yendlela izinto ezikuloo mmandla, zifuna ukugcina ulwazi oluhlaziyiweyo lobume kunye nokungazi. Ukongeza, umxholo wokuphelela, ukuze indawo yezinto eziphakathi kwemida yendawo, ezinjengezitalato, iibhlorho zemilambo, iilwandle, njl. Ziyakwazi ukuhonjiswa kwimilo efanayo kunye nesakhiwo kwinyani eqhubekayo, ukuthintela iipropathi ukuba ziqhubeke nokucela ulungiso olungena kwiindawo zokusebenzisa zoluntu kwixesha elizayo.

Omnye umda wale ngxelo kukunxibelelanisa idatha engeyiyo ipropathi, echaphazela isiza, ukusetyenziswa, ukuhlala okanye ukubekwa kwepropathi. Kuthetha ukuba isiseko sedatha yendawo ebonelela ngeenkonzo ezinje ngeendawo ezikhuselweyo, indawo ezinobungozi, izicwangciso zokucwangciswa komhlaba, njl njl, kubandakanya imithetho ukuze ubudlelwane bendawo nepropathi bubonakale njengempembelelo ezibonakalayo kwintengiso esemthethweni okanye impahla ngelo xesha igosa kufuneka lenze umgangatho okanye linike ilayisensi. Kwimigangatho ye-ISO-19152, le nkcazo yenza lula ubudlelwane bamaqela anomdla kwinyani yommandla kubudlelwane besiqingatha sesibini soRRR (Amalungelo, izithintelo, uxanduva) kunye nale datha "ingeyiyo ipropathi" ibizwa ngokuba zizinto ezisemthethweni.

Ngaloo mgca, ezinye iingxelo ze-5 zaphakanyiswa kule xwebhu ye-2014 Cadastral ekhuthazwe yi-FIG kwi-1998. template Umzekelo eboniswe kwi ekunene i-logic uhlobo lwefayile yolawulo Iphepha Cadastre kunye nolawulo inkosi data kwi zokwenene ukuze kwahluka phakathi amaziko ezithe ngokwembali uthathelwe iinkcukacha kunye ngokukhanya ezahlukeneyo, ukuqinisekisa ukuzisebenzela kweesoftwe nokuzimela zomthetho ngeengcamango zomphathi weedatha ukuqinisa umgaqo wokusemthethweni:

  • Inombolo yesizwe eyingqayizivele eyenziwe kwisiqendu se-36,
  • Iziganeko zabo ezibonakalayo zivela kwiCadastre, iimpawu zabo zomthetho ezivela kwi-formalality / informality kunye nezilumkiso zesitenxo, iimpawu zabo eziqhelekileyo kunye namaqela anomdla.
  • Izilumkiso zeenkqubo ezihanjiswe (kufakwe) kwiinkqubo ezahlukeneyo zobume kodwa ezingakhange zifumane isisombululo okanye zihoxiswe.
  • Izilumkiso ezihambelanayo, ngokungafani phakathi kwezinto eziphathekayo kunye nezomthetho.

Ngaphantsi kwesi siphumo se-LADM essence, njenge:

  • Inkcazo yeenkqubo ezisekelwe kubadlali abadibeneyo kwinkqubo yokuthengiselana kwaye inomdla ngenxa yezizathu eziphambili kwiinkqubo ezihambelanayo okanye ngokucacileyo ngaphambi kokuba ummi onomdla wokufumana izinto ezilungileyo.
  • Iziphumo zobudlelwane bomthetho (zibhalwe ngendlela ebhaliweyo-kunye nobungaphantsi kobugcisa), kunye nokubonelela kwimiqulu yezithethe zangaphambili, ezibonakala zingasebenzi kodwa ezibonakalayo.
  • Iziphumo zemiphumo yendawo yokuthintela / ukunyaniseka.

Ukuba data uvela kwiinkqubo mission ilizwe irejistri, Regularization Registry okanye scheme ezizodwa, umntu ngamnye olinikela nokwandisa isizathu zabo kwaye ummi okanye umsebenzisi we inkqubo sinokuqiniseka ukuba le datha iqiniso eliphelele. Ukususela tab inyaniso elisemthethweni abe umboniso efanayo ngqo sheet logic kunye ezahlukeneyo ezifana liens, zokubambisa okanye amakhonkco kwezinye iirekhodi ezifana yorhwebo, yobukrelekrele, Ukhuseleko Inzala kunye nayo xa kuyathethathethwana nayo malunga izinto ngokoqobo yolawulo ngabe ummandla wezomthetho onawo amaqela anomdla kwi-impact / restriction eyenziwa kwipropati yomdla. Kwinqanaba amaziko karhulumente le nto sonke kufuneka zibonakale ngaphandle kwezithintelo, ukuba imigaqo evunyiweyo ingqalelo ukusebenza ezoqhagamshelwano, uqhekeko of chiefdoms phakathi kwamaziko karhulumente kunye nabahlali nabadlali ngoko nangoko njengoko uligqwetha umasipala, umgcini ezidolophini okanye unocanda. Chaza ukuba ingaba yintoni na ukufikelela evulekileyo ukuba ngummi nje umba elubala kwezopolitiko kunye nenzuzo, njengoko oku kuba yintoni na kwi phezulu (master data), kunye nabanye ifiphale version kanye kwinqwelo othengela kuyo eququzelela ukuvelisa isatifikethi esisisiseko kunye nedatha epheleleyo.

2. Akukho kwahlula phakathi kweemephu kunye neeirekhodi

Le nkcazo ayikho into ecacileyo, nangona i-1994 yayiyiphupha, becinga ukuba imizamo eyaziwayo kakhulu yabona i-CAD ifakwe kwi-hyperlink kwirekhodi yesiseko sezithuba, kwaye phakathi kwefayile ephezulu kunokuba iindawo ezingenakwenziwa ootitshala abaninzi kwiinkalo ezininzi, ezifana neenkatho kunye nabanikazi abaninzi okanye abanini abanamaqela amaninzi; ngenxa yoko igama lomnini kufuneka liphinda liphindwe kwiirekhodi ezininzi njengoko ziza kubonakala ensimini ... ngaphandle kokungena kwiinkcukacha zokukhawulelana ngokupheleleyo kunye ne-16 bits nje.

Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo, le ngxelo iphawule izikhombisi ezinomdla kumxholo we-geospatial esetyenziswa kulawulo lomhlaba. Nangona kufanelekile ukukhumbula ukuba umbono wokuqala wawubhekisa "akukho ukwahlula phakathi kwedatha yeCadastre kunye nedatha yokuBhaliswa kweMihlaba" kwaye hayi "imephu ye-cadastral kuphela".

Oku kukwabeka ubunzima kwintsebenzo kunye nokubekwa emgangathweni kwemigangatho yejografi evela kweminye imithetho ethi, njengoko "izinto zomhlaba ezizezomthetho" zichaphazela ukusetyenziswa, kwesizinda okanye ukubekwa kwepropathi; Uluhlu lweenkcukagu ​​zodidi oluveza iinkonzo kwiinkonzo zendawo yolwazi kunye nemigaqo-nkqubo yokusebenzisana kunye nemithetho phakathi kweemodeli. Mhlawumbi umba onenzuzo koku kukuvuthwa kwemigangatho ye-OGC icinezelwe yisoftware yasimahla kwaye yamkelwe ngokungakhathali yi-software yobunini.

3. Ukumodareyitha kuya kutshintsha indawo yeemephu zeefadastral

Le intsebenzo ephuculiweyo oku imizimba umgangatho ISO-19152, ekhangela ucinga elula yonxulumano (RRR) phakathi kweeklasi ukuba i- ngokwenene emzimbeni (abantu, mphandle), inyaniso ebezisenziwa (unit lolawulo unit lweendawo) kunye nemithombo yokurekhoda ulwazi (Umthombo).

Kuzwakala kulula ukuthetha, kwaye imifanekiso ebonakalayo ibonakala iyilula. Nangona ukuthatha oko ku-ISO ekuphunyezweni kwayo kwenza kube nzima ngakumbi kunokuba kwakulindeleke kwimfuno yokuqala. Umzamo wokuqala obizwa ngokuba I-Coreast Domain Model (CCDM), eyayibizwa ngokuba yiLADM, yaphela yaba yi-ISO kwi-2012.

Kwaye ukuba abanye bacinga ukuba i-ISO isenokungafuneki, thina esifunda i-Cadastro 2014 kule minyaka yokuqala siyayazi ukuba imigaqo ye-semantics yayimfuneko - kwaye isengumngeni. Ukufundwa kokuqala kuvelise ukudideka okubhalwe kwiintloko kunye nakwimimmango, ngakumbi kulabo abaziindidi zemesemics kwaye bakhetha ukubuza kunokuba benze umxholo ngokubhala uluhlu lwamagama. Njengomzekelo igama elithi "cadastre - cadastre" lingaqwalaswanga njengokutolika kuba kwiimeko ezinjengeHolland, iCadastre yiRegistry; xa bezithathela kumgangatho abawubiza ngokuba "nguwulawulo lomhlaba" oya kuthi iSpanish ibonakale inomtsalane "njengolawulo lomhlaba"; Ngenxa yokuba ibonakala kuphela komphezulu kwaye ingelulo lonke ubudlelwane bayo, u-Aenor uyiguqulela ngokuthi "uLawulo lweNgingqi", apho kumazwe amaninzi iphambili kwaye lithetha ixesha elinxulumene nolawulo lwamaziko. Eminye imizekelo yigama elithi "ipasile" elithi ii-Anglo-Saxons azinakushukunyiswa kodwa kwimeko yemeko yokuthetha iSpanish ihlala icalucalulo emaphandleni kwaye ingabandakanyi uphuculo njengoko kubonisiwe ziikhowudi zaseburhulumenteni.

Yiyo kanye into efunwa yi-ISO-19152, ukumisela umgangatho weemantics ze "domain." Nangona ihlupheka kuxwebhu olusebenzayo olusisiseko kwifilosofi yayo kwaye ikhokele ukuphunyezwa kwayo; unikwe ukuba imifuziselo ye-UML ayikho lula ukuyithengisa kubathathi izigqibo abalindele iziphumo zokugqibela kubemi.

Nantsi kukulungele ukucacisa ukuba ukulungiswa kunye nokwahlukana phakathi LADM kunye ne-ISO-19152.

I-LADM izalwe kumbono wehlabathi jikelele, malunga nezenzo kunye nemigangatho ye-20 iminyaka kwixesha elizayo kuLawulo lweMhlaba. I-LADM ngendlela ethile ifilosofi.

Iziphumo eziqhelekileyo ze-ISO 19152 ezivela kwintlalo-ntlalontle yomhlaba wonke, ukulungelelanisa i-semantics yoLawulo lweMhlaba. I-ISO ngumgangatho wokusebenzisa ifilosofi yeLADM.

Kule ndaba wokwamkelwa kufuneka ukubhala, kunokuba indlela UML imifuziselo kunye nokwamkelwa ubugcisa bokubona ukuba amanqaku kunye namaphepha kwimisitho; bekuya kuba umgudu iziphumo ezinomdla kakhulu wokwamkelwa kwi inkqubo kwinqanaba, systematization amava kunye nezenzo ezigqwesileyo ukuze kulungiselelwe abenzi izigqibo kwinqanaba sentengiso. Ngenxa yeso sizathu, bangumzekelo ezifana Honduras, eyavuma phantse yonke bulumko LADM inkqubo QINISEKA-SINAP ngaphandle kokuba kumgaqo-nkqubo karhulumente, ukuze into elula yokuba isekelwe phezu CCDM evela 2005 eye wavumela ukuba Ukuqhubeka okuthakazelisayo naphezu kokungazinzi kweli lizwe liye lahlala kwiminyaka yokugqibela ye-15; okanye amatyala afana Nicaragua ngaphandle ebonisa nxamnye ekuphunyezweni umgangatho, yonke injini SIICAR lako kuthetha ukwamkelwa kwinqanaba phantse 2 amkelekileyo umgangatho.

4. I-cadastre kwiifom zomzimba iya kuba yinto edlulileyo

Ngenxa yolu hlobo kunye nokucinga kwakhona ngamafomu okwenyama, iziphakamiso ziphakama ukuba igalelo kwimimandla enjenge-cadastral nomenclature. Kumaxesha amandulo, izitshixo registry lizwe ulandelelwano ukuya 30 amanani, geocoding kunye neempawu yolawulo ugalelwe; nangona uthando kubasebenzisi ngaphakathi kwiziko; ngokuba umsebenzisi ukuphela kwabo ngumsina kwaye kuphazamise ukuba inkoliso yabo amasuntswana baba zero. Njengomzekelo, ezo zi-nomenclatures zabandakanywa ukuba le propati yayiphandle; Ukuba oku kwenzeka ukuba ingqalelo lwedolophu yesazisi zatshintsha ngokwenza ukusukela inani labalandeli akazange efanayo. Ubukhulu ukuhlakanipha evela ulawulo yeefomati emzimbeni, ngoko khumbula ukuba ekuqaleni le ngcamango ezidolophini-yasemaphandleni ezinxulumene print ubukhulu iimephu zokugqibela, leyo umphakathi izikali 1 iilali liyimfuneko: 1,000 ngelilixa ezikalini ezisemaphandleni 1: 5,000 okanye 1: 10,000.

Cinga yeefomati digital kukhokelela ukwaphula ezi zicwangciso, ndicinga ukuba wongeza ixabiso ummi efuna lula inani ngumzekelo apho ipropati kufuneka siqhubeke ukugcina bangoobani nangona ukutshintsha kumasipala ukulungisa mda intermunicipal, nakuba ukutshintsha imeko yayo-imeko, nangona utshintshile ukubonakaliswa kweendawo ezisemadolobheni nakwiindawo zasemaphandleni. Hayi ukuba ezi nkalo akukho kuphinda kuyimfuneko, kodwa ukuba sele iitafile lesiphumo, lisenokuthi litshintshwe ngalo naliphi na ixesha ngaphandle into ukutshintsha bayo; ngaphandle koko, utshintsho lubonisa ukuguqulwa kwejometri yayo.

Oku kukhokelela kwiindlela ezichanekileyo zokuchonga, njengalezo ezisetyenziswe kwiinkqubo ezifana neepassports, iphepha, iipleyiti zelayisenisi zezithuthi (ukunikela umzekelo). Inani leenombolo ze-30 liza kuba yothando; sinokuthi sibe khona umbala weemoto, inani leencango ezinalo, inani levili, uphawu kunye nokuba nenani lexesha umnikazi walo walala ngesitulo; kodwa isitya sincinci kwaye amadijithi ambalwa ahlala kuyo; Ipolisa yendlela yokuziphatha imemori embi kwaye uhlala ekhumbule inombolo ngokulula nangona imoto iya kukhawuleza; kwaye ke kufuneka iguquguquke ngexesha elifanelekileyo ngelixa isithuthi esifanayo. Kukho ukuvela iindlela ungakwazi ukuguqula inani nemivo esekelwe kumanani 10 (isiseko 10) ukuya ikhowudi imidibaniso kula manani ezilishumi kunye oonobumba be-alfabhethi 26 (isiseko 36);

Umzekelo wenguqu ye-10 ukuguqulwa kwisiseko se-36 ngu: 0311000226 yayiza kuthetha 555TB6. Kuthetha ukuba kunye neenombolo ze-6 kuphela zinokuxhasa iipropati eziziimpawu ezizigidi ezilishumi ezigidi, ukugcina ubungakanani obufanayo (idijithali ze-6). Njengokuzenzekelayo kunokwenzeka ukwenza oku kuguqulwa kunye nolwalamano kunye namanani adlulileyo; kuba ummi ikhowudi ichungechungelwano olufutshane, ngaphakathi kunye nekhowudi inokuba yimpawu ezifihliweyo okanye nje inombolo elandelekayo kwinqanaba likazwelonke. Ukubonakalisa indlela oku kusebenza ngayo, ndincoma le link yeGoogle.

http://www.unitconversion.org/numbers/base-10-to-base-36-conversion.html

5. Umsebenzi ohlangeneyo phakathi kwamashishini abucala kunye noluntu

Le meko ibe nefuthe elihle kwiimodeli zentsebenziswano yoluntu nezabucala, efuna ukudluliselwa kwicandelo labucala ezo zinto zingezizo ishishini elizinzileyo leziko likarhulumente. Kweminye iminyaka, i-Cadastre yenza uvavanyo olupheleleyo enkundleni, kunye nabantu abasebenzela iziko; namhlanje Kulula kakhulu ukukhupha umsebenzi. Ngendlela efanayo, ukwenziwa kwedijithali kunye nokukhupha idatha kwiirekhodi ezibonakalayo, ukuvumela icandelo labucala ukuba lenze loo misebenzi "yokwexeshana" okanye ubuncinci ukuba yenziwe kakuhle, yenziwa kube kanye, ukunqanda ukutyalomali kwizixhobo ezingasebenziyo ixesha.

Nangona kunjalo, ngumngeni apho kuninzi ukulungelelaniswa ngokwemigangatho yokuphumelela kunye nobungozi. Ukutshintshela i-front-office kwibhanki kubonakala kulula kwaye kuphantse kufuneke, kodwa ukunikezela ngolwazi kudinga olunye uhlobo lweeqinisekiso kungekuphela kwokhuseleko kodwa nakwimfanelo yomthetho kunye nolawulo.

6. Utyalo-mali kwiCadastre luya kuhlaziywa

Eli nqaku alinikeli ngakumbi, kwaye sinethemba lokulichaphazela kwiphephancwadi elandelayo. Kodwa ngokusemgangathweni lo mgaqo usekelwe kwinto yokuba ukutshintshwa kolwazi, ukufuduka kwimizimba ukuya kwidijithali okanye ukwakhiwa kwenkqubo enkulu kuyenziwe kanye. Kwaye kwenziwa kakuhle. Umsebenzi wokuhlaziywa olulandelayo kunye nokuziphendukela kwayo akufuneki ukuthenga iimali-mboleko kwimibutho yamazwe ngamazwe, kodwa kufuneka kube sematriki ekutsalweni ngokutsha kwezibonelelo eziveliswe kwizinto ezintsha kwimveliso kunye neenkonzo.

Imibiko yeRejista yoMhlaba ye-2034

I-2014 uhlolo lwenziwe ngendlela uhambo lwalukho ngayo, ukuqhubela phambili kunye neziphumo ezintsha zokuqwalasela oko kuza kuza kwiminyaka elandelayo ye-20.

Kule ngongoma, sibheka izinto ezibalulekileyo eziye zachaphazela ukuguqulwa kolwazi kwi-cadastre, njengeziseko zeenkcukacha zendawo kunye nezibonelelo, ukuhlaziywa kwendawo yoluntu; Ngokufanayo, imibono eye yanikela umdla omtsha kwiCadastre njengoLawulo lweMhlaba, ukuPhathwa kwintsimi kunye nento enokulindela kwixesha elizayo ngokulula kwengqondo.

Ngaloo ndlela ziveze iingxelo ezintsha ze-6 kunye nemibuzo ye-6. NjengeCadastre 2014, ukuchazwa ngokusekelwe kumxholo wento esele isenzeka. Amanye amazwe anqobile izikhala eziphambili azakufumana ezinye zezi ndlela, kuba ukuzinza kwabo kunye nokufuna kwabo sele befuna into engakumbi kwimarike yabo; oku kuya kukhanya kwabanye abantu abangasindisa indlela emfutshane yokudibanisa. Abanye, kuba baneemfuno eziphambili, baya kuqhubeka bezama ukuzalisa ityala leCadastre 2014.

1. Ixesha elifanelekileyo

Umxholo usemdala, ukuba iBorges iqokelele kumthombo ophuma kwi-1658:

Kuloo Mbuso, ubuGcisa beCartography bafezekisileyo ukufezekisa ukuba imephu yePhondo elilodwa lihlala kwiSixeko sonke, kwaye imephu yoBukhosi, iPhondo lonke. Ngexesha elide, la maMephu angabonakaliyo awanelisekanga kwaye iiKholeji zeCartographer ziphakanyise iMephu yoBukumkani, obubukhulu beBukhosi kwaye buhambelane ngokungqinelana nayo.

Ngaphantsi koMcebisi kwiCoprography, iZizukulwana ezilandelayo ziqonda ukuba le Mephu yayingenamsebenzi kwaye ingekho ngaphandle kobuGqubuthelo babanikezela kwi-Incelence ye-Sun ne-Winters. Eentlango zaseNtshona zonakalisiwe Imephu iMimbolo, ehleliwe yizilwanyana kunye nezicukucezi; kulo lonke ilizwe akukho mnye uhla lweeGraphical Disciplines.

Kwisoloko ixhalabele, ngokukodwa kwimeko apho ukhohliwe ukuba kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba yonke insimi inomxholo wokuchaneka okulawulwayo, kunokuba ube neqhosha elilodwa ngokuchanekileyo. Ngeendlela ezikhoyo zeteknoloji, le nkcazo ithi kwesi sihloko siya kuba nomdla ngokubanzi kwiminyaka elandelayo ye-20; ngokukodwa apho ukuhanjiswa kwintsimi sele kudlulile kwaye oko kukufuna kuphela ukuphucula ukuchaneka kwayo.

2. Izinto zoLwazi ngezoBomi kwiMalungelo, iziThotho kunye noxanduva

Oku kuveliswa kwezinto ezazicetywayo kakade kwi-Cadastre ye-2014, kunye nokutshintsha ukuba esikhundleni sokuba ubudlelwane bendawo kuphela phakathi kweendawo zomhlaba kwiipropati, bebeza kuba nezinto kunye neenjini zabo ezongeziweyo. Umzekelo ophezulu kwixesha yiRejista yoLungiselelo oluKhethekileyo lokuba amanye amazwe asele anayo; Ndiya kusithenga, ngaphandle kokuba ulwalamano phakathi maleko, ekhokelela ekusetyenzisweni kwezi ndlela izinto irejistri ukuba isiqinisekiso imbali yazo, ukuba semthethweni, ethandaza abanomdla kwaye iyafumaneka xa isetyenziswa elivumelekileyo iqela.

Ngoko ke, ukuba i-cone yokulinganisa ukufika kwe-ekhumulo-moya, kwenzeka ukuba ilandelwe njengento leyo; ipropati engaphezu komthetho woluntu, kodwa kunye neenkcukacha ezithwele iipropati ezininzi zomthetho wangasese, unomntu ochasene nomthetho owenziweyo, umnikazi oliziko elisebenza ngalo, umhla osebenzayo wejometri yendawo ( ezintathu-dimensional) kwaye ingatshintshwa kuphela ngokuthengiselana.

3. Amandla okulawula i-3D

Oku kungaphezulu. Kuze kube ngoku u-three-dimensional emele, ngokukodwa i-alphanumerically. Kungenzeka ukuba ufike kwipropati kwindawo ephilileyo eyaziwayo ikhowudi yepropati, isigaba esakhayo, inombolo yenqaba, inqanaba kunye nenani lezindlu.

Ukuhamba kwee-Digital Twins kunye ne-SmartCities kukhokelela kwiindlela ezintathu zokusetyenziswa kwesoftware kwizinto zokusebenza ze-asethi (iCadastre Indoors). Ewe, ngaphaya kwalowo mmeli, iCadastre 2034 ithi iyakwazi ukulawulwa; kuthetha, ukusebenzisa iindlela zokubhalisa ukuze ukuhlaziywa kwazo kungagcini nje kwaye kususe, kodwa kuhambelana nokuthengiswa komjikelezo wobomi; zizalelwe, i-geometry yazo ithathwa, iyalungiswa, iqala ukusebenza kunye neenkqubo zemihla ngemihla yoluntu, iguquke kwaye ife.

Olu xanduva lwe-3D lolawulo luya kubandakanya ukwamkelwa kwezindlela ezintsha zokufumana ulwazi, ukusebenzisa amacebo akhoyo ngoku njengamafu kodwa kunye nemisebenzi yokuququzelela izinto ezilula kunye neemodeli zendawo ye-digital.

4. Ukuhlaziywa kwexesha langempela

Nangona abo babandakanyekayo kulawulo ilizwe inkosi kwezakhiwo ezihlangeneyo, kuya kuba imisinga ezingeyomfuneko silandelelaniswe kakuhle ukuba ingaba ngaxeshanye. Ngokomzekelo, ibhanki kufuneka ikwazi ukufaka umboleko ngaphandle kwesazisi njengomlambeli; Iyonke, umsebenzisi unikwe amandla phambi kwenkqubo kwaye ngubani ongene kwisivumelwano kunye nommi, ogunyazisa i-link kwipropati yakho. Eyona wazaleka urhulumente yangaphambili angayipleyisa rekhoda asilulo ngokucofa iqhosha ukwamkela ubhaliso ade uyakhathala lokuba iilayisenisi babuza kuba ngomnwe kubi kuye, ndikubeke esitratweni ukunikezela ukusebenza kwiqumrhu elinikwe amandla ebhankini. Kwale ngqiqo inye iyasebenza kwabanye abadlali ngoku inxaxheba intengiselwano, ezifana njengomgcini ezidolophini, umcandi, izivumelwano, umasipala, njl Ngethuba nje abadlali behlanganisiwe, ukuhlaziywa kuya kuba ngexesha langempela kwaye ukhuphiswano luya kuba yinkonzo engcono.

Kwaye ke, i-cadastre iya kuhlaziywa ngabantu, kwindawo apho baqhuba khona.

Oku kuzwakala ngathi yindoda, kodwa kwenzeka ntoni ngebhanki. Ngaphambi kokuba, ibhanki ikhishwe ikhadi (ja, njengamatikithi ahamba ngamatikiti), yaye kwakufuneka ukuba uye kwi-bhanki ukuba ihoxise imali, ngoko ke kuthengwa ngemali, kwaye ukuba sinokuningi esingaya kuzo ukubeka i-bhanki okanye ubisi phantsi kombhede. Namhlanje uvula i-akhawunti yebhanki, kwaye ikunika ikhadi lokubambisa kunye nephasiwedi ukulawula kwi-Intanethi; awusayi kuphinda uhoxise kwibhankini, kodwa kwi-cashashi; i-akhawunti yakho ihlaziywa ngexesha langempela xa uthengisa kuyo nayiphi na ishishini, kwi-intanethi okanye udlulisela kumaqela esithathu ukusuka kwiselula yakho xa uhlala eteksi.

Izinto ezibonisa apho, ukuba umsebenzisi ungena kwiakhawunti yakhe yeRejista yeePropathi kaZwelonke, kwaye ubone ukuba ikhona ipropathi ayithengileyo, ukuba ufuna ukubambisa ngento angayenza ngqo ebhankini, ukuba ufuna ukuyithengisa angayenza ngqo, ukuba ufuna ukulawula ilayisensi yokwakha okanye imvume yokuqhuba ... njengoko yenzeka ebhankini !. "Njengo-Uber," oku akunakuyemiswa ngamagosa e-zakudala e-cadaster-registry, nkqu nee-notarial guilds. Ngokulula nje isidingo sentengiso; ukuya kuthi ga kwiinkqubo zibekwe emgangathweni omnye, ukhuseleko kunye nengqibelelo yolwazi luyomelezwa; Iimodeli zeshishini eziphazamisayo ziya kudityaniswa nezisombululo ezisekwe kubemi njengeyona nto iphambili.

Kule nkalo, iinkqubo ukuze ngoku isebenze ngokwahlukeneyo idibane njengoko intengiso yezindlu (irenti kunye neentengiso) apho B2B enjengezikim AirBnb bebulala imodeli eqhelekileyo kunye baziqokeleleyo omhlaba ngumsebenzisi ekupheleni; ofela ngendlela iarhente real estate, igqwetha owenza isivumelwano, lo Umvandlakanyi kwenza izifundo ngezakhono kwezoqoqosho, inkampani eqinisekisa ukuba ekhuselekileyo kwaye ngaphezu kwabo bonke urhulumente ukuba uyasokola ukwenza irhafu.

Kuyakwenzeka ukuba iinkqubo zobhaliso lwepropathi ziya kudityaniswa, kubhaliso lwe "mpahla ekhoyo yokuthengisa", oku kusebenza kwiimeko ezinje ngepropathi eshukumayo (izithuthi), ipropathi enengqondo, iimpahla zorhwebo (iinkampani, izabelo), ngokulingana " amaxabiso athengiswayo ». Kule nto, itekhnoloji njengeBlockChain nobukrelekrele yokufakelwa ziya kulisebenzisa kwezivumelwano ezikrelekrele-logic into liwele ekhoyo yedijithali ngokwasemzimbeni kunye ezilingana lalo cryptocurrency, kangangokuba securities liqinisekisiwe kwirejista apho urhulumente ayisekho ukuhamba.

Kwaye ke, i-cadastre-registry iya kuhlaziywa ngexesha langempela njengoko sele lenzeke kwezinye iimeko zokuphila kwansuku zonke.

Ikwangumbandela we- «ubuntu bokunyanzelwa ukuba i-Cadastral-Registry Registry ifezekise isidingo esikhulu emhlabeni». Yiyo loo nto umbuzo: Ngaba iCadastre eqhelekileyo ilungele ukudibana ngendleko, ixesha kunye nokulandelela kwesidingo se70% yabemi eswele amalungelo epropathi? Kwaye akuthethi ukwenza ulwazelelo lwommandla kwiminyaka ye-50, kodwa ngamaxesha aphezulu erekhodi yeminyaka ye-6; nangona oku kufuneka sophule iiparadigms zokuhamba ngoku kwenkqubo yobhaliso lwe-cadastral, sigxile koko kukongeza ixabiso kwikhonkco loLawulo loMhlaba.

Kucelwa ke kule nkalo ezinxulumene nale ngxelo kufuneka jikelele apho ukubhalisa abantu abangenalo lokwazisa awaziwa yi inkqubo esemthethweni, iifama angakhange ezibhaliswe kunye nobudlelwane kwamalungelo ukuba aba bantu baye ku kweli hlabathi Oku, kungakhankanyi ukuba ekubhaliswe kakade kukho ulwazi olubi oludlulileyo. Fumana ukusombulula le ngxaki kule minyaka 20 elandelayo ibandakanya kwakhona yokucinga iindlela sisiphazamiso ukunciphisa ixesha, iindleko kunye nenxaxheba enkulu yoluntu.

5. Ihlabathi kunye neCadastre enokusebenzisana

Kanye nje. Ukumiswa okukhuthazwa yirhwebo, kunye nenombolo yendalo yonke. Kwaye i-dumpster ikhowudi yeenombolo ze-30 ezitshintshiyo zonke ixesha ipropati igcwele ihlathi.

6. Amandla okulawula imida yemvelo

Oku kuthetha imephu yezinto ezingabonakaliyo, njengendawo yolondolozo lwendalo enomhlaba wonke, ukugcinwa kwamakhorali elwandle.

Imibuzo yendima ezayo yexesha elizayo leCadastre

Nemiba Catastro 2034 inkxalabo yenzwelonke oko kuvela, apho kusenokwenzeka ukuba Catastro angenelele, kwaye ukuba kunjalo ziya kuphawula paradigms entsha yokulawula neenafu inkcazelo epheleleyo phantsi kweemeko ezidityanisiweyo jikelele. Le mibuzo:

1. Ukuthatha umhlaba Ngaba iCadastre iya kuba negalelo ekubhaliseni le ngcaciso?
2. Ukhuseleko lokutya Ngaba kuya kuba nomdla ekudibanisaneni nezinto ezikummandla wazo iimpawu kunye noluntu ngokusetyenziswa, ukufikelela nokufumaneka kwelungelo lokutya?
3. Ukutshintsha kwemozulu Ngaba kuya kubakho inzala kubhaliso lwamalungelo kunye nokuxhomekeke kwintlepheko ehambelana nokutshintsha kwemozulu?
4. Isihlwele seCadastre. Yintoni enokuyenza kwaye ayiyi kukhangeka kwi-cadastre yokusebenzisana?
5. I-cadastre ebanzi Ekunene kwimida yemvelo?
6. I-cadastre yehlabathi. Ziziphi iziseko eziya kufuneka kwiCadastre yehlabathi?


IFIG 2019 - Hanoi

I-cadastre enenjongo ye-fit ifana no-Uber. I-geometers kufuneka ibandakanyeke, kuba kuya kwenzeka okanye ngaphandle kwethu.

Shiya impendulo

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