Indawo yeTwilight

Eli nqaku enomdla nguRegis Wellausen opapashwe kwi MundoGEO Magazine, okusikhumbuza ukungenakwenzeka kwezo nkcazo ze-Catastro2014 eziphakanyiswe yi-FIG kwiminyaka engamashumi amabini edlulileyo, ngokukodwa ngokumalunga nokufakela imodeli njengenguquko yemifanekiso yendalo.

Isiphakamiso sesilungiso sesithuba sokutshintshwa kwiparadi yokuguga.

Ingcamango yesilinganiselo - ubudlelwane phakathi kwesilinganiselo kwisicwangciso kunye nobukhulu bayo boqobo kwintsimi - inxalenye ye-DNA yomntu ukususela kwiindlela ezinkulu zokuhlaziya ukulungiswa kweemaphu ukusuka kwi-1.500. Ngokusekelwe kwimihlaba "impazamo ebonakalayo", Imigangatho yobugcisa yemveliso yabo ichaza, kwisilinganiselo ngasinye, impazamo yesibongo esimele siyiqwalasele phakathi kwesityalo kunye nomhlaba, kwisigqibo sosuku ngalunye ngexesha lokusetyenziswa kwala maxwebhu.
Ngo-Brazil, i-Register Ukuchaneka Cartográfica (PEC), nto leyo ngoku popularization elula emva Ndiwise 89.817 / 1984 ngokukodwa aerophotogrammetry analog umisela iintlobo ezintathu umgangatho, engabizi, ebizwa Class C (which is njalo), impazamo lentsalela na omise 1,0 esikalini. Ngokufanayo, xa "elilinganisiweyo" ngezityalo, DNA yethu ugcina ukuba imposiso inkumbulo kunye ungaziva organic esiyua iprosesa zonke izibalo kwi imposiso entsimini. Ngokomzekelo, xa ilinganiswa yesikali kwicandelo igalelo iwaka yeemitha nesityalo 1: 10.000, simele sazi ukuba endle phakathi 990 kunye 1.010 wayeza kufumana iimitha.

ukuhla kwezinga
Isikali kwi-1864: iinkcukacha zesityalo sokwahlula isakhiwo kwiBukhosi baseBrazil.

I-Digital Scale kwi-World Digital

Inyaniso enkulu kukuba asizenzi ezi projekthi kumaphu amaphepha e-static kwaye asinakhathazeka ngokulingana kwazo ngokukodwa kwemveliso yokugqibela, kwaye ke akukho mntu uya kulinganisa nezikali kubo. Okubalulekileyo kukuba umgangatho owenza ngawo umzekelo kunye / okanye uxwebhu luyimiqondo neengcamango zethu. Ukusetyenziswa kweenkcukacha zendawo kunye nemveliso yokugqibela esebenzayo sele iyakubakho kwaye ayiyi kuba neyedijithali engenakuxhomekeka. Kule ndlela, zonke iinkcukacha - oko kuthethwa ngokusemgangathweni kwi-Cartesian system coordinate system - ihlala ihlalutya, evumela ukuba sikwazi ukuhluka ngokukhululekileyo kwisikrini sayo kunye nokukhetha i-mathmatical absolutism nayiphi na into eneempawu zamanani omnxeba we-osnap umyalelo okanye okulinganayo-into engacatshangwanga kwiminyaka eyi-500! Ngoko ke, akukho mpazamo ephindaphindiweyo yokuchaneka kwethu okubonakalayo okanye yokuzinza koyilo, iimpawu eziphambili zomfanekiso wephutha, okanye xa sifunda okanye xa siyilwe. Iphutha elilodwa kuphela elimele sikhathazeke ngalo lendlela yokuvelisa imveliso yolwazi lwendawo esetyenzisiweyo, nokuba ingaba ngumtshini (i-CAD, i-GIS) okanye i-matrix (Izithombe), kodwa oku akuhambelani "nephutha lokubonisa".

Isimo soMgaqo

Isisombululo ngokokuma elithi thaca kwezinye "izigqibo" esingelwe imifanekiso satellite, ezifana zejiyometri, radiometric, zezomzuzwana, njalo-njalo, apho zenzeka kwi 90 ekuqaleni ukuze aqinisekise ukuba okuchaneka zokuzoba imikhosi avela i-digital videography - imveliso ehamba phambili kwimifanekiso yesigqibo esiphezulu.
Isisombululo ngokokuma ichazwe apha ngokuchaneka georeferencing lo mfanekiso, oko kukuthi, umahluko kwi sikhundla (zilungelelanise) nawuphi na amandla isalamane yedijithali endaweni yaso okwenyaniso emhlabeni okanye, nangokuzimisela ngaphezulu ethetha, xa turnoff -mpatho yeentlukwano phakathi kwamaphuzu okuxhasa asetyenziswayo, kumfanekiso okanye kwindawo. Isilungiso sendawo sisetyenziswe ngokulula okufanayo ukufumana ulwazi lwe vector. Kuphando digital, umzekelo, isisombululo ngokokuma imveliso yokugqibela iya kuba kude olusezantsi umahluko phakathi uququzelelo lweziqalelo, funda kwi (Cad, umzekelo) software yaye kamva kulinganiswa endle (kunye GPS, umzekelo ). Ukuba unomdla ukuba nomyili siqiniseke ukuba akukho nto metro kakhulu ezayo 1 iindlela elizayo, xa ikhona, oko kukuthi isisombululo ngokokuma kufuneka ukhankanye uthathe phando. Oko ke, kuya kuba sikhululekile ukukhetha indlela yokusebenza ngokubhekiselele kwi-teknoloji esetyenzisiweyo, ngaphezulu kuya kuba njalo okanye kuphela kuphela uxanduva lomgangatho othile.
Njengoko kugqityiwe, isisombululo sesimo singasetyenziselwa njengeparameter ekhuselekile yekhwalithi yebalazwe yendawo yolwazi kwimimandla yedijithali, eyimfuneko yokwenza isigqibo semida okanye iziphumo zayo zezicelo. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ekubeni yiparameter ephindaphindiweyo yendlela yokuvelisa, isilungiso sesimo siphumelele kwimveliso kwaye kuxhomekeke kwiimbopheleleko zobugcisa bomqhubi walo.
Oku kwenza ukuba ubhaliso lwe-Annotation of Responsibility responsibilities (ART) kwaye luqiniseke ngokuguqulwa nokusetyenziswa kwamanye amaqela. Ngaliphi na ixesha, isisombululo sokwenza isigqibo esinokuthi sinokuthi siqinisekiswe ngokulinganisa isampuli yesimo sefomu ezichazwe kakuhle okanye izinto ezisemgangathweni. Xa ixesha sele abenzi boluvo ezahlukeneyo, ukuvelisa imifanekiso ophezulu resolution zorhwebo kunye nendleko eziphantsi, zonke iinketho orthorectified yi Shuttle Radar Ukuma Mission (SRTM) okanye Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Nokucingisisa Radiometer / Global Digital Umphakamo Model (Aster / Gdem ) georreferenciarlas eyaneleyo ngokwaneleyo kwanokuzitshintsha ibe ethembekileyo iinkcukacha zokuzoba ubuchule, nako ukuthatha indawo okanye ukongeza intsimi trabajaos zexabiso kunye kade, kubalulekile ukuba imisebenzi kunye neeprojekthi zobunjineli.

Izicelo

Umzekelo wokubaluleka kwawo kunye nesicelo unokugqalwa kumfanekiso. Kubhaliwe bakubonisa, ityala georeferencing kwepropati zasemaphandleni (10.267 / umthetho 01), umahluko amanyathelo enekona likwajongana "P", afunyenwe indlela ekhawulezayo ndawonye (GPS L1 / L2), iya kusala, kunye namanyathelo ngokuthe ngqo kumfanekiso wesisombululo esiphezulu, kunene. Le WolrdView2 umfanekiso satellite ka 2010, waye georeferenced kunye njengesiphumo iimitha zokusombulula 1,5 ngokokuma, okanye naliphi na amanani zakhe ayahlukanga kwimitha ngaphezu kunye nesiqingatha indawo ezikhoyo, nto leyo mda elamkeleke okwangoku ngenxa Ikhutshwe ekubuyiseleni kwamaphuzu. Njengoko kuphawuliwe, zonke iintlukwano zingaphantsi kokuchaneka ngqo. Ukuziqhelanisa isisombululo ngokokuma 1,5 2,5 kunye neemitha, ngokulandelelana, ivumela ukunwenwa isicelo ekhuselekileyo woluvo ekude ukunciphisa iindleko nexesha ekugqibeni zilungelelanise of eziphezulu hayi monumentados kunye nemida zendalo sibonakale ngaphezulu. georeferencing kobungcali imifanekiso ezahlukeneyo kunye nokulungiswa okufanayo ngokokuma ngokweenkcukacha nokunxibelelanisa readings ngaphakathi kwemida efanayo yaye, ke ngoko, omnye yobungcali yesibini lula khangela uququzelelo lokuqala. umnini Win, ngubani uhlawula ixabiso elisezantsi, uwina zobungcali, nto leyo eye ngexabiso eliphantsi kunye inzuzo efanayo; kwaye uthole lizwe, leyo kunciphisa ixesha kunye nophuhliso kunye nokuqiniselwa izigidi beepropati.

ukuhla kwezinga
I-Georeferencing yeepropati zasemaphandleni: ii-vertic "P" ngasemnyango, zilinganiswe ne-GPS L1 / L2 (ngokuthe ngqo) kunye ngqo kwi-WorldView 2 umfanekiso (ngqo). Umfanekiso unesisombululo sejometri yeemitha ze-0,5 (gcina iinkomo ngokuthe ngqo) kwaye u-georeferenced ukufikelela kwisisombululo sesimo seemitha ze-1,5.

Ukungafani okungafaniyo (iimitha)
BVC P 0658 - P3 = 0,91
BVP P 0657 - P2 = 0,43
BVC P 0656 - P1 = 0,55

Ngokubhekiselele kumgangatho welizwe, akunakuphepheka ukuba uyeke ukuba abe ngumkhombandlela wenkcazelo yekhwalithi yemveliso ye-digital cartographic kwaye uba ngumqhagamshelwano wokugqibela. Kufana neGoogle Earth, apho ifumaneka ngezantsi, ngokuthe ngqo, ukuba "Nyukela", yintoni ebaluleke kakhulu? Yintoni esifuna ukuyifumana, eqinisweni, xa siphumelela ifom, silinganise isigaba okanye sifumane ulungelelaniso, kwaye yintoni isisombululo sesimo semifanekiso yakho, ukwazi ukuba sinokwenza ntoni ngolwazi olukhishiwe. Okwangoku, ingqiqo yakho kunye neenkcukacha zakho ngokuqinisekileyo ziya kuhlala kumacangca engqondo kunye namaxwebhu. Inkokhelo ehloniphekileyo kwisisiseko esibalulekileyo kwiminyaka ye-500, ukuba phakathi kwamaninzi amaninzi afakwe kwiokhokho bethu kwaye yasinceda sakha ihlabathi elingcono esilinalo ngoku.

Enye impendulo "El Ocaso de la Escala"

  1. Inqaku elincamisayo kakhulu elihlalutya ukusetyenziswa kwesilinganiselo kweli hlabathi ledijithali lokuchaneka okungapheliyo. Ngeliphandle, Ndibona yimpumelelo kakhulu, ngaba sucribirlo kodwa, ngokoluvo lwam, andicingi ukuba isikali malibekwe bucala xa ukuvelisa naluphi graphic, ulwazi zokuzoba kunye planimetric kuba, nangona imveliso kunye iimveliso zabo digital, njalo, kungekudala emva koko, indlela enye okanye omnye emzimbeni okanye idijithali kwakhona, iya kuzisa uphuhliso injezu, kwaye ke xa ufuna ukusebenzisa ezi ngcamango impazamo, umbulelo, ukuchaneka, njl

    O! Ndivuyiswa kukunandipha ii-geofumadas, ukuba ndiqala ukuphawula kwaye, akunjalo, akufuneki ukuyiqonda, akunjalo?

Shiya impendulo

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

Le sayithi isebenzisa i-Akismet ukunciphisa ugaxekile. Funda indlela idatha yakho yokubhaliweyo isetyenziswe ngayo.