I-5 Myths kunye ne-5 Ubume be-Integrated BIM - GIS

UChris Andrews ubhale inqaku elixabisekileyo kwindibano enomdla, xa i-ESRI kunye ne-AutoDesk zifuna iindlela zokuzisa ukucaca kwe-GIS kufutshane nenkqubo yoyilo olwela ukwenza i-BIM ibe yimigangatho yobunjineli, uyilo kunye neenkqubo zokwakha. Nangona inqaku lithatha i-opics yeenkampani ezimbini, ingumbono onomdla, nangona oko kungangqinelani nezicwangciso zezinye izithethi ezivenkileni ezinje ngeTekla (Trimble), Geomedia (Hexagon) le Imodel.js (Bentley). Siyazi ukuba ezinye zezikhundla ngaphambili kwe-BIM yayiyi "CAD eyenza i-GIS" okanye "ye-GIS etshintshela kwi-CAD".

Umlando omncinci ...

Kwiminyaka elishumi ye-80 kunye ne-90, ubuchwephesha be-CAD kunye ne-GIS bavela njengendlela ekhuphisanayo nabaqeqeshi ababefuna ukusebenza kunye nolwazi lwendawo, oluye lwacutshungulwa ngokubanzi ngamaphepha. Ngelo xesha, ubuchule beprogram kunye nekhwalithi ye-hardware liyanciphisa ubuninzi bezinto ezinokuthi zenziwe ngeteknoloji encediswe yikhomputha, kokubhaliweyo nokuhlaziywa kwemephu. I-CAD kunye ne-GIS, yabonakala iinguqu ezingaphezulu kweekhompyutha zeekhompyutha, ukusebenzisana nejometri kunye nedatha, eya kuvelisa amaxwebhu kumaphepha.

Njengoko isoftware kunye nezixhobo zekhompyutha ziye zaqhubela phambili ngakumbi kwaye zanobunkunkqele, sibubonile ubuchwephesha bobuchwephesha obujikeleze kuthi, kubandakanya ne-CAD kunye ne-GIS, kunye nendlela yokuhamba komsebenzi wedijithali ngokupheleleyo (okwabizwa ngokuba yi- "digitised"). Itekhnoloji yeCAD ekuqaleni igxile ekuzenzeleni imisebenzi kwimizobo yezandla. Imodeli yolwakhiwo lwemodeli yokwakha (i-BIM), inkqubo yokufezekisa ukusebenza kakuhle, ngexesha loyilo nolwakhiwo, ngokuthe ngcembe ityhilize izixhobo zokuyila ze-BIM kunye ne-CAD ekudalweni kwemizobo nakwiimodeli ezinobuhlakani zedijithali zeempahla zehlabathi . Iimodeli ezenziwe kwiinkqubo zokuyila ze-BIM zanamhlanje zinobunkunkqele ngokwaneleyo ukuze zilingise ukwakhiwa, zifumane iziphene kumanqanaba okuqala yoyilo kwaye zivelise uqikelelo oluchanekileyo, lokuthobela uhlahlo-lwabiwo mali kwiiprojekthi eziguqukayo ngokuguqukayo.

I-GIS iphinde yahlula kwaye iyancedisa amandla ayo ngexesha. Ngoku, GIS ingaphatha amawaka ezigidi iziganeko boluvo baphila neemboniso ukusuka petabytes lwezikhokelo 3D, kunye nemifanekiso ukuya ibrawuza okanye ngeselula, nokuhlaziywa axelwe kwangaphambili, ezintsonkothileyo, yaye ukwanda kwi kwiindawo ezininzi saa yezolimo ifu Imephu, eyaqala njengesixhobo sokuhlalutya kwiphepha, iguqulelwe ibe yidashbhodi okanye i-portal portal yokwenza uhlalutyo olunzima ngendlela echazwe ngabantu.

Ukufezekisa amandla ngokupheleleyo komsebenzi de ugqitywe ezimanyanisiweyo phakathi BIM kunye GIS, imimandla ezibalulekileyo ezifana Smart Cities kunye dijithali Engineering, simele sihlolisise indlela nezigwinta ezimbini ungaya ngaphaya kwisakhono shishino kunye aye de ugqitywe kugcwaliswe i-digitized, okuya kusenza sikhuphe kwiinkqubo zephepha le minyaka elidlulileyo.

Inkolelo: BIM i ...

Kwi-GIS yoluntu, enye yezona zinto eziqhelekileyo ndizibonayo kwaye zivezi zichazwe nge-BIM ezisekelwe kukuqonda kwangaphandle kwehlabathi le-BIM. Ndivame ukuva ukuba i-BIM yenzelwe ukulawulwa, ukubonakala, i-3D imodeli okanye ukuba kuphela izakhiwo, umzekelo. Ngelishwa, akukho nanye yale nto eyiyo i-BIM isetyenzisiweyo, nangona ingaqhubeka okanye ivumele ezinye zezi zinto okanye imisebenzi.

Okubalulekileyo, i-BIM yinkqubo yokugcina ixesha nemali, kwaye ifumaneke kwiziphumo eziphezulu zokuzithemba ngexesha loyilo kunye nenkqubo yokwakha. Umfuziselo 3D eyenziwe ngexesha lenkqubo yoyilo BIM, i eceleni imfuneko nokulungelelanisa uyilo ethile, asithimbe isakhelo njengoko kunjalo, ukuvavanya iindleko ukudilizwa, okanye nika utshintsho osemthethweni okanye ikhontrakthi e asethi emzimbeni . Ukubonakalisa inokuthi ibe yinxalenye yenkqubo, kuba inceda abantu baqonde ukuguqulwa kwamandla, iimpawu kunye neesesthetics zoyilo olucetywayo.

Njengoko ndafunda ixesha elide elidlulileyo kwi-Autodesk, i-'B 'kwi-BIM ithetha' Ukwakha, isenzi 'kungekhona' Ukwakha, isibizo '. I-Autodesk, iBentley kunye nabanye ababoneleli baye basebenzisana noshishino ukuba bafumane iinkcukacha zeenkqubo ze-BIM zibe ziinkalo ezifana nezitimela, iindlela kunye neendlela ezikude, iinkonzo zikawonkewonke kunye nezocingo. Naliphi na i-arhente okanye inhlangano elawulayo nokwakha i-asethi yezinto ezizimeleyo inomdla wokwenza ukuba uqiniseke ukuba iinkqubo zayo zakhiwo kunye nobunjineli zisebenzisa i-BIM.

Idatha ye-BIM ingasetyenziselwa ekusebenzeni kwemisebenzi yokulawula i-asethi. Oku kubekiwe, umzekelo, kwintsha Imigangatho ye-ISO ye-BIM, abaxelelwe, ngenkqubo yokumgangatho wemigangatho yase-United Kingdom, esungulwe kwiminyaka yokugqibela ye-10. Nangona ezi ziphakamiso ezintsha zijolise ekusebenziseni idatha ye-BIM, kwisigidimi esipheleleyo sempilo ye-asethi, kuyacaca ukuba ukugcinwa kweendleko zokwakha, njengoko kuboniswe kwinqaku, kubaluleke kakhulu ukwamukelwa kweBIM.

Xa ibonwa njengenkqubo, ukuhlanganiswa kwetheknoloji ye-GIS kunye ne-BIM iba yinkimbinkimbi kunokuba nje ifunde imifanekiso kunye neempawu ezivela kwi-3D imodeli kwaye zibonise kwi-GIS. Ukuqonda ngokwenene ukuba ulwazi lunokusetyenziswa njani kwi-BIM ne-GIS, sisoloko sifumana ukuba kufuneka sihlaziye isakhiwo sethu okanye ingcamango yendlela, kwaye siqonde indlela abathengi kufuneka basebenzise uluhlu olubanzi lweenkcukacha zeprojekthi kwiimeko zejejethi. Sifumene ukuba ukugxininisa kumzekelo ngamanye amaxesha kuthetha ukuba siye sazinqabisa izinto ezilula, ezisisiseko zokusebenza ezibalulekileyo kuzo zonke inkqubo, ezifana nokusetyenziswa kwedata eqokelelwe kwintsimi ngokuchanekileyo kwisayithi yokwakha, ukuze Hlanganisa indawo kunye nedatha yenkcukacha ukuhlolwa, ukulandelwa kunye nokuhlola.

Ekugqibeleni, siya kufezekisa kuphela ukuqonda okuqhelekileyo kunye neziphumo, ukuba "siwela i-gap" ukusebenza ngamaqela adibeneyo, onokuthi uzisa iyantlukwano ekusombululeni iingxaki. Kungenxa yoko le nto sisebenza kunye ne-Autodek kunye namanye amaqabane kwesi sithuba.
Ubambiswano phakathi kwe-Esri ne-Autodesk, obhengezwe okokuqala ngethuba kwi-2017, luye linyathelo elide lokuqokelela iqela lamanyathelo ahlukeneyo ukujongana neminye imiba yokuhlanganiswa kwe-BIM-GIS.

Inkolelo: BIM ihlinzeka ngokuzenzekelayo iinkcukacha ze-GIS

Enye iingqiqo kakhulu nzima ukugqithisa kumsebenzisi non-lobungcali BIM-GIS, kukuba nangona umfuziselo BIM lifana twatse ibhulorho okanye isakhiwo akuthethi abe neempawu ezibumba inkcazo yesakhiwo okanye ibhulorho ngeenjongo yemephu okanye hlalutyo lwe geospatial.
E-Esri, sisebenza ngamava amatsha ekuthungeni ukwakhiwa kunye nokulawulwa kwemithombo, njenge-ArcGIS Indoors. Abasebenzisi abaninzi balindele ukuba ngomsebenzi wethu nge-Autodesk Revit idatha, sinokwenza ngokuzenzekelayo ukuba sikhiphe iigomethri eziqhelekileyo, ezifana namagumbi, izithuba, izicwangciso zomgangatho, isiseko sakhiwo nesakhiwo sesakhiwo. Kulungile, sinokukhupha imida yokuhamba ukuze sibone indlela umntu eya kuhamba ngayo kwisakhiwo.

Zonke ezi geometri ziya kuba luncedo kakhulu kwizicelo ze-GIS kunye nokusebenza kwempahla yokulawula i-asethi. Sekunjalo, akukho nanye yale geometri iyimfuneko yokwakha isakhiwo kwaye, ngokubanzi, ayikho kwi-Model model.
Sihlolisisa ubuchwephesha ukubala ezi geometri, kodwa ezinye zinika iingxaki eziphandle zophando kunye nemisebenzi yokusebenza ephazamise imboni iminyaka. Yintoni engenawo amanzi? Yintoni yokwakheka kwesakhiwo? Ngaba isiseko sibandakanya? Kutheni ngamabhalconi? Yiyiphi inyawo lesakhiwo? Ingaba zibandakanya iinqwelo zentsimbi? Okanye ngaba i-intersection yesakhiwo kunye nomhlaba?

Ukuqinisekisa ukuba imodeli ye-BIM iqukethe imisebenzi efunekayo kwi-workflows ye-GIS, abaqhubi bomnini kufuneka bachaze iinkcazo zaloo nkcazelo ngaphambi kokuba uyilo kunye nokwakha kuqala. Njengokuba kwemali classic umsebenzi conversion CAD-GIS, apho data CAD kungqinisiswa ngaphambi kokuba abe GIS, inkqubo BIM kwaye lwazi ezithathwe kufuneka zicaciswe kwaye ziquka izinto ezaziza kusetyenziswa ngexesha ulawulo lomjikelezo wobomi lwesakhiwo, ukuba loo nto inenjongo yokudala idatha ye-BIM.

Kukho imibutho ehlabathini lonke, ngokubanzi ooorhulumente kunye nabaqhubi beenkampus ezilawulwayo okanye iinkqubo ze-asethi, eziqale ukufuna iimpawu zokujikeleza ubomi kunye neempawu ezifakwe kwi-BIM. EU.SA Uu., Administration of Iinkonzo URhulumente ukhuthaza izakhiwo ezitsha iimfuno BIM kunye arhente ezifana Veterans Administration baye benza umgudu omkhulu ngokweenkcukacha izinto BIM, ezifana namagumbi kunye neendawo eziza kuba luncedo kulawulo lwamaziko emva kokuba isakhiwo sakhiwe. Sifumene ukuba ii-airport, ezifana neDenver, i-Houston ne-Nashville, zilawulwa ngokuqinileyo kwedatha yazo ye-BIM kwaye zihlala zifumana idatha eguquguqukayo. Ndibone ezinye iintetho ezinkulu nge-SNCF AREP eyakhela inkqubo epheleleyo ye-BIM yezikhululo zetroliwe, ngokusekelwe kwingcamango yokuba idatha ye-BIM iya kusetyenziswa ekuphathweni kwempahla kunye nemisebenzi yokusebenza. Ndiyathemba ukubona oku ngakumbi kweli xesha elizayo.

Kwabiwe nathi ukususela George HW Bush Houston International Airport (eboniswe apha AppBuilder Web) data ukubonisa ukuba xa idatha BIM zibe standardised, ngokuqhelekileyo izixhobo yokuqinisekisa umzobo ezinokukwazi ngocwangco kudityaniswa GIS . Ngokuqhelekileyo, sibona ulwazi lokwakha kwiimodeli ze-BIM ngaphambi kokujonga ulwazi olunxulumene ne-FM

Inkolelo: kukho ifomathi yefayile engabonelela ukuhlanganiswa kwe-BIM-GIS

Kwi-classic businessflows integration workfiles, itafile okanye ifomathi ingabelwa kwelinye itafile okanye ifomathi, ukuvumela ngokuqinisekileyo ukuhanjiswa kolwazi phakathi kobuchwepheshe obuhlukeneyo. Ngenxa yezizathu ezininzi, le pateni ibinayo ngokwaneleyo ukujongana neemfuno ze tUkuhamba kweenkcukacha zekhulu le-21:

  • Ingcaciso egcinwe kwiifayile kunzima ukuhambisa
  • Ulwabiwo lweenkcukacha kwiindawo ezixakekileyo lulahleko
  • Ukwabiwa kwedatha kubonisa ukuphindaphinda okungekho ngokupheleleyo kumxholo kwiinkqubo
  • Uludwe lweenkcukacha luhlala luphakathi
  • I-teknoloji, ukuqoqwa kwedatha kunye nemisebenzi yokusebenza yomsebenzisi iyatshintshwa ngokukhawuleza kangangokuthi iqinisekisiwe ukuba ukungena kwezinto namhlanje kuya kuba ngaphantsi kwexesha eliza kufuna

Ukuze kuphunyezwe inkqubo yedijithi lokwenyaniso, ukumelwa digital ye-asethi, kufuneka lufikeleleke kwindawo asasaza ezinokuthi yala maxesha kwaye lwenziwe olwanamhlanje ukuze zilungele thethwano, uhlahlelo kunye nohlolo ezintsonkothileyo ngokuhamba kwexesha kwaye ngaphaya lula ubomi obuncedo beempahla.

Imodeli yedatha ayikwazi ukuhlanganisa yonke into enokudibaniswa kwi-BIM kunye ne-GIS ngokusebenzisa amashishini ahlukeneyo kunye neemfuno zabathengi, ngoko akukho fomathi enye engayifumana inkqubo yonke ngendlela eya unokufikelela ngokukhawuleza kwaye ube yi-bidirectional. Ndiyathemba technologies uhlanganiso kuqhubeka ukuvuthwa ekuhambeni kwexesha, njengoko BIM iba uqina kwikhontenti kwaye kukho imfuneko yokusebenzisa data BIM kwimeko GIS ukuze wobomi lolawulo lwee-asethi, iya kuba kubaluleke kakhulu indawo yokuhlala ngokuzinzileyo yabantu.

Injongo ye-BIM-GIS ukudibanisa kukuvumela ukuba imisebenzi yokusebenza idale ii-asethi kwaye ilawule. Akukho zitshintshi ezicacileyo, ezichazwe kakuhle phakathi kwezi zixhobo zomsebenzi ezimbini.

Inkolelo: Awukwazi ukusebenzisa ngokuthe ngqo umxholo we-BIM kwi-GIS

Ngokwahlukileyo kwingxoxo yokufumana njani iimpawu ze-GIS data BIM, siqhele ukuva ukuba akukho kunokwenzeka ukuba ukusebenzisa ngqo okuqulethwe BIM GIS ngenxa yezizathu ukusuka yokuntsonkotha kwisemantiki, kwanokuxinana impahla, i ixabiso lempahla. Ingxoxo malunga nokuhlanganiswa kwe-BIM-GIS ngokuqhelekileyo ijoliswe kwiifom zefayile kunye neefomfworkworks Extract, Transform and Load (ETL).

Enyanisweni, sisele sisebenzisa umxholo we-BIM ngqo kwi-GIS. ihlobo uphelileyo, esilishumayelayo ukukwazi ukufunda ifayile Revit e ArcGIS Pro ngqo. Ngelo xesha, komfuziselo banxibelelane ArcGIS Pro ngokungathi yabhalwa iimpawu ze-GIS yaye emva koko iguqulelwe kwezinye iifomati GIS eqhelekileyo ngokuthi umgudu manual, ukuba ku funwayo NgeArgGIS Pro 2.3, sikhulula ukukhuphela uhlobo olutsha lwesitya, umgca wendawo yokwakha , evumela umsebenzisi ukuba afake i-semantics, i-geometry kunye neenkcukacha zobungqina beModeli yokuHlaziya kwifomathi enokutshabalalisa eyenzelwe ama-GIS amava. Isakhiwo sendawo esakhiweyo, esiza kuchazwa kwi-I3S evuliwe, ivakalelwa njengeModeli yombukiso yomsebenzisi kwaye ivumela ukusebenzisana usebenzisa izixhobo zokusebenza kunye nezenzo eziqhelekileyo ze-GIS.

Ndandimangaliswe ukuba ndifumanise ukuba ngenxa yokufumaneka kwamanqanaba omhlaba, ukugcinwa kwexabiso okuncinci kunye nokusetyenziswa okuncinci, sisuka e-ETL ukuya ku-ELT okanye kwimisebenzi yokusebenza. Kulo mzekelo, idatha ilayishwe ngokusisiseko nakwiyiphi na inkqubo eyifunayo kwifomu yayo yasekuhlaleni kwaye iyafumaneka kwiinguqu ezikude okanye kwindawo yokugcina idatha apho uhlalutyo luya kwenziwa khona. Oku kunciphisa ukuxhomekeka ekusebenziseni kumthombo, kwaye igcina umxholo wasezantsi ukuguqulwa okungcono okanye olujonge xa ​​iteknoloji iphucula. Sisebenza kwi-ELT e-Esri yaye kubonakala ngathi sihlangabezane nexabiso eliphambili lolu tshintsho xa ndibhekisela 'ekupheliseni i-ETL neT' kwinkomfa kunyaka odlulileyo. U-ELT yenza incoko iguqule imeko apho umsebenzisi kufuneka ahlale ehlanganiswe ngaphandle kwe-GIS amava ukukhangela okanye ukudibanisa imodeli ngokubanzi. Ngokulayisha ngokuthe ngqo idatha kumzekelo we-ELT,

Iingcali: I-GIS yindawo yokugcina i-BIM yolwazi

Ndinamagama amabini: «Ubhaliso olusemthethweni». Amaxwebhu e-BIM asoloko eyirekhodi esemthethweni yezigqibo zeshishini kunye nolwazi lokuthobela, irekhodwa kuhlalutyo lweziphene zokwakha kunye nokuchotshelwa komthetho, irhafu kunye nokuvavanywa kwekhowudi, kunye njengobungqina bokuhanjiswa. Kwiimeko ezininzi, abayili beenjineli kunye nonjineli kufuneka batywinele okanye baqinisekise ukuba umsebenzi wabo uqinisekile kwaye uhlangabezana neemfuno zemithetho yabo ekhethekileyo kunye nemigaqo esebenzayo.

Ngaxa lithile, kucingelwa ukuba kungakho GIS inokuba inkqubo yobhaliso njengezibonelo BIM, kodwa ngeli xesha, ndicinga le minyaka okanye ngamashumi, esixhaswa iinkqubo zomthetho ukuba nkqu iinguqulelo ngekhompyutha lweenkqubo paper-based. Sifuna ukuhamba ukunxibelelanisa asethi kwi-asethi GIS zokugcina BIM, ngoko abathengi Ungathatha ingqalelo yolawulo yoguqulelo kwaye namaxwebhu kwi BIM kwihlabathi kunye nesakhono emephini ukubeka asethi iinkcukacha isityebi se geospatial imeko yokuhlalutya nokuqonda kunye noqhagamshelwano.

Ngokufana nenxalenye yengxoxo "yeempawu ze-GIS", ukudityaniswa kolwazi nge-BIM kunye ne-GIS yokugcina kuya kuncediswa kakhulu yimodeli yolwazi esemgangathweni kwi-GIS ne-BIM, evumela izicelo ukuba zidibane. Ulwazi oluthembekileyo phakathi kwezi ndawo zimbini. Oko akuthethi ukuba kuya kubakho imodeli eyodwa yolwazi, yokufaka idatha ye-GIS kunye ye-BIM. Kukho umahluko kakhulu kwindlela idatha kufuneka isetyenziswe ngayo. Kodwa kufuneka siqiniseke ukuba sakha ubuchwephesha obuguqukayo kunye nenqanaba elinokuthi lihambelane nokusetyenziswa kolwazi kuwo omabini amaqonga ngentembeko ephezulu kunye nolondolozo lomxholo wolwazi.

IYunivesithi yaseKentucky yayingomnye wabathengi bokuqala ukusinika ukufikelela kwi-Content Revit content. I-UKy isebenzisa ukuqinisekiswa komdwebo ngokugqithiseleyo ukuqinisekisa ukuba idatha echanekileyo kwi-BIM yedatha ukuxhasa ukusebenza nokugcinwa komjikelezo wobomi bonke.

Isishwankathelo

Utshintsho kwi-hardware kunye nekhono lwesofthiwe, kunye nokufudukela kwintlalo yedijithali eqhutywe ngedatha, kudala amathuba okudibanisa ubuchwephesha obuhlukeneyo kunye nemimandla engakaze ibe khona ngaphambili. Ukuhlanganiswa kwedatha kunye nemisebenzi yokusebenza nge-GIS ne-BIM, isenza sikwazi ukufezekisa ukusebenza kakuhle, ukuzinza nokuhlala kwezixeko, iikampus kunye neendawo zokusebenzela ezisijikelezile.

Ukuqhuba phambili kwinkqubela phambili yezobuchwepheshe, kufuneka sidale amaqela adibeneyo kunye nobambiswano, ukucebisa izisombululo kwiingxaki ezinzima ezichaphazela iinkqubo ezigqibeleleyo, hayi ezomeleleyo kunye nokuhamba komsebenzi. Kufuneka kwakhona ngokusisiseko sitshintshe kwiindlela ezintsha zetekhnoloji, ezinokulungisa iingxaki zokudityaniswa ngokuqina ngakumbi kunye nokuguquguquka. Iipatheni zokudibanisa ze-GIS kunye ne-BIM, esizamkelayo namhlanje, mazibe "bubungqina bexesha elizayo" ukuze sisebenzisane ngokubhekisele kwikamva elizinzileyo.

Enye Impendulo kwi "5 Myths kunye ne-5 Realities ye-BIM Integration - GIS"

  1. Sawubona, kusasa ekuseni eSpeyin.
    Ukubonisa umdla.
    Ukuba kukho into ecacileyo kum, kukuba ikusasa elilindelekileyo lilindele, indlela egcwele imingeni namathuba, ngaphakathi kweGeomatics, apho iya kuba nekamva ekwaziyo ukuhamba phakathi kokutsha, umgangatho kunye nentsebenziswano.

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