Iintsomi ezi-5 kunye nenyani ezi-5 zokudityaniswa kwe-BIM-GIS

UChris Andrews ubhale inqaku elibalulekileyo kumzuzu onomdla, xa i-ESRI kunye ne-AutoDesk befuna indlela yokuzisa lula i-GIS kwilaphu loyilo olusokolayo ukuqonda i-BIM njengomgangatho wobunjineli, uyilo kunye neenkqubo zokwakha. Nangona inqaku lithatha imbono yezi nkampani zimbini, yindawo enomdla, nangona ingangqinelani nezicwangciso zezinye izithethi kwintengiso ezinje ngeTekla (iTrimble), iGeomedia (Hexagon) kunye neImodel.js (Bentley). Siyazi ukuba ezinye zezikhundla ngaphambi kwe-BIM "yi-CAD eyenza i-GIS" okanye "i-GIS ehambelana ne-CAD."

Imbali encinci…

Ngama-80s nakuma-90s, itekhnoloji ye-CAD kunye ne-GIS yavela njengezinye iindlela zokhuphiswano lweengcali ezazifuna ukusebenza ngolwazi lwendawo, olwalusenziwa ikakhulu ngephepha. Ngelo xesha, ubucukubhede besoftware kunye nobuchule behardware bunqamle umda wento enokwenziwa ngetekhnoloji encediswa yikhompyuter, kokubini ukuyila kunye nokuhlalutya imephu. I-CAD kunye ne-GIS zibonakala ngathi zigqibelelene kwiinguqulelo zezixhobo zekhompyuter zokusebenza ngejometri kunye nedatha eya kuthi ivelise uxwebhu lwephepha.

Njengoko isoftware kunye nezixhobo zentsimbi zihambele phambili kwaye zinobunkunkqele, siye sabona ubuchwephesha kuzo zonke iitekhnoloji ezisingqongileyo, kubandakanya i-CAD kunye ne-GIS, kunye nendlela eya kwidijithali ngokupheleleyo (ekwabizwa ngokuba yi "digitised") ukuhamba komsebenzi. Itekhnoloji ye-CAD ekuqaleni yayijolise ekuzenzekelayo kwemisebenzi ukusuka kumzobo wesandla. Ukwakhiwa kolwazi lweemodeli (i-BIM), inkqubo yokufezekisa ukusebenza ngokukuko, ngexesha loyilo nolwakhiwo, kuye kwatyhala ngokuthe ngcembe izixhobo zokuyila ze-BIM kunye ne-CAD ekudaleni indalo nakwiimodeli zedijithali ezikrelekrele zeeaseti zehlabathi zangempela. . Iimodeli ezenziwe kwiinkqubo zoyilo ze-BIM zale mihla zinobunkunkqele bokulinganisa ulwakhiwo, ukufumana iziphene kumanqanaba okuqala oyilo, kunye nokuvelisa uqikelelo oluphezulu, lokuthobela uhlahlo-lwabiwo mali kwiiprojekthi eziguqukayo ezinamandla, umzekelo.

I-GIS iphinde yahlula kwaye iyancedisa amandla ayo ngexesha. Ngoku, GIS ingaphatha amawaka ezigidi iziganeko boluvo baphila neemboniso ukusuka petabytes lwezikhokelo 3D, kunye nemifanekiso ukuya ibrawuza okanye ngeselula, nokuhlaziywa axelwe kwangaphambili, ezintsonkothileyo, yaye ukwanda kwi kwiindawo ezininzi saa yezolimo ifu Imephu, eyaqala njengesixhobo sokuhlalutya kwiphepha, iguqulelwe ibe yidashbhodi okanye i-portal portal yokwenza uhlalutyo olunzima ngendlela echazwe ngabantu.

Ukufezekisa amandla ngokupheleleyo komsebenzi de ugqitywe ezimanyanisiweyo phakathi BIM kunye GIS, imimandla ezibalulekileyo ezifana Smart Cities kunye dijithali Engineering, simele sihlolisise indlela nezigwinta ezimbini ungaya ngaphaya kwisakhono shishino kunye aye de ugqitywe kugcwaliswe i-digitized, okuya kusenza sikhuphe kwiinkqubo zephepha le minyaka elidlulileyo.

Intsomi: BIM kuba ...

Kwi-GIS yoluntu, enye yezona zinto eziqhelekileyo ndizibonayo kwaye zivezi zichazwe nge-BIM ezisekelwe kukuqonda kwangaphandle kwehlabathi le-BIM. Ndivame ukuva ukuba i-BIM yenzelwe ukulawulwa, ukubonakala, i-3D imodeli okanye ukuba kuphela izakhiwo, umzekelo. Ngelishwa, akukho nanye yale nto eyiyo i-BIM isetyenzisiweyo, nangona ingaqhubeka okanye ivumele ezinye zezi zinto okanye imisebenzi.

Ngokusisiseko, i-BIM yinkqubo yokonga ixesha kunye nemali, kunye nokufezekisa iziphumo ezinokuthenjwa ngexesha loyilo kunye nenkqubo yokwakha. Imodeli ye-3D eveliswe ngexesha leenkqubo zoyilo ze-BIM yinto eyimveliso yesidingo sokulungelelanisa uyilo oluthile, ukubamba ulwakhiwo njengoko kunjalo, ukuvavanya iindleko zokudiliza, okanye ukubonelela ngerekhodi elisemthethweni okanye lekhontrakthi yotshintsho kwiasethi ebonakalayo. . Ukubonakaliswa kunokuba yinxalenye yenkqubo, kuba inceda abantu baqonde amandla, iimpawu, kunye ne-aesthetics yoyilo olucetywayo.

Njengoko ndafunda kwakudala e-Autodesk, u-'B 'kwi-BIM umele' Yakha, isenzi 'hayi' Ukwakha, isibizo '. I-Autodesk, iBentley, kunye nabanye abathengisi basebenze nomzi-mveliso ukufakela iikhonsepthi zenkqubo ye-BIM, kwimimandla efana noololiwe, iindlela kunye noohola bendlela, izixhobo kunye noqhakamshelwano. Nayiphi na iarhente okanye umbutho, olawula kunye nokwakha iiasethi ezibonakalayo, unomdla wokuqinisekisa ukuba uyilo kunye neekhontraktha zobunjineli zisebenzisa iinkqubo zeBIM.

Idatha ye-BIM inokusetyenziselwa ukusebenza kokuhamba kolawulo lweeasethi. Oku kuqatshelwe, umzekelo, kwinto entsha Imigangatho ye-ISO ye-BIM, ethe yaziswa, ngenkqubo yokumiselwa komgangatho yase-UK, esekwe kule minyaka ili-10 idlulileyo. Nangona ezi zindululo zintsha zijolise ekusetyenzisweni kwedatha ye-BIM, kumjikelo wobomi be-asethi, kuyacaca ukuba ukonga kwiindleko zokwakha, njengoko kuchaziwe kwinqaku, kungoyena mqhubi uphambili ukwamkelwa kweBIM.

Xa ujongwa njengenkqubo, ukudibanisa itekhnoloji ye-GIS kunye ne-BIM kuya kusiba nzima ngakumbi kunokufunda imizobo kunye neempawu ezivela kwimodeli ye-3D kwaye uzibonakalise kwi-GIS. Ukuqonda ngokwenyani ukuba ulwazi lungasetyenziswa njani kwi-BIM nakwi-GIS, sihlala sifumanisa ukuba kufuneka sichaze ngokutsha umbono wethu wokwakha okanye wendlela, kwaye siqonde ukuba abathengi bafuna ukusebenzisa uluhlu olubanzi lweenkcukacha zeprojekthi kwimeko ye-geospatial. Sifumanise ukuba ukugxila kwimodeli ngamanye amaxesha kuthetha ukuba sikutyeshele okulula, ukuhamba komsebenzi okusisiseko okuyimfuneko kuyo yonke inkqubo, njengokusebenzisa idatha eqokelelwe ebaleni ngokuchanekileyo kwindawo yokwakha, ukuya Qhagamshela indawo nedatha yemodeli yokuhlola, uluhlu lweempahla kunye nophando.

Ekugqibeleni, siyakufezekisa ukuqonda okufanayo kunye neziphumo ukuba "siwela isithuba" ukuze sisebenze kumaqela adibeneyo anokuzisa iyantlukwano ekusombululeni iingxaki. Kungenxa yoko le nto sisebenza ne-Autodesk kunye namanye amaqabane kwesi sithuba.
Ubambiswano phakathi kwe-Esri ne-Autodesk, obhengezwe okokuqala ngethuba kwi-2017, luye linyathelo elide lokuqokelela iqela lamanyathelo ahlukeneyo ukujongana neminye imiba yokuhlanganiswa kwe-BIM-GIS.

Inkolelo: BIM ihlinzeka ngokuzenzekelayo iinkcukacha ze-GIS

Enye iingqiqo kakhulu nzima ukugqithisa kumsebenzisi non-lobungcali BIM-GIS, kukuba nangona umfuziselo BIM lifana twatse ibhulorho okanye isakhiwo akuthethi abe neempawu ezibumba inkcazo yesakhiwo okanye ibhulorho ngeenjongo yemephu okanye hlalutyo lwe geospatial.
KwaEsri, sisebenza kumava amatsha kuhambo lokwakha kunye nolawulo lwezixhobo, njengeArcGIS Indoors. Abasebenzisi abaninzi balindele ukuba ngomsebenzi wethu ngedatha ye-Autodesk Revit, sinokuzikhupha ngokuzenzekelayo iijiyometri eziqhelekileyo, ezinje ngamagumbi, iindawo, iiplani zomgangatho, ulwakhiwo lwesakhiwo, kunye nolwakhiwo lwesakhiwo. Ngcono nangakumbi, sinokuthi sikhuphe umnatha wokubona indlela umntu anokuhamba ngayo kulwakhiwo.

Zonke ezi geometri ziya kuba luncedo kakhulu kwizicelo ze-GIS kunye nolawulo lwempahla yokusebenza. Okwangoku, akukho nanye kwezi geometri efunekayo ekwakheni isakhiwo kwaye ngokubanzi ayikho kwimodeli yokuHlaziywa.
Sivavanya itekhnoloji yokubala ezi geometri, kodwa ezinye zibonelela ngophando oluntsonkothileyo kunye nemiceli mngeni yokuhamba komsebenzi eye yalukhubekisa ushishino iminyaka. Yintoni engangeni manzi? Ngaba iyabandakanya isiseko? Njani ngeebhalkhoni? Uthini umkhondo wesakhiwo? Ngaba ibandakanya ngaphezulu? Okanye kukuhlangana nje kwesakhiwo nomhlaba?

Ukuqinisekisa ukuba iimodeli ze-BIM ziqulathe imisebenzi efunekayo yokuhamba komsebenzi we-GIS, abaqhubi beenkampani baya kufuna ukuchaza iinkcukacha zolo lwazi ngaphambi kokuba uyilo kunye nolwakhiwo luqale. Ngokufana nokuguqulwa kokuhamba komsebenzi we-CAD-GIS, apho idatha yeCAD iqinisekiswa khona ngaphambi kokuba iguqulwe ibe yi-GIS, inkqubo ye-BIM kunye nedatha enesiphumo kufuneka ichaze kwaye ibandakanye neempawu ezinokusetyenziswa ngexesha ulawulo lomjikelo wobomi bolwakhiwo, ukuba oko kuyinjongo yokudala idatha ye-BIM.

Kukho imibutho kwihlabathi liphela, oorhulumente kunye nabaqhubi beekhampasi ezilawulwayo okanye iinkqubo zeasethi, eziqale ukufuna iimpawu zobomi bempilo kunye neempawu zokufakwa kumxholo weBIM. E-US, uLawulo lweeNkonzo zikaRhulumente lutyhala ulwakhiwo olutsha ngeemfuno ze-BIM kunye nee-arhente ezinje ngoLawulo lweVeterans ziye kude kakhulu kwiinkcukacha zeBIM, ezinje ngamagumbi kunye neendawo, eziza kuba luncedo Ulawulo lwezixhobo emva kokwakhiwa kwesakhiwo. Sifumanise ukuba izikhululo zeenqwelo moya, ezinje ngeDenver, iHouston, neNashville, zilawula ngokuqinileyo idatha yazo ye-BIM kwaye zihlala zinedatha ehambelana kakhulu. Ndizibonile ezinye zeentetho ezinkulu ezivela kwi-SNCF AREP eyakha inkqubo epheleleyo ye-BIM yezikhululo zikaloliwe, ngokusekwe kwimbono yokuba idatha ye-BIM iya kusetyenziswa ekusebenzeni nasekulawulweni kweempahla. Ndiyathemba ukubona ngaphezulu koku kwixesha elizayo.

Idatha ekwabelwana ngayo nathi ukusuka eGeorge HW Bush Houston International Airport (iboniswe apha kwi-Web AppBuilder) ibonisa ukuba ukuba idatha ye-BIM ibekwe emgangathweni, ngesiqhelo ngokuzoba izixhobo zokuqinisekisa, emva koko inokufakwa ngokuchanekileyo kwi-GIS. . Ngokwesiqhelo sibona ulwazi lolwakhiwo kwiimodeli ze-BIM ngaphambi kokujonga ulwazi olunxulumene ne-FM

Inkolelo: kukho ifomathi yefayile engabonelela ukuhlanganiswa kwe-BIM-GIS

Kumdibaniso wamashishini okuhambahamba komsebenzi, itafile enye okanye ifomathi inokuchongwa kwenye itafile okanye kwifomathi, ukuvumela ngokuthembekileyo ukuhanjiswa kolwazi phakathi kweetekhnoloji ezahlukeneyo. Ngenxa yezizathu ezahlukeneyo, le patheni iye ingonelanga ukujongana neemfuno ze tUkuhamba kweenkcukacha zekhulu le-21:

  • Ingcaciso egcinwe kwiifayile kunzima ukuhambisa
  • Ulwabiwo lweenkcukacha kwiindawo ezixakekileyo lulahleko
  • Ukwabiwa kwedatha kubonisa ukuphindaphinda okungekho ngokupheleleyo kumxholo kwiinkqubo
  • Uludwe lweenkcukacha luhlala luphakathi
  • I-teknoloji, ukuqoqwa kwedatha kunye nemisebenzi yokusebenza yomsebenzisi iyatshintshwa ngokukhawuleza kangangokuthi iqinisekisiwe ukuba ukungena kwezinto namhlanje kuya kuba ngaphantsi kwexesha eliza kufuna

Ukuze kuphunyezwe inkqubo yedijithi lokwenyaniso, ukumelwa digital ye-asethi, kufuneka lufikeleleke kwindawo asasaza ezinokuthi yala maxesha kwaye lwenziwe olwanamhlanje ukuze zilungele thethwano, uhlahlelo kunye nohlolo ezintsonkothileyo ngokuhamba kwexesha kwaye ngaphaya lula ubomi obuncedo beempahla.

Imodeli yedatha enye ayinakuquka yonke into enokudityaniswa kwi-BIM nakwi-GIS kuwo onke amashishini ahlukeneyo kunye neemfuno zabathengi, ke akukho fomathi inye inokubamba yonke le nkqubo ngendlela inokufikeleleka ngokukhawuleza kwaye i-bi-directional. Ndiyathemba ukuba ubuchwephesha bokudibanisa buya kuqhubeka bukhula ngokuhamba kwexesha, njengoko i-BIM iba nesiqulatho esityebileyo kwaye kukho isidingo sokusebenzisa idatha ye-BIM kwimeko ye-GIS kulawulo lobutyebi be-asethi, iya kuba yinto ebaluleke ngakumbi. indawo yokuhlala ezinzileyo yabantu.

Injongo yokudityaniswa kwe-BIM-GIS kukwenza ukuba ukuhamba komsebenzi kusebenze kunye nokulawula iiasethi. Akukho discrete, iinguqu ezichaziweyo phakathi kokuhamba komsebenzi.

Inkolelo: Awukwazi ukusebenzisa ngokuthe ngqo umxholo we-BIM kwi-GIS

Ngokuchasene nengxoxo ngendlela yokufumana amanqaku e-GIS kwidatha ye-BIM, sihlala sisiva ukuba akukho ngqiqweni kwaye akunakwenzeka ukuba sisebenzise ngokuthe ngqo umxholo we-BIM kwi-GIS ngezizathu ezisusela kubunzima be-semantic, ubuninzi be-asethi, ukuya Isikali seasethi. Ingxoxo ngokudityaniswa kwe-BIM-GIS ngokubanzi ijolise kwiifomathi zefayile kunye nokukhupha, ukuTshintsha, kunye noMthwalo (ETL) wokuhamba komsebenzi.

Ngapha koko, sele sisebenzisa ngokuthe ngqo umxholo we-BIM kwi-GIS. Ngehlobo ephelileyo, sazise amandla okufunda ngokuthe ngqo ifayile yokuHlaziya kwiArcGIS Pro. Ngelo xesha, imodeli inokusebenzisana neArcGIS Pro ngokungathi yenziwe ngamanqaku e-GIS emva koko itshintshelwe kwezinye iifomathi ze-GIS ezisemgangathweni ngomzamo wesandla, ukuba Inqweneleka. NgeArcGIS Pro 2.3, sikhupha amandla okupapasha uhlobo olutsha lomaleko, umgca wendawo yokwakha , evumela umsebenzisi ukuba afake iisemantiki, ijiyometri, kunye neenkcukacha zomfuziselo wemodeli yokuHlaziya kwifomathi enokwenzakala kakhulu eyakhelwe amava e-GIS. Umaleko wesakhiwo, oza kuchazwa kwinkcazo evulekileyo ye-I3S, uziva njengemodeli yokuHlaziya kumsebenzisi kwaye ivumela ukusebenzisana usebenzisa izixhobo kunye neendlela eziqhelekileyo ze-GIS.

Ndinomdla wokufumanisa ukuba ngenxa yokufumaneka kwe-bandwidth engaphezulu, ukugcinwa okungabizi kakhulu, kunye nokusebenza okungabizi kakhulu, sisuka 'ETL' siye 'ELT' okanye ukuhamba komsebenzi. Kule modeli, idatha ilayishwa nakweyiphi na inkqubo eyifunayo kwifom yayo yemveli kwaye inokufikelelwa kuguqulelo kwinkqubo ekude okanye kwindawo yokugcina idatha apho uhlalutyo luya kwenziwa khona. Oku kunciphisa ukuxhomekeka kulungiso lomthombo, kwaye kugcina umxholo wokuqala kwinguqu engcono okanye enzulu njengoko itekhnoloji iphucula. Sisebenza kwi-ELT e-Esri kwaye kubonakala ngathi sifike kwixabiso eliphambili lolu tshintsho xa bendithetha 'ngokususa u-E no-T kwi-ETL' kwinkomfa yonyaka ophelileyo. I-ELT yenza ukuba incoko itshintshe ngokupheleleyo kwimeko apho umsebenzisi kufuneka ahlala enxibelelana ngaphandle kwamava e-GIS ukukhangela okanye ukubuza imodeli ngokupheleleyo. Xa ulayisha ngokuthe ngqo idatha kwipateni ye-ELT,

Iingcali: I-GIS yindawo yokugcina i-BIM yolwazi

Ndinamagama amabini: "Ubhaliso olusemthethweni." Amaxwebhu e-BIM ahlala irekhodi elisemthethweni lezigqibo zeshishini kunye nolwazi lokuthobela, olurekhodwe uhlalutyo lweziphene zolwakhiwo kunye nokugwetywa kwamatyala, ukuvavanywa kwerhafu kunye nekhowudi, kunye nobungqina bokuhanjiswa. Kwiimeko ezininzi, iinjineli kunye neenjineli kufuneka zitywine okanye ziqinisekise ukuba umsebenzi wazo uvumelekile kwaye iyahlangabezana neemfuno zobuchule babo kunye nemithetho esebenzayo okanye iikhowudi.

Ngexesha elithile kusenokwenzeka ukuba i-GIS inokuba yinkqubo yokurekhoda kwiimodeli ze-BIM, kodwa okwangoku, ndicinga ukuba le yiminyaka okanye amashumi eminyaka kude, ibotshelelwe ziinkqubo zomthetho ezisenguhlobo lweekhompyuter lweenkqubo zephepha. Sijonge ukuhamba komsebenzi, ukunxibelelanisa iiasethi kwi-GIS kwii-asethi ezikwi-BIM zokugcina izinto, ukwenzela ukuba abathengi bathathe ithuba lolawulo lwenguqulo kunye namaxwebhu afunekayo kwilizwe le-BIM kunye nokubanakho kwemephu, ukubeka ulwazi lweasethi kwindawo Umxholo ocebileyo we-geospatial wohlalutyo kunye nokuqonda kunye nonxibelelwano.

Kuyafana "neempawu ze-GIS" kwingxoxo, ukudityaniswa kolwazi kwi-BIM kunye ne-GIS zokugcina ziya kuncediswa kakhulu ziimodeli zolwazi ezisemgangathweni kwi-GIS nakwi-BIM, ezivumela usetyenziso ulwazi ngokuthembekileyo phakathi kwale mimandla mibini. Oko akuthethi ukuba kuyakubakho imodeli yolwazi enye, yokufaka zombini ulwazi lwe-GIS kunye ne-BIM. Umahluko mkhulu kakhulu kwindlela idatha ekufuneka isetyenziswe ngayo. Kodwa kufuneka siqiniseke ukuba sakha iteknoloji eguqukayo kunye nemigangatho, enokuziqhelanisa nokusetyenziswa kolwazi kuwo omabini amaqonga ngokuthembeka okuphezulu kunye nokugcinwa komxholo wolwazi.

IYunivesithi yaseKentucky ngomnye wabathengi bokuqala ukusinika ukufikelela kumxholo wabo woHlolo. I-UKy isebenzisa ukungqinisisa komzobo oqinisekileyo wokuqinisekisa ukuba idatha echanekileyo ikwidatha ye-BIM yokuxhasa umjikelo wobomi opheleleyo we-O & M.

Isishwankathelo

Utshintsho kwizixhobo zehardware kunye nesoftware, kunye nokufudukela kuluntu oluqhutywa ngedatha, kudala amathuba okudibanisa itekhnoloji eyahlukeneyo kunye nemimandla engazange ibekho ngaphambili. Ukudityaniswa kwedatha kunye nokuhamba komsebenzi nge-GIS kunye ne-BIM, kusivumela ukuba sifezekise ukusebenza ngokukuko, ukuzinza kunye nokuhlala kwezixeko, iikhampasi kunye neendawo zomsebenzi ezisingqongileyo.

Ukwenza inkqubela phambili kwezobuchwephesha, kufuneka sidale amaqela adibeneyo kunye nokusebenzisana, ukucebisa ngezisombululo kwiingxaki ezinzima ezichaphazela iinkqubo ezipheleleyo, hayi ukuhla kunye nokusebenza okungagungqiyo. Kufuneka kwakhona sitshintshe ngokusisiseko kwiipateni ezintsha zetekhnoloji, ezinokujongana nemicimbi yokudityaniswa ngakumbi kwaye ngokuguqukayo. Iipateni zokudityaniswa kwe-GIS kunye ne-BIM esiyamkelayo namhlanje kufuneka zibe "bubungqina bexesha elizayo" ukuze sikwazi ukusebenza kunye kwikamva elizinzileyo.

 

 

Impendulo eNye "kwiintsomi ezi-5 kunye nezinto eziyinyani ezi-5 zokuhlanganiswa kwe-BIM-GIS"

  1. Sawubona, kusasa ekuseni eSpeyin.
    Ukubonisa umdla.
    Ukuba kukho into ecacileyo kum, kukuba ikusasa elilindelekileyo lilindele, indlela egcwele imingeni namathuba, ngaphakathi kweGeomatics, apho iya kuba nekamva ekwaziyo ukuhamba phakathi kokutsha, umgangatho kunye nentsebenziswano.

Shiya impendulo

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

Le sayithi isebenzisa i-Akismet ukunciphisa ugaxekile. Funda indlela idatha yakho yokubhaliweyo isetyenziswe ngayo.