Inkonzo yeWebhu yamaphupha amadala phakathi kweyona ndawo ebalaseleyo yeMephu ye-Map 28-124

Kwimpapasho yayo yakutshanje i-volume 28 -ngenyanga kaMatshi no-Aprili 2019- Umagazini weMaphu ubeke njengomxholo ophakathi kwawo yonke into ehambelana neNgqungquthela ye-IX yase-Iberia kwiZakhiwo zoLwazi lweZithuba. Xa kukhethwa amanqaku asixhenxe ezenzululwazi, epapashwe kule ncwadi yokubaluleka kwintsimi ye-geoscience, ubuncinane izihloko ezine zivela, apho senza inkcazo emfutshane.

Yemephu incwadi technical-yenzululwazi kunye 28 iminyaka embalini ijolise nokusasazwa uphando, iiprojekthi kunye nomsebenzi owenziwa kwinkalo geomatics nayo enxulumene noku, kugxininiswa ngokukodwa isicelo entsimini zeNzululwazi zeMhlaba.

Ngengqiqo yomhleli wethu, iintetho ezikhethiweyo zilandelayo:

  • Inkonzo yamandulo yemephu yewebhu
  • Inkonzo yedata yeCandelo loLwazi lweMarine (i-UTM-CSIC),
  • Ukuphunyezwa komzekelo we-INSPIRE kwi-Diputación Foral de Álava
  • UKUQALA Ulawulo lweMigangatho kwi-metadata, idatha kunye neenkonzo: indlela yokusebenzisa iisethi zokuhlola ezingabonakaliyo nezifezekileyo.
  1. Inkonzo yewebhu ye-Old Maps

Ngenye yeengcaphephe zophando, ezathatha ingqalelo yethu nje ngokujonga kwesihloko; ibhalwe nguAlvaro Bachiller, Carolina Soteres, kunye nabanye abane abane-co-author. Isiseko sisithi kakhulu; ukwazi ikusasa kufuneka siyazi oko kwenzekayo ngaphambili, oko kusebenza ngokucacileyo kwiindawo zendawo.

Esi siqulunqo kokupapashwa iimephu ezindala - ebizwa La Cartoteca- waqalisa 2008, kwaye wenziwa kwenziwa CNIG - National Geographic Information Centre, ngokubambisene neSebe Territory National Geographic Institute kunye National Geographic Institute - IGN. Into enomdla kukuba amaziko achazwe ngasentla akwazi ukuqokelela inani elikhulu leenkcukacha zengingqi ukususela ngekhulu leshumi elinesihlanu ngeqela elenza iLathala yeThala leMathala.

"Iimephu zeembali zifaka isandla ekuboniseni i-morphologies, izakhiwo ezakhiwe ngaphambili kwinto eyaziwayo njengamanje, kwaye ivumela ukuba kuhlaziywe kancinci ukuhlalutya, ukuveliswa kwezinto eziye zaqhubeka kwaye ziya kuqhubeka zibe yindawo, kunye nelifa lemveli."

Uninzi lwa maxwebhu ancedo, kubandakanya imephu yamanani, iindawo eziphathekayo okanye iipartar mappingpographic maps, sele isenokuthintelwa ngumfundi wesidlangalaleni, oqeqeshiweyo okanye onobungcali. Oku ngasentla kubonakala ngumbono we-CNIG, ekunikezeni ngeeNkonzo zeMephu zeWebhu kwiimigaqo-nkqubo ze-WMS-ukukhonza njengendawo yokugcina le mali.

Kwi-WMS, unokufikelela kwiinkonzo ezininzi ezifana ne:

  • Iimitha zeekhilomitha - izicwangciso ze-cadastral topographic plans: nge-1: 2000. Le ngxelo yembali yaphakanyiswa phakathi kwe-1861 kunye ne-1870; yiBhodi YesiGaba soBalo -Ngcaciso-phambili kwi-IGN.
  • I-Planimetry: Lezi ziqendu ezibonisa izicwangciso zombhalo ezenziwe phakathi kwe-1870 kunye ne-1950, ngaphambi kokwakhiwa kwemephu yezobuhlanga kwi-1: isixa se-50.000.
  • Iimpapasho zokuqala zeeNgcaciso zeSizwe zeMatriki-MTN, eyenziwe phakathi kwemihla ye-1875 ne-1968. Le nkonzo iquka ezimbini iindidi zamaphepha eemifanekiso:
    • Imizuzu ye-MTN eyenziwe phakathi kwe-1915 ku-1960,
    • Uhlobo lokuqala lwe-MTN: luqulunqwe ngamaphepha e-4123, kwaye ludalwe ukusuka kwi-1975 ukuya ku-2003.

data Spatial isicelo kuzwelonke, nangona kunjalo, kwimeko imizi zobuchule kunye yimbali enkulu Madrid, kuba ikwazile ukwenza ulwazi oluninzi enxulumene kwaye banikela kwinkonzo web imephu efanayo - WMS. Ulwazi cartography kwimbali Madrid, yahluke gqitha ukusuka data ngasentla njengoko: moya Mancelli of Madrid, imephu ngesimo zaseKapa kunye neNkundla of Madrid moya Nicholas Chalmadrier, moya yejometri Madrid, moya IMadrid kunye nemephu yeMadrid

Kule nqaku, bachaza ezinye iinkonzo ezinxulumene neqonga le-CNIG yokukhuphela, njengombuzo we-orthophoto, kunye nobuchwephesha obusetyenziswe ukwenza le projekthi inokwenzeka ngeenkonzo ze-Orthophotography zembali. Le nkonzo inika iintlobo ezintandathu zeendlela zokusebenzisa abasebenzisi:

  • Iindiza ze-Amerika: Ii-B series (1956 NE1957),
  • Uhambo lokuhamba phakathi: imisebenzi yeCandelo eliPhezulu laseSpain phakathi kwe-1976 ne-1986,
  • Indiza yasekhaya: Isilinganiso se-1: 18.000 phakathi kwe-1981 ne-1983,
  • Uhambo lwe-OLISTAT: khuthazwa yiSebe lezoLimo, kumaphondo omnquma phakathi kwe-1997 ne-1998,
  • kunye ne-PNOA Iindwendwe: ihlanganisa yonke indawo kazwelonke ngokuphindaphindiweyo kweminyaka emithathu, kuphela idatha evela kwi-2004 ukuya kwi-2016 ifakiwe.

Ukongeza koku kungasentla, kwi indawo, uhlobo kunye nomhla nokudalwa ngeemveliso kuboniswe kuye njani na unyango lwe data, ukusukela, ulwazi lwendawo eyayiphila emva 100 kwiminyaka eyadlulayo, ufuna lokulungisa , ukuvavanya nokugcinwa kancinci ngakumbi kunokwedlula idatha yendawo yangoku. Umzekelo zolu nyango kukuba ezi iimephu ukuba uhlobo lwe data zasesekondari, yiya ngokusebenzisa inkqubo yedijithi yi photogrammetric ngobuchule kunye scans georeferenced, pp ngelo 400 kunye 254 abasakhasayo ngakumbi -kuba large- ngakumbi isikali pp , ukuze ugcine kuzo kwiinkonzo ze-CNIG, eziza kugqitywa ngokobukhulu bawo xa zithunyelwa kwi-WMS okanye iseva kwi-disk yangaphandle.

Kufuneka kwakhona kuthethwe ukuba ababhali baqaphele indlela ukuveliswa kweprojekthi ngokwayo kuyenziwe kwiminyaka yakutshanje, ukususela ekuvuleleni kwayo kuluntu, kubonisa izibalo ezibonisa: uhlobo lomncedisi, inani lokutyelela, inani lezicelo, ukulandwa (Gb) kunye namacwecwe abamba idatha.

  1. Inkonzo yedata yeCandelo loLwazi lweMarine (i-UTM-CSIC),

amandla okanye umgangatho ubushushu: Kolu phando, yi Juan Valderrama, Susana Tagarro, kunye nokuququzelela ababhali ezimbini, umsebenzi weyunithi Marine Technology elijonge imizimba ulwazi karhulumente malunga iindawo zolwandle njengoko kuchaziwe.

Le yunithi inomsebenzi onomdla, kuba kufuneka uqokelele kwaye uhlalutye idatha eqoqwe rhoqo kwiiyure ze-24, ngoko sinokucinga ukuba iguqulela kumqulu ophezulu wendalo eyahlukileyo ngenxa yomsebenzi oselwandle. Kule phando, kuyathakazelisa ukugqamisa umda wokusetyenziswa kwedatha eqokelelwe kwintsimi, elandelwayo, ihlaziywe kwaye idluliselwe kwibhunga lolawulo - uMphathiswa wezeNzululwazi, uLwazi kunye neYunivesithi.

Eli nqaku ukhankanya iziphumo yokudityaniswa kwe-Infrastructure data Marine lomhlaba iinqanawa zaselwandle ngamnye omnye izigaba ezifunekayo ukuphumeza oku kuvezwa, ezifana: ukumiselwa imisebenzi kukwenza ukuqokelela izixhobo, analysis and Escrow data (physico-imichiza, zebhayoloji, zokuma, okanye bezulu), ukwakhiwa metadata, izintlu, ukuphunyezwa kwe ikhathalogu amaphulo - abonisa uhlobo lwe data eziyimfuneko ukuze odala iimfuno software imveliso sosha (kule Icala le-Geonetwork case)

  1. Ukuphunyezwa komzekelo we-INSPIRE kwi-Diputación Foral de Álava

Le projekthi owadalwa Jorrín Abellán uzikhethele Diego Alonso, uhlobene ngqo lo mxholo uphambili phephancwadi le ncwadi, ukuze uqale esinika izizathu zokwenziwa ukubaluleka ukwakhiwa kunye nokuphunyezwa lweNdawo Neziseko Data - SDI ZOMELEZA uthathe umngeni wokudibanisa.

Baphinde bachaze iinkalo ezinjengeyiphi inkqubo yokuvumelanisa yeetekethi zedatha kuthetha ntoni, yintoni isixhobo esisetyenziswe kule nkqubo, zeziphi iimfuno eziye zixazululwe, izibonelelo zonke ezi zinto zihambelana.

  1. UKUQALA Ulawulo lweMigangatho kwi-metadata, idatha kunye neenkonzo: indlela yokusebenzisa iisethi zokuhlola ezingabonakaliyo nezifezekileyo

Enye yezihloko ezihambelana nesihloko sangaphambili, esibhalwe ngu-Alejandro Guinea de Salas noPaul Rodrigo. Oku kuqala ngokugxininisa indlela izikhokhelo zobugcisa ANOKUKHUTHAZA, ungakwazi linawo ulwazi esinexabiso ukuqinisekisa ukusebenzisana data kwaye kwakhona indlela oluyimfuneko eboniswe i data, layo kunye neenkqubo ezinxulumene ZOMELEZA ziyasebenza kakuhle kwaye zinempumelelo nge ukudalulwa.

Eli nqaku umdla kakhulu ukunika umfundi ufifi ukukhanya ukuba ukuqala njani ukusebenza ZOMELEZA, kuqalwa uqwalaselo ATS - ukuseta leemvavanyo abstract, ukhowudo iimfuno, nokuqhubeka kunye nabaprofeti - kwisethi yeemvavanyo ephunyeziweyo, iimvavanyo zophuhliso - Umgca wovavanyo, ukuCwangcisa okuVavanyo, kunye neCandelo eliPhezulu lokuVavanya, kunye neziphumo ezifunyenweyo.


Ukongezelela kokuphononongwa kwamanqaku apha ngentla, enye imisebenzi eli phephancwadi libonisa lo mqulu kubandakanya:

  • I-Valencian Toponymic ngokwempawu
  • I-Geolake Search (ikamva ye-IDE ekuphuculeni ikhathalogu yayo)
  • Kwiimeko zamagama aseburhulumenteni kwiiBalearic Islands: i-Nomenclátor de Toponymy yaseMenorca kunye neSizwe seSigameko seBalaaric Islands.

Njengokuqala, bhengeze i-Geobloggers kwisekondari yayo yesibili, eya kuqhutywa ngoJuni ka-2019; isiganeko sokuthi i-Geofumadas iya kuxhasa kwakhona -lo xesha kumntu-.


NgeMephu

Le magazini Imephu, Ingxelo yaseSpeyin kwiincwadi zenzululwazi. Ngeminyaka eyi-28 ekusasazeni umsebenzi kunye nophando kwimicimbi enxulumene nommandla we-geomatics, izibonelelo, ukuphathwa kwedatha ye-geospatial kunye nokuphuhliswa okukhulu okwenzeka kulo mongo.

"Ukususela kwi-2013, iqela lokuhlela elikhoyo lichaze iqhosha elitsha leqhinga le-MAPPING. Ukhethe ku gqwesa kunye udumo, Batyhola ukuba magazini yenye zokugcina inkulu kolwazi kunye neendaba shishino nekhonkco phakathi neenkampani zabucala, iiyunivesithi kunye arhente zikarhulumente ephuhlisa iiprojekthi, bafundise nokusasaza geomatics kunye izicelo zayo kwiindawo ezahlukileyo, nto eyenza up Sciences emhlabeni. "

Sincoma ukuba uye kwiwebhusayithi yephephancwadi Imephu, apho baya kuba nako ukufikelela kuzo zonke iimpapasho zabo.

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