Inkonzo yeWebhu yamaphupha amadala phakathi kweyona ndawo ebalaseleyo yeMephu ye-Map 28-124

Kwimpapasho yayo yakutshanje i-volume 28 -ngenyanga kaMatshi no-Aprili 2019- Umagazini weMaphu ubeke njengomxholo ophakathi kwawo yonke into ehambelana neNgqungquthela ye-IX yase-Iberia kwiZakhiwo zoLwazi lweZithuba. Xa kukhethwa amanqaku asixhenxe ezenzululwazi, epapashwe kule ncwadi yokubaluleka kwintsimi ye-geoscience, ubuncinane izihloko ezine zivela, apho senza inkcazo emfutshane.

Yemephu incwadi technical-yenzululwazi kunye 28 iminyaka embalini ijolise nokusasazwa uphando, iiprojekthi kunye nomsebenzi owenziwa kwinkalo geomatics nayo enxulumene noku, kugxininiswa ngokukodwa isicelo entsimini zeNzululwazi zeMhlaba.

Ngengqiqo yomhleli wethu, iintetho ezikhethiweyo zilandelayo:

  • Inkonzo yamandulo yemephu yewebhu
  • Inkonzo yedata yeCandelo loLwazi lweMarine (i-UTM-CSIC),
  • Ukuphunyezwa komzekelo we-INSPIRE kwi-Diputación Foral de Álava
  • UKUQALA Ulawulo lweMigangatho kwi-metadata, idatha kunye neenkonzo: indlela yokusebenzisa iisethi zokuhlola ezingabonakaliyo nezifezekileyo.
  1. Inkonzo yewebhu ye-Old Maps

Ngenye yeengcaphephe zophando, ezathatha ingqalelo yethu nje ngokujonga kwesihloko; ibhalwe nguAlvaro Bachiller, Carolina Soteres, kunye nabanye abane abane-co-author. Isiseko sisithi kakhulu; ukwazi ikusasa kufuneka siyazi oko kwenzekayo ngaphambili, oko kusebenza ngokucacileyo kwiindawo zendawo.

Le projekthi yokupapashwa kweemaphu zakudala- ezibizwa ngokuba yiLa Cartoteca - yaqala ukusukela ngo-2008, kwaye iqhutywa yi-CNIG - iZiko leLizwe leLwazi ngeNdawo, ngokubambisana neSebe leNzululwazi yeZiko lezeNdalo leLizwe kunye neZiko lezeNdawo leSizwe - IGN. Into enomdla kukuba amaziko sele ekhankanyiwe akwazi ukuqokelela isixa esikhulu solwazi lwembali yasemhlabeni ukusukela ngekhulu le-XNUMX ngenkulungwane yeqela esebenzisa iqela eleCarloteca.

"Iimephu zeembali zifaka isandla ekuboniseni i-morphologies, izakhiwo ezakhiwe ngaphambili kwinto eyaziwayo njengamanje, kwaye ivumela ukuba kuhlaziywe kancinci ukuhlalutya, ukuveliswa kwezinto eziye zaqhubeka kwaye ziya kuqhubeka zibe yindawo, kunye nelifa lemveli."

Uninzi lwala maxwebhu axabisekileyo, kubandakanya iimephu zabemi, iimephu ezingumxholo, okanye izicwangciso zobume bendawo, zinokubuzwa ngumfundi, ziingcali okanye kuluntu. Oku kungasentla kuhanjiswe yimeko ye-CNIG yokubonelela ngeeNkonzo zeMephu yeWebhu- kwiinkqubo zeWMS- ukusebenza njengendawo yokugcina eli nani likhulu ledatha.

Kwi-WMS, unokufikelela kwiinkonzo ezininzi ezifana ne:

  • Iimitha zeekhilomitha - izicwangciso ze-cadastral topographic plans: nge-1: 2000. Le ngxelo yembali yaphakanyiswa phakathi kwe-1861 kunye ne-1870; yiBhodi YesiGaba soBalo -Ngcaciso-phambili kwi-IGN.
  • I-Planimetry: Lezi ziqendu ezibonisa izicwangciso zombhalo ezenziwe phakathi kwe-1870 kunye ne-1950, ngaphambi kokwakhiwa kwemephu yezobuhlanga kwi-1: isixa se-50.000.
  • Iimpapasho zokuqala zeeNgcaciso zeSizwe zeMatriki-MTN, eyenziwe phakathi kwemihla ye-1875 ne-1968. Le nkonzo iquka ezimbini iindidi zamaphepha eemifanekiso:
    • Imizuzu ye-MTN eyenziwe phakathi kwe-1915 ku-1960,
    • Uhlobo lokuqala lwe-MTN: luqulunqwe ngamaphepha e-4123, kwaye ludalwe ukusuka kwi-1975 ukuya ku-2003.

Idatha yendawo isebenza kwinqanaba likazwelonke, nangona kunjalo, kwimeko yeedolophu ezinobuchule obukhulu kunye nembali ebalulekileyo njengeMadrid, isixa esikhulu solwazi olunxulumene nalo siye saqulunqwa kwaye senziwa kwinkonzo efanayo yeemephu zewebhu - iWMS. Ulwazi malunga nembali yeemephu zaseMadrid zahluke kakhulu kwezi sele zikhankanyiwe ngaphambili, kukho idatha enje: Isicwangciso seMancelli saseMadrid, isicwangciso sendawo yenkundla yaseVilla naseMadrid, icebo likaNicolás de Chalmadrier, isicwangciso sejiyometri saseMadrid, isicwangciso IMadrid kunye neMadrid imephu yemephu

Kule nqaku, bachaza ezinye iinkonzo ezinxulumene neqonga le-CNIG yokukhuphela, njengombuzo we-orthophoto, kunye nobuchwephesha obusetyenziswe ukwenza le projekthi inokwenzeka ngeenkonzo ze-Orthophotography zembali. Le nkonzo inika iintlobo ezintandathu zeendlela zokusebenzisa abasebenzisi:

  • Iindiza ze-Amerika: Ii-B series (1956 NE1957),
  • Uhambo lokuhamba phakathi: imisebenzi yeCandelo eliPhezulu laseSpain phakathi kwe-1976 ne-1986,
  • Indiza yasekhaya: Isilinganiso se-1: 18.000 phakathi kwe-1981 ne-1983,
  • Uhambo lwe-OLISTAT: khuthazwa yiSebe lezoLimo, kumaphondo omnquma phakathi kwe-1997 ne-1998,
  • kunye ne-PNOA Iindwendwe: ihlanganisa yonke indawo kazwelonke ngokuphindaphindiweyo kweminyaka emithathu, kuphela idatha evela kwi-2004 ukuya kwi-2016 ifakiwe.

Ukongeza koku kungasentla, kwi indawo, uhlobo kunye nomhla nokudalwa ngeemveliso kuboniswe kuye njani na unyango lwe data, ukusukela, ulwazi lwendawo eyayiphila emva 100 kwiminyaka eyadlulayo, ufuna lokulungisa , ukuvavanya nokugcinwa kancinci ngakumbi kunokwedlula idatha yendawo yangoku. Umzekelo zolu nyango kukuba ezi iimephu ukuba uhlobo lwe data zasesekondari, yiya ngokusebenzisa inkqubo yedijithi yi photogrammetric ngobuchule kunye scans georeferenced, pp ngelo 400 kunye 254 abasakhasayo ngakumbi -kuba large- ngakumbi isikali pp , ukuze ugcine kuzo kwiinkonzo ze-CNIG, eziza kugqitywa ngokobukhulu bawo xa zithunyelwa kwi-WMS okanye iseva kwi-disk yangaphandle.

Kufuneka kwakhona kuthethwe ukuba ababhali baqaphele indlela ukuveliswa kweprojekthi ngokwayo kuyenziwe kwiminyaka yakutshanje, ukususela ekuvuleleni kwayo kuluntu, kubonisa izibalo ezibonisa: uhlobo lomncedisi, inani lokutyelela, inani lezicelo, ukulandwa (Gb) kunye namacwecwe abamba idatha.

  1. Inkonzo yedata yeCandelo loLwazi lweMarine (i-UTM-CSIC),

amandla okanye umgangatho ubushushu: Kolu phando, yi Juan Valderrama, Susana Tagarro, kunye nokuququzelela ababhali ezimbini, umsebenzi weyunithi Marine Technology elijonge imizimba ulwazi karhulumente malunga iindawo zolwandle njengoko kuchaziwe.

Le yunithi inomsebenzi onomdla, kuba kufuneka uqokelele kwaye uhlalutye idatha eqoqwe rhoqo kwiiyure ze-24, ngoko sinokucinga ukuba iguqulela kumqulu ophezulu wendalo eyahlukileyo ngenxa yomsebenzi oselwandle. Kule phando, kuyathakazelisa ukugqamisa umda wokusetyenziswa kwedatha eqokelelwe kwintsimi, elandelwayo, ihlaziywe kwaye idluliselwe kwibhunga lolawulo - uMphathiswa wezeNzululwazi, uLwazi kunye neYunivesithi.

Inqaku likhankanya iimpembelelo zokudityaniswa kweZiseko zoLwazi zeSithuba saManzi zoLwandle kwiiNqanawa ze-Oceanographic, isigaba ngasinye esifunekayo ukufezekisa le njongo sibonisiwe, njengoku: ukumiselwa kobungcali obuza kwenza iqela lokuqokelela, Uhlalutyo kunye nokugcinwa kwedatha (i-physicochemical, i-biologists, i-geologists, okanye i-meteorologists), ukwakhiwa kwemethadatha, iirejista, ukuphunyezwa kwekhathalogu yemikhankaso-eya kubonisa uhlobo lweedatha eziyimfuneko ekuveliseni imveliso yokugqibela-, iimfuno zesoftware (kule Ityala leGeonetwork)

  1. Ukuphunyezwa komzekelo we-INSPIRE kwi-Diputación Foral de Álava

Le projekthi owadalwa Jorrín Abellán uzikhethele Diego Alonso, uhlobene ngqo lo mxholo uphambili phephancwadi le ncwadi, ukuze uqale esinika izizathu zokwenziwa ukubaluleka ukwakhiwa kunye nokuphunyezwa lweNdawo Neziseko Data - SDI ZOMELEZA uthathe umngeni wokudibanisa.

Baphinde bachaze iinkalo ezinjengeyiphi inkqubo yokuvumelanisa yeetekethi zedatha kuthetha ntoni, yintoni isixhobo esisetyenziswe kule nkqubo, zeziphi iimfuno eziye zixazululwe, izibonelelo zonke ezi zinto zihambelana.

  1. UKUQALA Ulawulo lweMigangatho kwi-metadata, idatha kunye neenkonzo: indlela yokusebenzisa iisethi zokuhlola ezingabonakaliyo nezifezekileyo

Enye yezihloko ezihambelana nesihloko sangaphambili, esibhalwe ngu-Alejandro Guinea de Salas noPaul Rodrigo. Oku kuqala ngokugxininisa indlela izikhokhelo zobugcisa ANOKUKHUTHAZA, ungakwazi linawo ulwazi esinexabiso ukuqinisekisa ukusebenzisana data kwaye kwakhona indlela oluyimfuneko eboniswe i data, layo kunye neenkqubo ezinxulumene ZOMELEZA ziyasebenza kakuhle kwaye zinempumelelo nge ukudalulwa.

Inqaku lingaphezulu kokunomdla ukunika umfundi umbono wokuba ungaqala njani ukusebenza nge-INSPIRE, eqala ngokumiselwa kwee-ATS - iiseti zovavanyo olungenakuthelekiswa nanto, ukubhala kwazo kunye neemfuno, ukuqhubeka ne-ETS - iiseti zovavanyo olunokwenzeka. iimvavanyo zophuhliso - Umgca wovavanyo, ukuCwangcisa okuVavanyo, kunye neCandelo eliPhezulu lokuVavanya, kunye neziphumo ezifunyenweyo.


Ukongezelela kokuphononongwa kwamanqaku apha ngentla, enye imisebenzi eli phephancwadi libonisa lo mqulu kubandakanya:

  • I-Valencian Toponymic ngokwempawu
  • I-Geolake Search (ikamva ye-IDE ekuphuculeni ikhathalogu yayo)
  • Kwiimeko zamagama aseburhulumenteni kwiiBalearic Islands: i-Nomenclátor de Toponymy yaseMenorca kunye neSizwe seSigameko seBalaaric Islands.

Njengokuqala, bhengeze i-Geobloggers kwisekondari yayo yesibili, eya kuqhutywa ngoJuni ka-2019; isiganeko sokuthi i-Geofumadas iya kuxhasa kwakhona -lo xesha kumntu-.


NgeMephu

Le magazini Imephu, Isalathiso seSpanishi kupapasho lwenzululwazi. Ngeminyaka engama-28 kusasazwa imisebenzi kunye nophando kwimiba enxulumene nendawo ye-geomatics, iziseko zophuhliso, ulawulo lwedatha ye-geospatial kunye nophuhliso olubalulekileyo olwenzeka kule meko.

 Ukusukela ngo-2013, iqela labahleli elichazayo sele lichaze umgaqo omtsha we-MAPPING. Kukhethiwe ku gqwesa kunye udumoUkwenza ngathi imagazini yenye yezona ndawo zokugcina ulwazi kunye neendaba kwicandelo kunye nokunxibelelana phakathi kweenkampani zabucala, iiyunivesithi kunye nemibutho yoluntu ephuhlisa iiprojekthi, efundisa kwaye isasaza iGeomatics kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo ezenza iiSayensi ze Umhlaba."

Sincoma ukuba uye kwiwebhusayithi yephephancwadi Imephu, apho baya kuba nako ukufikelela kuzo zonke iimpapasho zabo.

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