Umzekelo Domain of Management Land - Case Colombia

Ukulawulwa kweMhlaba, ngoku, enye yeengxaki eziphambili zamazwe. Akusilo elitsha, kuba umsebenzi walo ungaphezu kokucacileyo kumanqaku aphambili omgaqo-siseko kunye nemithetho eyahlukileyo elawula ubudlelwane babantu abahlala kunye nezibonelelo zoluntu kunye nezizimeleyo zesizwe. Noko ke, kukho intsingiselo kwamanye amazwe ukuba kusekwe izixokelelwano yelizwe ukubethelela umgaqo-nkqubo wesizwe ukuba basebenzisa ngoku ezifundisa technologies, iimfuneko jikelele kwaye ke nemfuno yabantu yokufaneleka iinkonzo zoluntu.

Ukusuka kumthombo olungileyo ndixelelwe ukuba iColombia njengamanje iyinkqubo yokwamkela i-ISO 19152, eyaziwayo Ulawulo lweZakhiwo zoLwazi lweMhlaba. Le LADM ngaphandle kokuba ukusebenza eqhelekileyo ehlabathini, kusisiphumo abavumelana leengcali ezininzi kulawulo lwepropati, livela izifundo zendlela ukwenza amazwe ahlukeneyo ngenxa yolo miselo 1998 uthe ukutshintshwa yamacandelo e-cadastre aqhelekileyo ekusebenziseni imodeli. Esi sisizathu esingundoqo sokuba kutheni LADM azinakho ukutyeshelwa yi iingcali inxaxheba geosciences yaye kwimeko Colombia njengoko kulindelekile, kuba kubonakala ngokwako isisombululo, kodwa ngokombono i-semantics yendawo, njengomququzeleli wokuphunyezwa komgaqo-nkqubo kazwelonke wokulawulwa kungekuphela kwamalungelo omhlaba kodwa ngokubanzi kwimpahla eyahlukeneyo yesizwe.

multiproposito cadastre

Ndiyathetha imeko yaseColombia, kuba siya kufuneka sigcine iso kwiinkqubela zayo, njengento ebonisa umdla onomdla oza kubonakala ngokugqithiseleyo ngaphaya komxholo waseLatin America. Kwisigaba sokuqala esiqalile kwi-semester yesibili ye-2015, kungekhona nje umngeni wokulungelelanisa amaziko ahlukeneyo ahambelana nokulawulwa kwezinto eziphathekayo kunye nezinto ezingabonakaliyo zohlanga oluye lwaboniswa; Ubunkokeli obubonakalayo kunye nokukhula ukuba amaziko afana ne-Agustín Codazzi Institute, i-Superintendency of Notaries kunye neRejistri kunye nempembelelo yentsebenziswano yamazwe ngamazwe efuna ukuphucula iimeko ezilungileyo ziya kukhanya.

Geofumar e LADM ibonakala isigqibo olumkileyo, njengoko kukho imingeni izicwangciso eziqhelekileyo emgangathweni izenzo imizimba ezifana neNkqubo ukuba ngokusesikweni Property Rural Unit kwemihlaba, Colombian Institute for Rural Development INCODER kunye cadastre ngokusemthethweni ukuba ngamanye amaxesha ndicinga ukuba kuneemeko ezingcono kunomzekelo wesizwe ngaphambi kokuba kulungele ukulungelelanisa utshintsho.

Iintlobo zamazwe ngamazwe ekulawuleni umhlaba.

Ndimele ndiqiniseke ukuba uLawulo lweMhlaba aluyiyo isayensi engaziwayo ininzi lwabaqeqeshi kwiCadastre-Register-Territorial Planning section; Kuya kuba mtsha ukuqonda imodeli ye-UML apho umgangatho we-LADM unikezwa kunye nendlela yokwenza ukuba ube yinkqubo yesikhungo esele ikhona kwaye ngaphambi kokuba isebenzise iiplani zobuchwepheshe. Ngoko ke, ukuba ngokufezekisa oku nqaku, ndayihlangula ixabiso lweentsingiselo ayibuyiseki umva kulawulo lizwe zanikezelwa yocweyo kwesigaba yangoku yaye kunzima amazwana verging esesiphelweni ezicacileyo kodwa oko kubonisa imingeni ephambili yenkqubo yeColombia.

ladmy

La ku lawulwa iinkqubo zokuhlaziywa kolwazi, ukusuka kumanqanaba aphakathi koorhulumente basekuhlaleni, ukusuka kwindlela yokuphendula ingxelo ngokubhekiselele kwi-cadastre yezemali kodwa nayo isemthethweni.

  • Ukufakwa iinkqubo zokuthenga apho ulwalamano lwentsebenziswano phakathi kwamaqela anomdla lulawulwa, kubandakanywa noorhulumente kwizinto ezimela amalungelo oluntu. Into ebangelisayo yolu hlobo kukuba i-centralization ayifuni ukuxhaswa kwamanye amazwe, ekubeni iyazaliswa yindlela yokuqala, apho abaqhubi beentengiselwano ngabarhulumente basekhaya, imibutho yabucala kunye nabantu ngabanye; kodwa usebenza inkqubo zolawulo lwelizwe.
  • Ukusetyenziswa yolwazi ngembali kwedatha yezolawulo kunye nejeyometri, ulungiselele zombini ukugcinwa kwemithombo yombhalo kunye nokushicilelwa kwendawo. Oku akuthethi kuphela ukwenza uphando lwendawo okanye izicwangciso zocwangciso, kodwa nokubonisa umzekelo wokukhishwa kwayo ukuze kube nokusebenza kwipropati yangempela kunye nokubhekiselele kwenguqu yalo yangoku.
  • Ukusetyenziswa imodeli echanekileyo yedatha ngokuzimela ngaphandle kweeteknoloji zobuchwepheshe, ukwamukela imilinganiselo eqikelela ukuba imodeli enengqiqo evela kuyo imodeli yomzimba kunye neenkqubo; kungakhathaliseki ukuba isetyenzisiweyo okanye isofthiwe esiluncedo isetyenziswa.
  • I-Architecture ejoliswe kwiimodeli, ezaziwa ngesiNgesi njenge-MDA (Uyilo lokwakha udidi). Ayikho into elula, ngenxa yokukhawuleza kwintsebenziswano yoluntu ukunyusa idatha kunye nomngcipheko wokufa ngexesha ngaphandle kokunqoba kwangaphambili oko kuthethwa ngeendleko zokutshintsha ingqondo.
  • Ukuhlanganiswa kwamalungelo omhlaba, ukusetyenziswa komhlaba kunye nokucwangciswa kwemimandla, okulula kwibudlelwane Isihloko-Isihloko-sokunene, kodwa kwandiswa kwisikimu esivumela ukuba sibone ubudlelwane bamalungelo ngaphaya komthetho ocacileyo ngokucacileyo kwaye unokusebenza kwipropati ebonakalayo kunye nengenakwenzeka.
  • Umbono weCadastre kwi-optics umjikelo wobomiIsibophelelo ukucinga malunga 3D, ukuba nangona kungekho mephu yoboniso okungxamisekileyo ekungakwazini ukuba zigqibezele coverage 2D kufuneka kwakhiwa kude kwinqanaba yolawulo ukungxamiseka ezisezidolophini kwempahla oxwesileyo kunye nemfuneko ukuba ukulungele i-4D, kungekhona nje kuphela BIM optics kodwa kuba ulwalamano ngexesha luhlala kuphela ngokuzenzekelayo.
  • Ukuqhelaniswa lula kwaye kulula ukusebenzisa, Okutsho decriminalize Bank yeHlabathi esicetywayo ukuba bazalise ilizwe ihlabathi kwixesha elifutshane usebenzisa puntoparcela njengoko isiseko engxamisekileyo kodwa ezihlangeneyo sokubhaliswa kwamalungelo obunini, relegating ngqo xa sinalo ixesha -nesilivere-. Ngaloo ndlela sinokuqonda ukuba lonke ihlabathi lenze isitayela se-OpenCadastreMap.
  • La ukudibanisa ngezifundo ezahlukeneyo lwabantu abadibaniswa nokulawulwa komhlaba, elowo wenza into yakhe, kwindlela yakhe, kodwa ukuphindaphinda kwimodeli yokutshintshisiswa kwedatha phantsi kwemigangatho yokusebenzisana. Kakade ke, oku kuthetha ukungaboni iteknoloji njengesiphelo ngokwaso kodwa njengendlela yokufezekisa injongo echongiweyo; Kubandakanyeka ngokuthe ngcembe ukongeza abadlali, ukuphepha ukugxothwa kwamava ochwepheshe ngenxa yokungahambelani neteknoloji, kodwa nokuphucula umthombo wolutsha ukuba ulungele ukuthatha indlela eya kuthatha iminyaka emininzi.
  • Umngeni weColombia kunye neLADM

Mna ndicebisa njenge mpathombi engqondweni isicelo jikelele, banikela ukulandela oko aya Colombia, ukuba ukunyaniseka engenako kube lula, kodwa kwezopolitiko nokuzingisa awuyi iinjongo eliphezulu uhlanga ekhuselekileyo ziya kwazi ukuba ukuthatha amathuba ngoku zivele -ukuba bangathanda ukuba namanye amazwe- phakathi kwalabo abancinciweyo:

  • ladmhUkufakwa lungelo loluntu njengengxelo ebonisa ubutyebi bebalaphu kwaye iguqula ibe ngamalungelo, izithintelo kunye noxanduva lwamaqela karhulumente kunye namaqela abucala.
  • Ukuphuhliswa kweeprojekthi zokulinga i-cadastre eninzi, phantsi kombono wokulula kwefayili ye-cadastral ngokunikezela uxanduva lokuhlaziya idatha.
  • Ulungelelaniso lwe I-node yokuLawula umhlaba ngaphakathi kweColombia Infrastructure Data Spatial Data ICDE, njengomzekelo ohamba ngaphaya kokunikezelwa kwee-geoportals zedata echanekileyo.
  • Ukuhlaziywa kweendlela ezilula ukwenza izenzo zoorhulumente basekhaya kunye nokuxhomekeke kwimigaqo-nkqubo ephambili, ngokukodwa ngokuphathelele uhlolo lweeastastral, kodwa kunye nokuvuleka kwindlela zokuhlola, ukwenza lula "kuhle»Yobunzima kunye nokuchaneka ngenxa yobungakanani obude bokugcina idatha ehlaziyiweyo.
  • Ukunyaniseka imfazwe kunye ne-polygon, phambi kwimeko engenakukhusela yelizwe ekusebenziseni i-ESRI phantse njengenguqulo ye-geomatic ye-God kunye nenkani yokubhema kwe-ISO-19152 ukuze kugcinwe i-arc-node njengendlela yokuqala yokuchaza yonke indawo.
  • Ukuhlanganiswa Cadastre no bhaliso kwinkqubo enye yokuthengiselana, apho kunokwenzeka ukuba angaboni kuphela umntu ongowomntu / osemthethweni / woluntu kodwa kunye namalungelo adibeneyo kwipropati yangempela, iJometri kunye neentlawulo zomthetho nezokulawula. Lo mngeni, ngaphaya kweenguqu zenkampani -engxamisekileyo- Kubonisa ukuguqulwa kwengqondo kumbono wehlabathi weeRejista, njengemfanelo yombuso, ngaphaya kokungenelela kwangxamisekileyo kweeprojekthi ezinenjongo enhle kodwa ngenjongo yokuguqula kwimigaqo-karhulumente yomdla wesizwe.
  • Ukubonakala kwamanye amazwe LADM wanyuka kwiinkcukacha zezinto ezenziwa ngabantu baseColombia iminyaka emininzi.
  • ladmcol6

Uluhlu lwezinqweno alupheliyo kwaye lulona lungileyo, nangona lukho. Kodwa loo mvakalelo yenzeke nakubani na owenza iminyaka eyi-14 eyadlulayo xa umcebisi wakhe wamnika amaxwebhu amabini aya kutshintsha indlela yakhe yokubona ihlabathi; ingakumbi ukuba la maxwebhu ayilwayo yeCadastral Proposal 2014 ye-FIG kunye ne-abrit of Chrit Lemmen «Ikhowudi yeCadastral Domain Model«.

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