Imodeli yoLawulo lweNdawo yoMhlaba-Kwimeko yaseColombia

Ulawulo loMhlaba ngoku yeyona mingeni iphambili kumazwe. Ayisiyo intshisekelo entsha, kuba umsebenzi wayo ungaphezulu kokucacileyo kumanqaku aphambili omgaqo-siseko kunye nemithetho eyahlukeneyo elawula ubudlelwane babemi noluntu kunye nezixhobo ezizimeleyo zesizwe. Nangona kunjalo, kukho umkhwa wamanye amazwe wokusekwa kweenkqubo zikazwelonke eziqinisa umgaqo-nkqubo wesizwe apho uza kuzuza khona izibonelelo ezinikezelwa ziitekhnoloji ngoku, iimfuno zokudityaniswa kwehlabathi kunye nemfuno yabemi ukuze usebenze iinkonzo zoluntu.

Ukusuka kumthombo olungileyo ndixelelwe ukuba iColombia njengamanje iyinkqubo yokwamkela i-ISO 19152, eyaziwayo Ulawulo lweZakhiwo zoLwazi lweMhlaba. I-LADM, ingaphaya komgangatho wokusetyenziswa kwehlabathi, sisiphumo semvumelwano yeengcali ezininzi kulawulo lwepropathi, ethathwe kufundo lwendlela amazwe awahlukeneyo ehlabathi ayenza ngayo ngenxa yesibhengezo sika-1998 esithandazela ukutshintshwa yezikim ze-cadastre schemes ngokusetyenziswa kweemodeli. Esi sesona sizathu siphambili sokuba i-LADM ingenakuhoywa ziingcali ezinxulunyaniswe nesayensi yomhlaba kwaye kwimeko yeColombia, njengoko kulindelwe, ayibonwa njengesisombululo ngokwayo, kodwa ngokwembono izithuba zemihlaba, njengomququzeleli wokuphunyezwa komgaqo-nkqubo wesizwe wokulawulwa kungekuphela kwamalungelo omhlaba kodwa ngokubanzi kwiiasethi ezahlukeneyo zesizwe.

multiproposito cadastre

Ndikhankanya imeko yaseColombia, kuba kuya kufuneka siyazi inkqubela yayo, njengomthambo onomdla ongathandabuzekiyo oza kubonakala ngaphaya komxholo weLatin American. Kwisigaba sokuqala esiqale kwisiqingatha sesibini sonyaka wama-2015, ayibonakali kuphela imingeni yokulungelelanisa amaziko ahlukeneyo ahambelana nolawulo lwempahla yesizwe ephathekayo nengaphathekiyo; Ikwaqaqambisa ubunkokheli obubonakalayo kunye nokukhula okufunyanwa ngamaziko afana ne-Agustín Codazzi Institute, i-Superintendency of Notaries kunye neRegistry kunye nefuthe lentsebenziswano yamazwe aphela efuna ukwenza iinkqubo ezilungileyo kwilizwe liphela.

Geofumar e LADM ibonakala isigqibo olumkileyo, njengoko kukho imingeni izicwangciso eziqhelekileyo emgangathweni izenzo imizimba ezifana neNkqubo ukuba ngokusesikweni Property Rural Unit kwemihlaba, Colombian Institute for Rural Development INCODER kunye cadastre ngokusemthethweni ukuba ngamanye amaxesha ndicinga ukuba kuneemeko ezingcono kunomzekelo wesizwe ngaphambi kokuba kulungele ukulungelelanisa utshintsho.

Iintlobo zamazwe ngamazwe ekulawuleni umhlaba.

Ndimele ndinyanzelise ukuba uLawulo loMhlaba asiyonzululwazi engaziwayo kuninzi lweengcali kwicandelo loBhaliso loMhlaba-loBhaliso-loMhlaba woLawulo; Iya kuba yinoveli ukuqonda iimodeli ze-UML apho umgangatho we-LADM unikezelwe kunye nendlela yokuziqhelanisa nesikimu seziko esele likho nasebusweni bamaqonga ezobuchwepheshe asebenzayo. Ke, ukugcwalisa eli nqaku, ndihlangula ixabiso lezinto ezingenakuphinda zenziwe kuLawulo loMhlaba eziye zenziwa kwenye yeendibano zocweyo zesigaba sangoku kwaye malunga nokuba andinakukwazi ukuphawula ngalo mda usecaleni kwento ecacileyo. kodwa zimele eyona miceli mngeni kwinkqubo yaseColombia.

ladmy

La ku lawulwa iinkqubo zokuhlaziywa kolwazi, ukusuka kumanqanaba aphakathi koorhulumente basekuhlaleni, ukusuka kwindlela yokuphendula ingxelo ngokubhekiselele kwi-cadastre yezemali kodwa nayo isemthethweni.

  • Ukufakwa iinkqubo zokuthenga ekuthi ngawo kulawulwe ukusebenza kobudlelwane beengqesho phakathi kwamaqela anomdla, kubandakanya urhulumente kwizinto ezimele amalungelo oluntu. Umba onomdla wale meko kukuba ukubeka embindini akuthethi ukulawulwa ngakumbi, kuba iyancediswa yindlela yokuqala, apho abaqhubi bezentengiselwano bangoorhulumente bengingqi, amaziko abucala nabantu; kodwa kusebenza kwi inkqubo zolawulo lwelizwe.
  • Ukusetyenziswa yolwazi ngembali yedatha yolawulo neyejometri, ezimodareyithweyo kugcino lwemithombo yamaxwebhu nakwinguqulelo lomhlaba. Oku akuthethi nje ukwenza uphando lwendawo okanye izicwangciso zokucwangcisa, kodwa kukwayekelisa ukukhutshwa kwayo ngenjongo yokusebenziseka kwezindlu kunye nokubhekisa kuhlobo lwayo lwangoku.
  • Ukusetyenziswa imodeli echanekileyo yedatha ngokuzimela ngaphandle kweeteknoloji zobuchwepheshe, ukwamukela imilinganiselo eqikelela ukuba imodeli enengqiqo evela kuyo imodeli yomzimba kunye neenkqubo; kungakhathaliseki ukuba isetyenzisiweyo okanye isofthiwe esiluncedo isetyenziswa.
  • I-Architecture ejoliswe kwiimodeli, ezaziwa ngesiNgesi njenge-MDA (Uyilo lokwakha udidi). Ayisiyonto ilula, ngenxa yokungxamiseka konxibelelwano lomntu lokondla idatha kunye nomngcipheko wokufa ngexesha ngaphandle kokuphumelela kwangoko okuqinisekisa iindleko zokutshintsha ingqondo.
  • Ukuhlanganiswa kwamalungelo omhlaba, ukusetyenziswa komhlaba kunye nokucwangciswa kwemimandla, okulula kwibudlelwane Isihloko-Isihloko-sokunene, kodwa kwandiswa kwisikimu esivumela ukuba sibone ubudlelwane bamalungelo ngaphaya komthetho ocacileyo ngokucacileyo kwaye unokusebenza kwipropati ebonakalayo kunye nengenakwenzeka.
  • Jonga iCadastre ngokwembono ye umjikelo wobomi, noxanduva lokucinga malunga ne-3D, ethi nangona ingekuko ukungxamiseka kokubona ngenxa yokungakwazi ukugqibezela i-2D, kufuneka ibandakanywe kwinqanaba lolawulo ngenxa yongxamiseko lwedolophu lwepropathi ethe tye kunye nemfuneko yokulungela 4D, ayisiyiyo kuphela evela kwi BIM optics kodwa kuba ulwalamano ngexesha luhlala kuphela ngokuzenzekelayo.
  • Ukuqhelaniswa lula kwaye kulula ukusebenzisa, okuchaza ukuhlambalaza isiluleko seBhanki yehlabathi ukugqiba i-cadastre yehlabathi ngexesha elifutshane usebenzisa i-plot-plot njengento esiphuthumayo kodwa edibaniseneyo kwirejistri yepropati, ngokuchaneka xa sikhona ixesha -nesilivere-. Okwangoku sinokuthi siqaphele ukuba ilizwe liphela sele liyenzile yonke isitayile se-OpenCadastreMap.
  • La ukudibanisa ngezifundo ezahlukeneyo yabantu abanxulumene nolawulo lomhlaba, elowo esenza into yakhe, kwinkqubo yakhe, kodwa ephindaphinda kwimodeli yokutshintshiselana ngedatha phantsi kwemigangatho yokusebenzisana. Ewe kunjalo, oku kuthetha ukungayiboni itekhnoloji njengesiphelo kuyo kodwa njengendlela yokufezekisa injongo echongiweyo; Kuthetha ukongeza abadlali ngokuthe ngcembe, ukunqanda ukulahla iingcali ezinamava ngenxa yokungahambelani kwabo netekhnoloji, kodwa nokuxhobisa abantu abatsha ukuba bakulungele ukuthatha indlela eya kuthi ngokuqinisekileyo ithathe iminyaka eliqela.
  • Umngeni weColombia kunye neLADM

Ndincoma njengendlela yokusebenza kwengqondo yesicelo jikelele, ukulandela oko uKolombia iya kwenza, ukuba ukunyaniseka akulula, kodwa ngokuthanda kwezopolitiko kunye nokuphikelela kwiinjongo eziphezulu zesizwe esikhuselekileyo kuya kukwazi ukusebenzisa amaninzi ngoku zivele -ukuba bangathanda ukuba namanye amazwe- phakathi kwalabo abancinciweyo:

  • ladmhUkufakwa lungelo loluntu njengengxelo ebonisa ubutyebi bebalaphu kwaye iguqula ibe ngamalungelo, izithintelo kunye noxanduva lwamaqela karhulumente kunye namaqela abucala.
  • Ukuphuhliswa kweeprojekthi zokulinga i-cadastre eninzi, phantsi kombono wokulula kwefayili ye-cadastral ngokunikezela uxanduva lokuhlaziya idatha.
  • Ulungelelaniso lwe I-node yokuLawula umhlaba ngaphakathi kweColombia Infrastructure Data Spatial Data ICDE, njengomzekelo ohamba ngaphaya kokunikezelwa kwee-geoportals zedata echanekileyo.
  • Ukuhlaziywa kweendlela ezilula ukwenza izenzo zoorhulumente basekhaya kunye nokuxhomekeke kwimigaqo-nkqubo ephambili, ngokukodwa ngokuphathelele uhlolo lweeastastral, kodwa kunye nokuvuleka kwindlela zokuhlola, ukwenza lula "kuhle»Yobunzima kunye nokuchaneka ngenxa yobungakanani obude bokugcina idatha ehlaziyiweyo.
  • Ukunyaniseka imfazwe kunye ne-polygon, phambi kwimeko engenakukhusela yelizwe ekusebenziseni i-ESRI phantse njengenguqulo ye-geomatic ye-God kunye nenkani yokubhema kwe-ISO-19152 ukuze kugcinwe i-arc-node njengendlela yokuqala yokuchaza yonke indawo.
  • Ukuhlanganiswa Cadastre no bhaliso kwinkqubo eyodwa yentengiselwano, apho kunokwenzeka ukuba ungaboni kungekuphela nje umntu wendalo / osemthethweni / woluntu kodwa kunye namalungelo ahlanganisiweyo kwimiba yepropathi yokwenyani, ijiyometri yayo kunye neentlawulo zomthetho nezolawulo. Lo mngeni, ngaphaya kwenguqu yeziko-engxamisekileyo- Kubonisa ukuguqulwa kwengqondo kumbono wehlabathi weeRejista, njengemfanelo yombuso, ngaphaya kokungenelela kwangxamisekileyo kweeprojekthi ezinenjongo enhle kodwa ngenjongo yokuguqula kwimigaqo-karhulumente yomdla wesizwe.
  • Ukubonakala kwamanye amazwe LADM wanyuka kwiinkcukacha zezinto ezenziwa ngabantu baseColombia iminyaka emininzi.
  • ladmcol6

Uluhlu lweminqweno alunasiphelo kwaye ngendlela elungileyo, nokuba ungakanani. Kodwa le mvakalelo inye yenzekile nakubani na kwiminyaka eli-14 eyadlulayo xa umcebisi wakhe wamnika amaxwebhu amabini azakube etshintshe indlela yakhe yokubona umhlaba; ngakumbi ukuba la maxwebhu ayidrafti yeSindululo seCatastro 2014 se-FIG kunye ne-abstract yeChrit Lemmen «Ikhowudi yeCadastral Domain Model«.

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