Ukuchaza kwakhona uMxholo we-Geo -unjineli

Siphila okomzuzwana ekhethekileyo ekuvumelaneni kwezoluleko ezahlulwe kangangeminyaka. Ukuphononongwa, uyilo loyilo, umzobo womgca, uyilo lolwakhiwo, ucwangciso, ukwakhiwa, ukuthengisa. Ukunika umzekelo wento ebeqhele ukuhamba; ilayini elula, iterative kwaye kunzima ukulawula iiprojekthi ngokuxhomekeke kubungakanani beeprojekthi.

Namhlanje, okumangalisayo kukuba sidibanise ukuhamba phakathi kwezifundo zokuba, ngaphaya kwetekhnoloji yolawulo lwedatha, iinkqubo zokwabelana. Into yokuba kunzima ukufumanisa apho umsebenzi uphela khona kwaye ngowomnye uqala; apho ukuhanjiswa kolwazi kuphela khona, xa uhlobo lwemodeli lufa, xa iprojekthi iyakupheliswa.

Ubunjineli be-Geo: sifuna ikota entsha.

Ukuba ibizokubhaptiza eli nqanaba leenkqubo, ezisuka ekubambeni ulwazi oluyimfuneko leprojekthi kwimeko yobume bendalo ukuyifaka ekusebenzeni ukulungiselela oko ibicacisiwe, siya kuba nesibindi sokuyibiza Geo-yobunjineli. Nangona eli gama belikwiimeko ezithile ezinxulumene nesayensi ethile yomhlaba, ngokuqinisekileyo asikho kwixesha lokuhlonipha iindibano; ngaphezulu ukuba sijonga ukuba indawo ye-geo-yaba yinto ephambili kuwo onke amashishini, kwanombono we Amanqanaba e-BIM Isinyanzela ukuba sicinge ukuba ubungakanani boLwakhiwo, uBunjineli noKwakha (i-AEC) buya kusilela xa sijonga umda wenqanaba elilandelayo elilelokuSebenza. Ukucinga malunga nesithuba esibanzi kufuna ukuba kuthathelwe ingqalelo impembelelo yangoku yokwenza kwedijithali yeenkqubo, ezigqume kakhulu kulwakhiwo lwezibonelelo kunye nokwanda kumashishini angahlali enomzobo obonakalayo, ongadityaniswanga kuphela phakathi- Ukusebenza ngokulandelelana kwedatha kodwa ngokufana kunye nokudityaniswa kweenkqubo.

Ngolu shicilelo Kwimagazini samkele igama elithi Geo -unjineli.

Ubungakanani bengqondo ye-Geo-engineering.

Ixesha elide, iiprojekthi zibonwe kumanqanaba awohlukeneyo njengeziphelo eziphakathi. Namhlanje, siphila kumzuzu apho, kwelinye icala, ulwazi luyimali yokutshintshiselana ukusuka ekubanjweni kwayo ukuya kwinqanaba lokulahla; kodwa kunye nokusebenza ngokufezekileyo kuhambelana nalo mxholo ukuguqula okubonelelwa ngedatha kube yimpahla enakho ukuvelisa ukusebenza ngokukuko kunye neephothifoliyo ecaleni kweemfuno zentengiso.

Sithetha ke ngetekhonkco eliqulathwe ngawona mabali aphambili ongeze ixabiso kwizenzo zomntu kwi-macroprocess leyo, ngaphaya kokuba yinto yeenjineli, yinto yabantu abashishini.

Inkqubo yenkqubo - Ipateni leyo -kudala-Ukutshintsha esikwenzayo.

Ukuba siza kuthetha ngeenkqubo, kuya kufuneka sithethe malunga nexabiso lentengo, senziwe lula ngokuxhomekeka kumsebenzisi wokugqibela, wezinto ezintsha kunye nokukhangela ukusebenza kakuhle ukwenza utyalomali lube nengeniso.

Inkqubo esekwe kulawulo loLwazi. Uninzi lweenzame zokuqala zika-1980, ngokufika kweekhompyuter, yayikukulawula kakuhle ulwazi. Kwelinye icala, bekufuneka ukuba kuncitshiswe ukusetyenziswa kweefomathi zomzimba kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezibonelelo zekhompyutha ukubala okuntsonkothileyo; ngenxa yoko, i-CAD ekuqaleni ayitsho ukuba itshintshe iinkqubo kodwa ibakhokelela kulawulo lwedijithali. Qhubeka nokwenza phantse okufanayo, uqulethe ulwazi olufanayo, uthathe ithuba lokuba i-media ngoku ingasetyenziswa kwakhona. Umyalelo wokuphinda ungene endaweni yomgaqo wokulingana, i-ortho-snap isikwere ye-90 degrees, isangqa ikhampasi, isiphelo esichanekileyo sokucoca itemplate kwaye ngokulandelelanayo senze ukutsiba ukuba ngokunyaniseka kwakungekho lula okanye kuncinci, ucinga nje malunga Uncedo lomaleko oluya kubandakanya ukulandela umkhondo wenqwelomoya wokwakha ukuze kusetyenzwe iindiza ezakhiweyo okanye ezinobushushu. Kodwa ixesha lafika apho i-CAD izalisekisile injongo yayo yomibini imilinganiselo; iye yanzima ngakumbi kumacandelo anqamlezayo, ama-facade kunye ne-pseudo-ezintathu-dimensional deployments; Le yindlela yokuxeliswa kwe-3D ngaphambi kokuba siyibize ngokuba yiBIM, ukwenza lula ezi nkqubo kunye nokutshintsha uninzi lwento esiyenzileyo kwi-2D CAD.

... ewe, ulawulo lwe-3D ngelo xesha lagqitywa ekuhanjisweni kwe-static okwathi kwafikelelwa kuye nokunyamezelwa kwezixhobo ezinqongopheleyo zezixhobo hayi imibala yombala.

Ababoneleli abakhulu besoftware ye-AEC babeguqula imisebenzi yabo ngokuhambelana nezi zinto zibalulekileyo, ezinento yokwenza nokukwazi ukusebenza kwe-Hardware kunye nokwamkelwa komsebenzisi. Kude kufike ixesha lokuba olu lawulo lolwazi lungonelanga, ngaphaya kokuthumela iifomati, ukunxibelelanisa idatha yenkosi kunye nokudityaniswa kochaphazeleko kuchatshazelwe yile meko yembali yokusebenza ngokusekwe kumasebe.

Imbali encinci. Nangona kwicandelo lobunjineli bemizi-mveliso ukukhangela ukusebenza kakuhle kunembali engakumbi, ukwamkelwa kwezobuchwephesha koLawulo lweeNkqubo eziSebenzayo kwimeko ye-AEC kwakungu mva kwaye kusekwe kwimisebenzi indawo namhlanje ekunzima ukuyilinganisa ngaphandle kokuba sithathe inxaxheba kula maxesha. Amanyathelo amaninzi avela kwiminyaka engamashumi asixhenxe, thatha amandla kwi-eighties ngokufika komntu kwikhompyutha enokubakho kwidesika nganye, yongeza kwisakhelo esincediswa yikhompyuter isakhono sedatha, imifanekiso emibi, uthungelwano lwangaphakathi lwe-LAN kunye nokwenzeka koku Dibanisa uqeqesho olunxulumene noko. Nazi izisombululo ezithe nkqo zamaqhekeza epuzzle anjengokubhala ngaphezulu, uyilo loyilo, uyilo lolwakhiwo, uqikelelo lohlahlo-lwabiwo mali, ulawulo lweempahla, ucwangciso lokwakha; Zonke zinomda wethekhinoloji ezazingalunganga ekudibaniseni ngokufanelekileyo. Ukongeza, imigangatho yayiphantse yabakho, ababoneleli bezisombululo bahlupheka ngenxa yokugcina iifomati kwaye, ngokuqinisekileyo, okunye ukuxhathisa ukutshintsha ngumzi-mveliso ngenxa yokuba iindleko zokuthathwa kwabantwana kwakunzima ukuthengisa kubudlelwane obulinganayo kunye nokusebenza kakuhle kunye inzuzo

Ukuhamba ukusuka kweli nqanaba lokuqala lokwabelana ngolwazi olufunekayo kwizinto ezintsha. Mhlawumbi eyona nto ibalulekileyo ibikukuvuthwa kwe-Intanethi, okuthe ngaphaya kokusinika amathuba okuthumela ii-imeyile kunye nokukhangela amaphepha e-web akwi-static kwavula ucango lwentsebenziswano. Uluntu olunxibelelana ngexesha lewebhusayithi ye-2.0 icinezelwe ukuba ibekwe emgangathweni, ngokuqinisekileyo ivela kumalinge Vula Umnikezi Okwangoku azisaziva ngathi azinantlonelo kwaye zibonwa ngamehlo amatsha ngumzi wabucala. Ingqeqesho ye-GIS yayingomnye weyona mizekelo ilungileyo, isiza ngokuchasene nabo bonke ubugxwayi ukuze boyise isoftware yobunini; ityala elingekabikho ukuza kuthi ga ngoku alikhange lihambisane nomzi mveliso weCAD-BIM Izinto bekufuneka zihle ngobunzima bazo ngaphambi kokuvuthwa kwengcinga kwaye ngokungathandabuzekiyo utshintsho kwimarike ye-B2B kwishishini lokudityaniswa kwehlabathi kususelwa kunxibelelwano.

Izolo sivale amehlo ethu kwaye namhlanje sivuke sibona ukuba imeko yangaphakathi enje nge-geo-ndawo sele ikho kwaye ngenxa yoko ayitshintshi kwimveliso yedijithali, kodwa inguqu engenakufikelelwa yoyilo kunye nentengiso yemarike.

Iinkqubo ezisekwe kuLawulo lokuSebenza. Inkqubo yenkqubo isikhokelela ekwaphuleni kumacandelo okwahlulahlulwa kweendlela zokuziphatha ngendlela yeofisi yeeofisi ezahlukeneyo. Amaqela ophando abenamandla okuhambisa kunye nokwenza iidijithali, iikhathuni zaye zaya ekubeni ngabalula bokucwangcisa umgca ukuya kubalinganiswa bemodeli; Abayili bezinto kunye neenjineli beza kulawula ishishini le-geospatial elibonelela ngeenkcukacha ezingaphezulu kwindawo ye-geo. Oku kuguqule ukujolisa kokuhanjiswa okuncinci kweefayile zolwazi kwiinkqubo apho izinto zokwenza imodeli zizo kuphela iifayile ezondliwayo phakathi kwezolawulo lobugcisa, ubunjineli bobuchwephesha, uyilo, ubunjineli bemizi mveliso, intengiso kunye nejomatics.

Imodeli Ukucinga ngeemodeli kwakungekho lula, kodwa kwenzeka. Namhlanje akukho nzima ukuqonda ukuba isiza somhlaba, ibhulorho, isakhiwo, isityalo esisebenza kwimizi-mveliso okanye kaloliwe ngokufanayo. Into, ethi izalwe, ikhule, ivelise iziphumo kwaye ngenye imini iya kufa.

I-BIM yeyona nto inexesha elide imbali ye-Geo-engineering eye yabakho. Mhlawumbi igalelo lakhe elikhulu kwindlela yokumiselwa komgangatho ngokulinganayo phakathi kokungalawuleki kokungena kwicandelo labucala kwicandelo lobuchwephesha kunye nemfuno yesisombululo sokuba umsebenzisi afuna iinkampani zabucala nezikarhulumente zinikeze iinkonzo ezingcono okanye zivelise iziphumo ezingcono nezixhobo ezibonelelwe ishishini Ukucingelwa kwe-BIM, nangona kujongwe ngendlela enqamlezwe ngabaninzi kwisicelo sayo sokwakheka ngokwasemzimbeni, ngokuqinisekileyo kunesilinganiselo esikhulu xa sicinga ukuba ii-BIM hubs zamkelwe kumanqanaba aphezulu, apho ukudityaniswa kweenkqubo zokwenyani kubandakanya ubomi njengemfundo, ezemali, ezokhuseleko, phakathi kwezinye.

Ukhetho lwexabiso Ixabiso-ukusuka kulwazi ukuya ekusebenzeni.

Namhlanje, izisombululo azigxininisi ekuphenduleni kwisiluleko esithile. Izixhobo ezizodwa zemisebenzi enjengokumodareyitha umphezulu womhlaba okanye uhlahlo-lwabiwo mali zinesibheno esincitshisiweyo ukuba azinakho ukudityaniswa kokuhamba ngaphambili, okulandelayo okanye okuhamba ngokufana. Esi sesona sizathu esishukumisela iinkampani ezikhokelayo kushishino ukuba zibonelele ngezisombululo ezizisombulula ngokupheleleyo iimfuno kumbonakalo wazo zonke, kwikhonkco lexabiso elinzima kwicandelo.

Olu xokelelwano lubunjwe ngezigaba ezenza ngokuthe ngcembe ukuphumeza iinjongo zokuhambelana, ukophula ukulandelelana kunye nokukhuthaza ukufana kokusebenza ngexesha, iindleko kunye nokulandelela; Izinto ezingathintelekiyo zeemodeli ezisemgangathweni zangoku.

Umqondo wobunjineli we-Geo ucebisa ngokulandelelana kwezigaba, ukusuka ekusekweni kwemodeli yeshishini de lingene kwimveliso elindelekileyo. Kwezi zigaba zahlukeneyo, izinto eziphambili ngokubhekisele kulawulo lolwazi ngokuthe ngcembe ziyehla kude kulawulo lomsebenzi; kwaye ukuya kuthi ga ngokuba ukuveliswa kwezinto ezintsha zisebenzise izixhobo ezitsha kunokwenzeka ukuba kube lula ukwenza amanyathelo angasenalo ukongeza ixabiso. Umzekelo:

  • Ukuprintwa kwezicwangciso kuyayeka ukubaluleka ukusuka kwixesha lokuba babonwe ngesixhobo esisebenzayo, njengethebhulethi okanye ihololens.
  • Ukuchongwa kwemihlaba enxulumene nomhlaba kwimephu yokuma komhlaba yenqanaba akusekho okongeza ixabiso kwiimodeli ezingasayi kuprintwa kwisilinganiselo, eziya kuhlala zitshintsha kwaye zifuna igama elingahambelani neempawu ezingezizo ezomzimba ezinje ngemeko yasezidolophini / yasemaphandleni okanye eyomhlaba. kwingingqi yolawulo.

Kule ntlanganiso idityanisiweyo, kulapho umsebenzisi achonga ixabiso lokukwazi ukusebenzisa izixhobo zakhe zokuvavanya kungekuphela nje ekubambeni idatha endle, kodwa abe nemodeli ngaphambi kokuba afike kwikhabhathi, evuma ukuba ligalelo elilula eliza kuthi kwiintsuku kamva alifumane. uyilo ekufuneka ucinge ngokutsha ngokwakhiwa kwalo. Misa ukongeza ixabiso kwindawo apho isiphumo sentsimi sigcinwe khona, ngelixa ifumaneka xa kufuneka kunye nolawulo lokuguqulela kwayo; apho i-xyz ilungelelanisa ibanjelwe ebaleni yinto nje yelifu lamanqaku athe layeka ukuba yimveliso kwaye yaba yigalelo, kolunye ufako, lwemveliso yokugqibela ebonakalayo ebonakalayo kwityathanga. Kungenxa yoko le ndlela isicwangciso singasashicilelwa ngokudityaniswa kwayo, kuba ayongezi xabiso xa imveliso ithengisiwe kwigalelo lemodeli yevolumu yesakhiwo, lolunye uvo lwemodeli yoyilo, eya kuba nemodeli yolwakhiwo, imodeli ye-elektroniki, imodeli yesicwangciso sokwakha. Zonke, njengohlobo lwamawele edijithali ayakuphela kwimodeli yokusebenza kwesakhiwo esele sakhiwe; into ebekulindelwe ngumthengi kunye nabatyali-zimali ekuqinisekeni kwayo.

Igalelo lomxokelelwane likwixabiso elongeziweyo kumzekelo wokuqala wekhonkrithi, kwizigaba ezahlukeneyo ukusuka ekubanjweni, imodeli, uyilo, ukwakhiwa kunye nolawulo ekugqibeleni lweasethi yokugqibela. Izigaba ezingadingeki ngokulandelelana, nalapho umzi-mveliso we-AEC (uYilo, ubuNjineli, uLwakhiwo) ufuna unxibelelwano phakathi kokumodareyithwa kwezinto ezibonakalayo njengomhlaba okanye izibonelelo ezinezinto ezingezizo ezomzimba; abantu, iinkampani kunye nobudlelwane bemihla ngemihla yobhaliso, ulawulo, ubuntu kunye nokuhanjiswa kwezinto zangempela zehlabathi.

Ulawulo loLwazi + uLawulo lokuSebenza. Ukubuyiselwa kweenkqubo akunakuphepheka.

Iqondo lokuvuthwa kunye nokuhlangana phakathi kwemodeli yolwazi lokwakha (i-BIM) kunye noMjikelezo woLawulo lweMveliso (i-PLM), jonga imeko entsha, ebunjwe kwiSine sokuVuselela iMveliso (i-4IR).

IoT - 4iR - 5G - izixeko eziSmart - iTwin yedijithali - i-VR - iBlockchain.

Iziphumo ezintsha zemigaqo yokuqhagamshelwa kwe-BIM + PLM.

Namhlanje maninzi amanyathelo okudubula kufuneka sifunde yonke imihla, njengesiphumo sokusondela kwe-BIM + PLM. La magama abandakanya i-Intanethi ye-Intanethi yezinto (IoT), ii-Smart Cities (ii-Smart Cities), i-Digital Twins (i-Digital Twins), i-5G, i-Artificial Intelligence (AI), i-Augmented Reality (AR), ukubiza ezimbalwa. Kuyathandabuzeka ukuba zingaphi kwezi zinto ziya kunyamalala zingonelanga, xa ndicinga ngento yokwenyani yento esinokuyilindela kwaye sityeshele amaxesha amabi kwiifilimu zeposografikhi ezikwanika nemizobo yokuba ingaba yinto enkulu kangakanani… kwaye ngokutsho kweHollywood, phantse yonke intlekele.

Ubunjineli be-Geo Umxholo osekwe kwiinkqubo zolawulo lomxholo wokudibana komhlaba.

I-infographic iveza umbono wehlabathi jikelele weli xesha ngoku lingenalo ixesha elithile, elithe ngokwembono yethu silibiza ngokuba yi-Geo -unjineli. Oku phakathi kwabanye kusetyenziswe njenge-hashtag yexesha elifutshane kwimicimbi yeenkampani ezikhokelayo kushishino, kodwa njengoko isingeniso sethu sisitsho, ayifikanga ihlelo elifanelekileyo.

Le infographic izama ukubonisa into ekungekho lula ukuyibamba, kutyhilwa kancinci. Ukuba siqwalasele izinto eziphambili zeshishini ezahlukileyo ezinqamlezayo kulo mjikelo, nangona zineendlela ezahlukileyo zoqingqo-maxabiso. Ngale ndlela, sinokuchonga ukuba, nangona imodeli ingumxholo oqhelekileyo, sinokujonga ukuba ukwamkelwa kwawo kugqithile kulandelelwano lwekhonkco olulandelayo:

Ukuphakanyiswa kweGeospatial-Ukhuliso lweCAD-Ukuguqula imodeli ye-3D-Ukuchongwa kweBIM-Ukuphinda kusetyenziswe iiDijithali zoSetyenziso lweNdawo - Ukudityaniswa kweSmart City.

Ukusuka kwi-optics yokubonelela nge-scope, sibona ukulindelwa kwabasebenzisi ngokuthe ngcembe kusondela kwinyani, ubuncinci kwizithembiso ngolu hlobo lulandelayo:

I-1D - Ulawulo lwefayile kwifomathi yedijithali,

2D -Ukwamkelwa koyilo lwedijithali lutshintsha isicwangciso esishicilelweyo

3D -Imodeli enamacala amathathu kunye ne-geo-world's world,

4D -Inguqulo-mlando yohlobo ngendlela yolawulo lwexesha,

5D -Ukungeniswa komba wezoqoqosho kwiindleko ezinokuvela zezinto ezikhoyo,

6D -Ulawulo lomjikelo wobomi bezinto eziguquliweyo, ezihlanganisiweyo ekusebenzeni kwemeko yazo ngexesha lokwenyani.

Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo kugqwetheko lwangaphambili kukho imibono eyahlukileyo, ngakumbi kuba ukusetyenziswa kwemodeli kunokongezeleka kwaye akukodwa. Umbono ophakanyisiweyo kuphela kwendlela yokutolika ngokwembono yezibonelelo esizibonileyo abasebenzisi njengoko samkele ukukhula kwezobugcisa kushishino; Yiba lobuNjineli boLuntu, uBunjineli bobuNjineli, ubuNjineli boMzi mveliso, iCadastre, iCartography ... okanye ukuqokelelwa kwazo zonke ezi zinto kwinkqubo emanyanisiweyo.

Okokugqibela, i-infographic ibonisa igalelo elenziswe ngoqeqesho kumgangatho kunye nokwamkelwa kwedijithali kwinkqubo yemihla ngemihla yomntu.

I-GIS-CAD-BIM-iTwin yedijithali - izixeko eziSmart

Ngendlela, la magama abonelela ngokubaluleka kwimizamo yokuziphuhlisa ekhokelwa ngabantu, iinkampani, oorhulumente kwaye ngaphezulu kwazo zonke izifundiswa ezikhokelele kwinto esiyibona ngoku yimikhwa evuthiweyo epheleleyo enje ngeGeographic Information Systems (GIS), igalelo elimele oko Uyilo Oluncediswa yiKhompyuter (i-CAD), oluvela ngoku kwi-BIM nangona kunjalo, luneemiceli mngeni emibini yokwamkela imigangatho kodwa nomgaqo ocaciswe ngokucacileyo kumanqanaba okukhula kwe5 (Amanqanaba e-BIM).

Ezinye izinto ezibonakala kumjikelo wobunjineli be-geo okwangoku ziphantsi koxinzelelo lokubeka kwindawo yokuma kweDijithali kunye nee-Smart Cities concepts; eyokuqala njengenamandla okukhawulezisa ukwenziwa kwedijithali phantsi kwelogic yokwamkelwa kwemigangatho yokusebenza; Okwesibini njengemeko efanelekileyo yokusetyenziswa. I-Smart Cities yandisa umbono kwiinkqubo ezininzi ezinokuthi zidityaniswe kumbono wokuba umsebenzi wabantu kufanele ube njani kwimeko yendalo, imiba yolawulo efana namanzi, amandla, ucoceko, ukutya, ukuhamba, inkcubeko, ukuhlala ndawonye, ​​izakhiwo kunye noqoqosho.

Impembelelo kubanikezeli bezisombululo ibalulekile, kwimeko yecandelo le-AEC, isoftware, izixhobo zokusebenza kunye nababoneleli beenkonzo kufuneka bahambe emva kwentengiso yomsebenzisi elindele okungaphezulu kweemephu ezipeyintiweyo kunye nokuhanjiswa kombala. Umlo ujikeleze iingxondorha ezinjengeHexagon, Trimble kunye neemodeli ezifanayo zeemarike abazifumene kwiminyaka yakutshanje; I-AutoDesk + Esri ekukhangeleni isitshixo somlingo esidibanisa amacandelo ayo amakhulu abasebenzisi, i-900 ngesikimu sayo esiphazamisayo esibandakanya ukusebenzisana okuhambelana ne-Nokia, Microsoft kunye neTopcon.

Ngeli xesha imigaqo yomdlalo yahlukile; Ayisombululi izisombululo kubavavanyi, iinjineli zaseburhulumenteni okanye abaqulunqi bezakhiwo. Abasebenzisi balo mzuzu balindele izisombululo ezihlanganisiweyo, ezijolise kwiinkqubo hayi kwiifayile zolwazi; ngenkululeko ethe xhaxhe yokuziqhelanisa neesiko, kunye nokusetyenziswa okunokusetyenziswelwa kukusebenza, kunye nokusebenza ngakumbi kwimodeli efanayo exhasa ukudityaniswa kweeprojekthi ezahlukeneyo.

Ngaphandle kwamathandabuzo siphila umzuzu omkhulu. Izizukulwana ezitsha aziyi kuba nelungelo lokubona umjikelo owazalwa kolu hlaselo lobunjineli be-Geo. Abayi kuyazi indlela ekwakuchulumancisa ngayo ukusebenzisa i-AutoCAD kwi-mono-task 80-286, umonde wokulinda izingqimba zesicwangciso sokuyilwa ukuba sivele, ngokuzithemba kokungakwazi ukuqhuba ithuba elide njengeLotus 123 apho siphethe amaphepha eendleko zeyunithi Isikrini esimnyama kunye neeleta ezi-brown. Abayi kukwazi i-adrenaline yokubona okokuqala kwemephu ye-cadastral ekuzingeleni i-raster kanambambili eMicrostation, eqhuba kwi-VAX ye-Printa. Ngokuqinisekileyo, hayi, abanakukwazi.

Ngaphandle kokumangala okukhulu uya kubona ezinye izinto ezininzi. Ukuzama enye yeeprototypes zokuqala zeeHaylens eAmsterdam kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo, kundizisele inxenye yoluvo lokudibana kwam okokuqala namaqonga e-CAD. Ngokuqinisekileyo siwutyeshela umkhamo loguquko lwesine lwezoqoqosho, esiya kuthi ngalo ukuza kuthi ga ngoku, sabona izimvo, zivelise kuthi kodwa zilungele oko kuya kuthetha ukuzilungelelanisa kwimeko entsha apho amandla okungafundeki aya kuba yexabiseke ngakumbi kuneziqu zemfundo yamava

Yintoni eqinisekileyo ukuba iza kufika kwangaphambi kokuba silindele.

Shiya impendulo

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

Le sayithi isebenzisa i-Akismet ukunciphisa ugaxekile. Funda indlela idatha yakho yokubhaliweyo isetyenziswe ngayo.