I-BIM-imeko engenakuphikwa yeCAD

Kwimeko yethu yeGo-Engineering, i Igama leBIM (Ukwakha uLwazi lweModeli), evumela izinto ezahlukeneyo zobomi bokwenyani ukuba zimodareyithwe, kungekuphela ekubonakalisweni kwabo kwimizobo kodwa nakwizigaba ezahlukeneyo zomjikelo wobomi. Kuthetha ukuba indlela, ibhulorho, ivelufa, umjelo wamanzi, isakhiwo, ukusuka ekukhulelweni kwaso sinokuba nefayile echazayo, equlathe uyilo lwayo, inkqubo yokwakha, ifuthe kwindalo esingqongileyo, ukusebenza, ukusetyenziswa, ukunikezela, ulungiso, uhlengahlengiso, ixabiso lemali ngokuhamba kwexesha kwanokudilizwa kwalo.

Sebenzisa indlela yeengcali ze-theorists ezijonga lo mbandela, indlela yokuvuthwa ye-BIM inxulunyaniswa nokuqhubela phambili kokufaka okufunekayo kuphuhliso lwayo, ukubanakho kwamaqela ukubamba nokulawula ulwazi (olutsha nolukhoyo), ukumiliselwa imigangatho yehlabathi, isiseko sedatha kunye nemodeli yeenkqubo ezahlukeneyo zokuzivelela ezinxulumene nolawulo lomhlaba. Umceli mngeni we-BIM kukuba ufikelela kwixesha apho kubandakanya ubudlelwane be-intrinsic ne-PLM (uLawulo lweMveliso yoBomi beMveliso), apho imveliso kunye neenkonzo zeshishini zifuna ukulawula umjikelo ofanayo, nangona zinendawo ezingabandakanyi imeko ye-geospatial.

A indawo kukuhlangana kwezi ndlela zimbini (BIM + PLM) na ingqikelelo izixeko smart (Smart Cities), apho iinkampani ezininzi zinkulu lahlani, ngoko imfuno engxamisekileyo izixeko ezikhulu ezifana ntuthuko ku ubulumko obungapheliyo besayensi kwisayensi kunye nobuchwephesha esetyenziswa kwizigqibo.

Ngezantsi, sinika iinkcukacha ezinye iinkalo ezisisiseko kunye nenkqubela phambili ehambelana ne-BIM kunye nolwalamano lwawo kunye nezixhobo zobuchwepheshe zobugcisa.

Amanqanaba eBIM

UBew noRichards bajonga indlela yokuvuthwa kweBIM kumanqanaba amane, kubandakanywa iNqanaba leZero, njengoko kuboniswe kwigrafu. Ukucacisa, ukuba le ndlela ivela kumbono wobuchule, kungekhona ukuthotyelwa kwamanye amazwe, apho kukho into eninzi yokuthetha ngayo.

izixeko ezihlakaniphile

I-BIM yeNqanaba 0 (CAD).

Oku kuyangqinelana noYilo oluNcedisiweyo lweKhompyuter, olubonwa kwii-optics zokuqala esazibona kwii-80's. Kula maxesha, izinto eziphambili kwakufuneka zithathe umzobo wobugcisa owawusele wenziwe kwiiseti zezicwangciso, kulungelelwaniso olwenziweyo. Siyakhumbula njengemizekelo ukuzalwa kwe-AutoCAD kunye neMicrostation kula maxesha, ngaphandle kokuphazamisa inyathelo elikhulu, akwenzi nto ngaphandle kweMizobo; izandiso zabo zitsho njalo (Ukuzoba i-DWG, uyilo lwe-DGN). Mhlawumbi ekuphela kwesoftware ebesele ibona ngaphaya kwayo yayiyi-ArchiCAD, ethi ukusukela ngo-1987 yathetha ngeZakhiwo eziBonakalayo, ngendelelo yokuba yimvelaphi yaseHungary kwiminyaka yemfazwe ebandayo. Kwakhona kweli nqanaba kubandakanywa ukulawulwa kwedatha engafakwanga georeferenced evela kwezinye izicelo ezinxulumene nolawulo lweprojekthi, umzekelo uhlahlo-lwabiwo mali, ukuCwangciswa, ukulawulwa kwezomthetho, njl.

I-BIM iNqanaba 1 (2D, 3D).

Oku kwenzeka kule minyaka ilishumi idlulileyo, ekukhuleni kwendawo yokusebenza enokubizwa ngokuba yi-2D. Ukwakhiwa kwendawo ye-3D kuyaqala, nangona kumanqanaba ayo okuqala, sinokukhumbula indlela ekwakudinisa ngayo ukuyenza nge-AutoCAD R13 kunye neMicrostation J. Kwakukho ukubonwa kwemisebenzi ntathu, kodwa zazisezilolongo ezenziwe ngee-arcs, iindawo, ubuso kunye ngokwamaqela ezi. Kwimeko ye-AutoDesk, iinguqulelo ezinje ngeSoftDesk ezihlanganisiweyo zekhonsepthi ezinjengeendawo ukusukela nge-AutoCAD 2014, apho uyilo lwendlela kunye nohlalutyo lomhlaba lwenziwe, kodwa yonke into yayi ngasemva kwebhokisi emnyama ukuba izisombululo ezinjenge-EaglePoint zenze ngaphezulu «ezimbala«. I-Microstation sele ibandakanya i-Triforma, iGeopack kunye ne-AutoPlant phantsi komgaqo ofanayo, kunye namakhonkco endawo yohlobo lokudibanisa ngaphandle kokumiselwa kwemvumelwano.

Le elishumi, nangona kwakukho nkqu imifuziselo kunye Izinto ezifanayo ekumitheni liphunyezwa uhlanganiso noko ngenkani enyanisweni kunye nezisombululo nkqo ye AEC ezifunyenwe ezisuka komnye umntu, kubandakanywa Architecture, Construction, Industry Geospatial, iiMveliso animation.

I-AutoDesk khange ithethe nge-BIM de kuthengwe kwakhona ngo-2002, kodwa ukudibanisa izisombululo ezinje ngeCivil3D kuthatha ixesha elide. Kwimeko yeBentley, ukungena kwesikimu seXFM (Extensible Feature Modeling) kwiMicrostation 2004 kubalulekile kwaye ngexesha lotshintsho olwaziwa njengeXM, amaqonga omntu wesithathu anje ngeHeastad, RAM, STAAD, Optram, Speedikon, ProSteel, PlantWise, RM- ILEAP Bridge kunye neHevaComp. Ngo-2008 iBentley yasungula iMicrostation V8i, apho iXFM ikhula kwimodeli ye-I njengomgangatho wentsebenziswano.

I-BIM iNqanaba 2 (BIMs, 4D, 5 D)

bim

Eyona nto inzima kweli nqanaba leNqanaba 2 le-BIM kukumiswa komgangatho; Ngokukodwa kuba iinkampani zabucala zinxiba izaphetha zazo kwaye zifuna ukunyanzela abanye ukuba basebenzise eyabo iminqweno. Kwimeko yesoftware kwicandelo le-geospatial, ibe sisoftware yasimahla eyenze ukuba amandla okubeka emgangathweni kunye nenqanaba lokuvumelana ekumelwe ngoku yi-Open Geospatial Consortium OGC. Kodwa kwicandelo le-CAD-BIM, khange kubekho manyathelo e-OpenSource, kangangokuba ukuza kuthi ga ngoku isoftware yasimahla enokubanakho ukukhula yiLibreCAD, ekuMgangatho woku-1 kuphela -ukuba akunjalo ukushiya iNqanaba le-0. Iinkampani zabucala zikhuphe iinguqulelo zasimahla, kodwa ukubekwa emgangathweni kwi-BIM kuye kwacotha, elizwini labanye ngenxa yobukhosi bama impiriyali.

Igalelo lamaBritane libalulekile, ukuba umkhwa wabo wokwenza phantse yonke into ngenye indlela, bakhokele iMigangatho yaseBritane, efana ne-BS1192: 2007 kunye ne-BS7000: iikhowudi ezi-4; Oku kudala kakhulu ukusuka kwiiplanethi zamaphepha ukuya kwinqanaba le-BIM 1. I-BS8541: 2 sele ivele kwimodeli yedijithali kwaye kule minyaka ilishumi i-BS1192: 2 kunye ne-BS1192: 3.

Kuyaqondakala ukuba kutheni i-900Systems yenze inkomfa yeZiseko ezingaminyaka le kunye nemivuzo yayo eLondon, iminyaka i-2013, i-2014, i-2015 kunye ne-2016; kunye nokufunyanwa kweenkampani ezineephothifoliyo eziphezulu zabathengi baseBritane -Nditshitshise ukucinga malunga nokunyuka kwekomkhulu laseYurophu ukusuka eHolland ukuya e-Ireland-.

Ekugqibeleni, ndisoloko ndikwimida-sikhokelo yoMgaqo-OGC yenze inkqubela nemigangatho eziliqela ukwamkelwa ngokuvumelana ejolise BIM, ingakumbi GML, imizekelo phambili ezifana InfraGML, CityGML kunye UrbanGML.

Nangona uninzi lweenzame ezikhoyo kule minyaka ilishumi ye-BIM yeNqanaba 2 zizama ukufikelela kulawulo lomjikelo wobomi weemodeli, azinakho ukubonwa njengezidibeneyo okanye zibekwe emgangathweni, kunye namatyala angekahlawulwa nge-4D kunye ne-5D equka ukwenziwa kweenkqubo. Ukwakhiwa kunye noQikelelo lweDynamic. Iindlela zokudibana kwamacandelo zibonakala ngokudibana / ekufumaneni iinkampani nakwimbono epheleleyo yokumiselwa komgangatho.

I-BIM 3 iNqanaba (Ukuhlanganiswa, uLawulo lweeNkcazo zoBomi, i-6D)

Umgangatho wokuhlanganiswa kulindeleke kwi-BIM yeNqanaba 3, sele sele ilandela i-2020 iquka ezinye izinto ezilindelwe ukulingana ngokwemigangatho: Iinkcukacha eziqhelekileyo (IFC). IiNguqulelo eziqhelekileyo (i-IDM) kunye neenkqubo eziqhelekileyo (IFD).

izixeko ezihlakaniphile

Kulindeleke ukuba ukulungelelaniswa koBomi besiXhosa kuya kubakhokelela I-Intanethi yezinto (Intanethi yezinto IOT), apho kungabikho kuphela umhlaba womhlaba okhethwayo, kodwa kunye noomatshini kunye nezibonelelo eziyinxalenye yezakhiwo, izinto ezisetyenziselwa ukuthutha (impahla ehambayo), iimpahla zokusetyenziswa kwasekhaya, imithombo yendalo, yonke into ejikelezayo Ubomi obusebenza kumthetho karhulumente kunye nobucala wabanini, iiGliders, abaCwangcisi kunye nabaTyalo-mali.

Kwimeko yeeNkqubo zeBentley, ndikhumbula ndibona kwimiboniso ye-2013 eLondon, ukudityaniswa kweenkqubo ezimbini zoMjikelo weNkcazo yeProjekthi:

  • I-PIM (Iprojekthi yoLwazi lweProjekthi) Umoya ovuthuzayo-Umxholo
  • I-AIM (I-Information Information Model) Umsebenzi-Sebenzisa

Umbono onomdla, ucinga ukuba ezi zinto zivela kule minyaka ilishumi izayo, kodwa ukuqhubela phambili kuvumela ukumiselwa komgangatho ukuba kwenzeke. Ngaphandle kwezisombululo ezininzi ezithe nkqo, uqhelaniso lwenkonzo yokuHanjiswa koQhagamshelo ludala iimeko zeHub ngaphakathi kwendawo enye apho iMicrostation sisixhobo somzekelo, iProjekthiWise isixhobo solawulo lweprojekthi, kunye AssetWise isixhobo solawulo lokusebenza. , ke ukuvala la maxesha mabini abalulekileyo, i-Opex kunye neCapex ye-BS1192: 3.

Kwakhona kulindeleke ukuba ngeli nqanaba idatha iya kuthathwa njengengqalasizinda, nto leyo idinga ukuba iziteshi zihanjiswe, imimiselo iya kusetyenziswa ngokupheleleyo, kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo iya kufumaneka kwiimeko zangempela-xesha kunye nabathathi-nxaxheba abaninzi.

IiNdawo eziMandla eziKhuselekileyo zikhuthaza i-BIM

izixeko ezihlakaniphileUmceli mngeni kwinqanaba le-BIM le-3 kukuba uqeqesho alusayi kuphinda ludibane ngeefomathi zeefayile kodwa ngeenkonzo ezivela kwi-BIM-Hubs. Umsebenzi onomdla woku iyakuba ziiSmart Cities, esele zisebenzisa iimeko ezinje ngeCopenhagen, iSingapoore, iRhawuti zenza iinzame ezinomdla zokudibanisa urhulumente we-e kunye no-g-urhulumente, ukuba siyazivumela loo miqathango. Kodwa kukwangumceli mngeni onomdla, ukuba kwimeko ye-BIM yeNqanaba 3, yonke imisebenzi yabantu iyenziwa. Oku kuthetha ukuba izinto ezinje ngezemali, ezemfundo, ezempilo, kunye nokusingqongileyo zibandakanyiwe kumjikelo onxulunyaniswa nolawulo lomhlaba. Ewe asizukubona ukuzilolonga okusebenzayo kule minyaka ilishumi, kuyathandabuzeka ukuba ziyenzeka nyhani kwixesha eliphakathi, ukuba sicinga ukuba iminqweno kukuqinisekisa ukuphucuka komgangatho wobomi babemi balo mhlaba -okanye ubuncinci kwezi zixeko-Ukuvuselelwa komonakalo kwinkqubo yendalo iphela -ezingathembeki kwizixeko ezimbalwa-.

Nangona i-Smart Cities engekho ekhoneni, kwenzekani neenkampani ezinkulu ezilawula iteknoloji eyaziwayo.

I-HEXAGON, ngokufunyanwa kweenkampani ezinje ngeLeica inokulawula ukubanjwa kwedatha ebaleni, ngokufunyanwa kwe-Erdas + Intergraph inokulawula imodeli yendawo, ngoku kutshanje yenza indlela ekrokrisayo kunye ne-AutoDesk yokulawula uyilo, ukuvelisa kunye nopopayi. Ungayichazanga yonke iinkampani ezibandakanya i-emporium, ezijolise kwinto enye.

 

Kwelinye icala, iBentley ilawula uyilo, ukusebenza kunye nomjikelo woluhlu olubanzi loShishino loKwakha, uLwakhiwo, uBunjineli boLuntu kunye noShishino. Nangona kunjalo, i-Bentley ibonakala ngathi ayinomdla wokweba indawo kwabanye, kwaye siyabona ukuba yenza njani umanyano kunye ne-Trimble elithenga phantse bonke abakhuphisana nabo abanxulumene nolawulo lwentsimi kunye nokwenza imodeli, ii-SIEMENS ezinolawulo oluphezulu lweshishini lokuvelisa kunye neMicrosoft ejonge ukuya kwiziseko zedatha-ukuze ungashiywa ngaphandle, kuba kule ndawo yombono ulahlekile kunye neWindows + Office yakho-

Naphi na apho siyibona khona, iinkampani ezinkulu zibheja kwi-BIM ngamandla ayo asondeleyo kwizembe ezintathu eziza kushukumisela ukusebenza kwee-Smart Cities: Iindlela zokuvelisa, ukuNikezelwa kweziSeko zoPhuculo kunye ne-Innovation kwiimfuno ezintsha zeemveliso / iinkonzo. Ngokuqinisekileyo, kukho izilo ezikhulu ezishiyekileyo ukuze zilungelelane neebhloko, ezinje nge-ESRI, IBM, iOracle, iAmazon, uGoogle, ukubala nje abambalwa esaziyo ukuba banomdla kumanyathelo abo eSmart Cities.

Kucacile ukuba ishishini elilandelayo zii-Smart Cities, phantsi kwendibaniselwano ye-BIM + PLM apho kungayi kubakho iMicrosoft ebamba i-95% yentengiso. Le yimodeli enzima ngakumbi, ikwabonwa kwangaphambili ukuba iinkampani ezingabhejeli kweli shishini ziya kushiywa ngaphandle zisenza ii-CAD, ii-Excel sheet kunye neenkqubo zeCRM ezivaliweyo. Amashishini aza kudityaniswa ngalawo angekhoyo kumjikelo wobomi bemveli woYilo, ubuNjineli, uKwakha kunye nokuSebenza (i-AECO); ezo zilawula eminye imisebenzi yomntu phantsi kwenkqubo yoqoqosho kwezentlalo, efana nokuvelisa, urhulumente we-elektroniki, iinkonzo zentlalo, imveliso yezolimo kwaye ngaphezu kwako konke ukuphathwa kwamandla kunye nezixhobo zendalo.

I-GIS iya kudityaniswa kwi-BIM phantsi kombono weSmart Cities. Okwangoku baphantse badityaniswa ekubambeni idatha nakwimodeli, kodwa kubonakala ngathi baseneembono ezahlukeneyo; Umzekelo, ukwenziwa kweziseko zophuhliso asiloxanduva lwe-GIS, kodwa lubaluleke kakhulu kuhlalutyo nakwimodeli yezinto zomhlaba, kuqikelelo lweziganeko, kulawulo lwezixhobo zendalo nakuluhlu lonke lweesayensi zomhlaba. Ukuba sithathela ingqalelo ubungakanani besiThandathu (6D) ukuba ngamaxesha ezixeko ezinobuchule, ukubala, ukusebenzisa, ukuphinda kusetyenziswe kwakhona kunye nokuvelisa amandla kuya kubaluleka, kuya kubakho amandla okuba ngoku i-GIS yenze ngokukhethekileyo. Kodwa ukuhlalutya umthamo wamanzi wokuhambisa isitya, ukwazi ukuba yimalini isivuno esifunekayo kwimitha yekyubhi yekhonkrithi, kukho umsantsa omkhulu; eya kuzaliswa kangangokuba umsebenzi ubandakanyiwe njengomjikelo okwabelwana ngawo kwezi nkalo zibini.

Ekupheleni.

nina egeomatesKuninzi okunokuthethwa, kwaye ndijonge phambili ekuqhubekeni nokuchukumisa esi sihloko. Okwangoku, iingcali ze-Geo-Engineering zishiyeke nomceli mngeni wokuzilungelelanisa nezinto ezingenakuphinda zenziwe kunye nokufunda kwinqanaba lobuchwephesha, kuba kusathandabuzeka ukuba ingaba i-Roadmap yokuphumeza i-BIM inokwenziwa ngaphandle kokuxhomekeka kwiQela eliSebenzayo elikhokelayo. Ngaphezulu kwayo yonke loo nto, kuba i-BIM kufuneka ibonwe ngokweendlela ezimbini: Inye yezinto ekufuneka zenziwe kwinqanaba lobuchwephesha, kwezemfundo, kwinqanaba lokusebenza, ngenjongo yokuzinza, emva koko ngokwembono yoorhulumente, abanolindelo kuluhlu olufutshane kakhulu. , Ukulibala ukuba amandla abo olawulo ahlala ecotha kakhulu. Ukongeza, kwabo basezixekweni esele benokucinga ngeziXeko zeSmart, kungxamisekile ukuba kugxilwe kubemi, endaweni yetekhnoloji.

Ukuba le meko iyazaliseka, iphupha eliphambi komnye wabacebisi bam, onethemba lokutyala iihektare ezingama-3,000 20 zehlathi le-mahogany, elinomjikelo wobomi oqinisekisiweyo onxulumene nokukhula kwalo, liya kuzaliseka; ke ndingaya ebhankini unyaka ndize ndibambise ngepasile yokuqala ukuze ndihlawulele imali eseleyo. Kwiminyaka engama-XNUMX, uya kuba nesigidi see-cubic metres ze-asethi onokusombulula ngazo kungekuphela umhlala-phantsi wakho, kodwa nakwelizwe lakho ityala langaphandle.

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