BIM - mkhuba lakho CAD

Kwimeko yethu yeGo-Engineering, i Igama leBIM (Ukwakhiwa kweeNkcukacha zoLwakhiwo), okuvumela izinto ezahlukeneyo zobomi ukuba zihlanjululwe, kungekhona kuphela ekuboniseni kwabo imifanekiso kodwa kwizigaba zabo ezahlukeneyo zomjikelezo wobomi. Kuthetha ukuba umgwaqo omkhulu, ibhuloho, ivelve, isiteshi, isakhiwo, ukususela ekukhulelweni kwayo sinokuba nefayile esichazayo, equlethe ukuyila kwayo, inkqubo yayo yokwakha, ukuthintela kwimeko yendalo, ukusetyenziswa, ukusetyenziswa, ukuvumelanisa, ukugcinwa, ukuguqulwa, ixabiso lentengo ngexesha kunye nokudilizwa.

Ukusebenzisa indlela le nkolelo abo geofumando lo mbandela, le ndlela nokwanda BIM unxulunyaniswa phambili kwamagalelo ezifunekayo ukuze kuphuhliswe izakhono nezixhobo ukufaka kunye nokulawulwa kolwazi (ezintsha nezikhoyo), ukuqaliswa imigangatho yehlabathi, isiseko seziseko kunye nokulandelelaniswa kweenkqubo ezahlukeneyo ezizibandakanya nokulawulwa kwintsimi. BIM ngumngeni ukufikelela okomzuzwana xa ufaka ulwalamano analo kunye PLM (Product appointment Management), apho icandelo lokuvelisa kunye neenkonzo i lifuna ukuba zilawule efanayo nangona ingenziwa umjikelo umda ziquka inkangeleko geospatial.

A indawo kukuhlangana kwezi ndlela zimbini (BIM + PLM) na ingqikelelo izixeko smart (Smart Cities), apho iinkampani ezininzi zinkulu lahlani, ngoko imfuno engxamisekileyo izixeko ezikhulu ezifana ntuthuko ku ubulumko obungapheliyo besayensi kwisayensi kunye nobuchwephesha esetyenziswa kwizigqibo.

Ngezantsi, sinika iinkcukacha ezinye iinkalo ezisisiseko kunye nenkqubela phambili ehambelana ne-BIM kunye nolwalamano lwawo kunye nezixhobo zobuchwepheshe zobugcisa.

Amanqanaba eBIM

UBew noRichards bajonga indlela yokuvuthwa kweBIM kumanqanaba amane, kubandakanywa iNqanaba leZero, njengoko kuboniswe kwigrafu. Ukucacisa, ukuba le ndlela ivela kumbono wobuchule, kungekhona ukuthotyelwa kwamanye amazwe, apho kukho into eninzi yokuthetha ngayo.

izixeko ezihlakaniphile

I-BIM yeNqanaba 0 (CAD).

Oku kuhambelana neComputer Assisted Design, ebonwe kwimbono yokuqala esiyibonayo kwiminyaka ye-80. Ngezo zihlandlo, izinto eziphambili ziza kuthatha umzobo wezobugcisa owenziwe ngokusetyenzwa kwemidwebo, ukuya kumacwecwe amanani. Siyakhumbula njengemizekelo yokuzalwa kwe-AutoCAD kunye ne-Microstation kulezi zihlandlo, ukuba ngaphandle kokuphazamisa kwisinyathelo esikhulu, abazange benze okungaphezulu kweMidwebo; izandiso zayo zithe (ukudweba i-DWG, i-Design DGN). Mhlawumbi kuphela isofthiwe endiyibonayo ngakumbi yi-ArchiCAD, ephuma kwi-1987 yathetha ngeZakhiwo eziBungqina, ngokugculelwa kokuvela kwimvelaphi yesiHungary kwiminyaka yemfazwe ebanda. Kwakhona kubandakanywa kweli nqanaba kukulawulwa kwedatha engenzi-georeferenced ukusuka kwezinye izicelo ezinxulumene nokuphathwa kweprojekthi, njengeBlujethi, uCwangciso, ulawulo lwezomthetho, njl njl.

I-BIM iNqanaba 1 (2D, 3D).

Oku kwenzeka kwiminyaka elishumi edlulileyo, ekukhuleni kwendawo yokusebenza esele kubizwa ngokuba yi-2D. Ulwakhiwo kwindawo ye-3D nayo iqala, nangona kumanqanaba ayo okuqala, singakhumbula indlela ekwakukubi ngayo ukuyenza nge-AutoCAD R13 kunye ne-Microstation J. Kwakukho ukubonwa komsebenzi wento emacala mathathu, kodwa bebesaqhutywa njengeearcs, iindawo, ubuso kunye amaqela amaqela Kwimeko ye-AutoDesk, iinguqulelo ezinje ngeSoftDesk iikhonsepthi ezihlanganisiweyo ezinjengeendawo ezisuka kwi-AutoCAD 2014, apho kuyilwe khona iindlela nohlalutyo lwendawo, kodwa yonke into yayisemva kwebhokisi emnyama ukuba izisombululo ezinjenge-EaglePoint zenze ngaphezulu «ezimbala«. I-Microstation sele ibandakanye iTriforma, iGeopack kunye ne-AutoPlant phantsi kwendlela efanayo, kunye nekhonkco lokunxibelelanisa udidi lwendawo ngaphandle kokuvumelana.

Le elishumi, nangona kwakukho nkqu imifuziselo kunye Izinto ezifanayo ekumitheni liphunyezwa uhlanganiso noko ngenkani enyanisweni kunye nezisombululo nkqo ye AEC ezifunyenwe ezisuka komnye umntu, kubandakanywa Architecture, Construction, Industry Geospatial, iiMveliso animation.

AutoDesk akathethi of BIM ukuthenga Revit e 2002, kodwa ukuhlanganiswa izisombululo njengoko Civil3D kuya kuthatha ixesha elide. Kuba Bentley na igalelo elibalulekileyo XFM schema (Faka nokumodela olwAndisekayo) e Microstation 2004 kwaye ngethuba lenguqu eyaziwa ngokuba XM lufunyanwa njengamaqonga Heastad wesithathu, RAM, Staad, Optram, Speedikon, ProSteel, PlantWise, RM LEAP iBridge kunye neHevaComp. Kwi-2008 Bentley iqalisa i-Microstation V8i, apho i-XFM ikhula kwi-I-model njengendlela yokusebenzisana.

I-BIM iNqanaba 2 (BIMs, 4D, 5 D)

bim

Into ebaluleke kakhulu kule nqanaba ye-BIM yeNqanaba 2 ibe yimiqathango; Ngokukodwa kuba iinkampani ezizimeleyo zibeka i-buns kwaye zifuna ukunyanzelisa abanye ukuba basebenzise i-whims zabo. Kwimeko yesofthiwe ye-geospatial field, bekuye isofthiwe ekhululekile eyenze amandla ekumgangatho kunye nesantya sovumelwano esimele ngoku i-Open Geospatial Consortium OGC. Kodwa kwintsimi ye-CAD-BIM, ayikho iprojekthi ye-OpenSource, efana nokuza kuthi kube ngumhla wesofthiwe ekhululekile enokukwazi ukuvuthwa yi-LibreCAD, ekuphela kwezinga le-1 -ukuba akunjalo ukushiya iNqanaba le-0. Iinkampani ezizimeleyo zikhuphe iinguqulelo zamahhala, kodwa i-standardization eya kwi-BIM iye yacotha, ngelizwi labanye ngenxa yombutho wama-imperialist.

Kubalulekile ukuba negalelo leBrithani, ukuba umkhwa wabo wokwenza yonke into ecaleni, iholele iBritish Standard, njengoko iikhowudi BS1192: 2007 kunye ne-BS7000: 4; Ezi zigugile ukusuka kwiiplanethi zamaphepha ukuya kwi-BIM yeNqanaba 1. I-BS8541: I-2 ibonakala isele imodeli yedijithali kwaye kule minyaka elishumi i-BS1192: 2 kunye ne-BS1192: 3.

Kuyaqondakala ukuba kutheni iBentleySystems ibambe iNgqungquthela yeNgxowa-mali yonyaka kunye nelibhanso layo eLondon, 2013, 2014, 2015 kunye ne-2016; kwakunye nokuthengwa kweenkampani ezineepotfoliyo eziphezulu zabathengi baseBrithani -Nditshitshise ukucinga malunga nokunyuka kwekomkhulu laseYurophu ukusuka eHolland ukuya e-Ireland-

Ekugqibeleni, ndisoloko ndikwimida-sikhokelo yoMgaqo-OGC yenze inkqubela nemigangatho eziliqela ukwamkelwa ngokuvumelana ejolise BIM, ingakumbi GML, imizekelo phambili ezifana InfraGML, CityGML kunye UrbanGML.

Nangona zininzi iinzame yangoku kule minyaka ilishumi ukuzama BIM Level 2 ukufikelela ulawulo imifuziselo wobomi namanje engamelanga ithathwe njenge ebanzi okanye zifanayo angekahlawulwa amatyala kunye 4D kunye 5D kubandakanywa Programming Ukwakhiwa kunye nokulinganiselwa okuMandla. Imizila eze omabini nkalo zezi lenkampani notorious / ukufunyanwa iinkampani kunye emgangathweni kombono ovelela.

I-BIM 3 iNqanaba (Ukuhlanganiswa, uLawulo lweeNkcazo zoBomi, i-6D)

Umgangatho wokuhlanganiswa kulindeleke kwi-BIM yeNqanaba 3, sele sele ilandela i-2020 iquka ezinye izinto ezilindelwe ukulingana ngokwemigangatho: Iinkcukacha eziqhelekileyo (IFC). IiNguqulelo eziqhelekileyo (i-IDM) kunye neenkqubo eziqhelekileyo (IFD).

izixeko ezihlakaniphile

Kulindeleke ukuba ukulungelelaniswa koBomi besiXhosa kuya kubakhokelela I-Intanethi yezinto (Intanethi yezinto IOT), apho kungabikho kuphela umhlaba womhlaba okhethwayo, kodwa kunye noomatshini kunye nezibonelelo eziyinxalenye yezakhiwo, izinto ezisetyenziselwa ukuthutha (impahla ehambayo), iimpahla zokusetyenziswa kwasekhaya, imithombo yendalo, yonke into ejikelezayo Ubomi obusebenza kumthetho karhulumente kunye nobucala wabanini, iiGliders, abaCwangcisi kunye nabaTyalo-mali.

Kwimeko ye-Bentley Systems, ndiyakhumbula ukubona kwi-2013 ukuboniswa eLondon, ukuhlanganiswa kwezi zimbini iinkqubo zeProjekti Inkcazo:

  • I-PIM (Iprojekthi yoLwazi lweProjekthi) I-Breef - I-Concept - Inkcazo - Uyilo - Ukwakhiwa / iKhomishini - Ukuhanjiswa / Ukuvalwa
  • I-AIM (I-Information Information Model) Umsebenzi - Sebenzisa

Lo emehlweni umdla, ucinga ukuba le miba zezona elishumi ezayo, kodwa equlunqwayo ukuvumela emgangathweni yenyama. Ngaphandle kokuba izisombululo ezininzi nkqo, iinkonzo isikhokelo CONNECT Edition kudala iimeko Hub ngaphakathi bume enye oko Microstation sesona sixhobo umzekelo, ProjectWise ulawulo lweprojekthi herrameinta kunye AssetWise Management Tool Operation , evala izihlandlo ezimbini ezibalulekileyo, i-Opex kunye neCapex ye-BS1192: 3.

Kwakhona kulindeleke ukuba ngeli nqanaba idatha iya kuthathwa njengengqalasizinda, nto leyo idinga ukuba iziteshi zihanjiswe, imimiselo iya kusetyenziswa ngokupheleleyo, kwaye ngokuqinisekileyo iya kufumaneka kwiimeko zangempela-xesha kunye nabathathi-nxaxheba abaninzi.

IiNdawo eziMandla eziKhuselekileyo zikhuthaza i-BIM

izixeko ezihlakaniphileUmngeni BIM Level 3 kukuba iinkalo idibane engasekho ukusebenzisa iifomati zefayile kodwa iinkonzo ukusuka BIM-leeNdawo. An msebenzi umdla eziya kuba Smart Cities, apho sele usebenzise amatyala njengoko Compenhague, Singapoore, Rhawutini mayenze iinzame umdla Ukumanyanisa e-government kunye g-kurhulumente, xa sivumela loo magama. Kodwa kunomngeni onomdla, ukuba kuloo ndawo ye-BIM yeNqanaba 3, yonke into eyenziwa ngabantu ilandelwa. Oku kuthetha ukuba iinkalo ezifana nemali, imfundo, impilo, kunye nemeko zibandakanyiwe kumjikelezo oxhumene nolawulo lwendawo. Kakade ke, asiyi kubona ezi imisebenzi esebenzayo kule minyaka ilishumi, oko ethandabuzekayo ukuba beze ngisho ukuba ngokwenene kwixesha eliphakathi, ucinga ukuba iminqweno ukuba ukuqinisekisa ukuphucula umgangatho wobomi abemi kulo mhlaba -okanye ubuncinane kwezo zixeko- kunye nokubuyiselwa kwemonakalo kwinkqubo yehlabathi jikelele -ezingathembeki kwizixeko ezimbalwa-.

Nangona i-Smart Cities engekho ekhoneni, kwenzekani neenkampani ezinkulu ezilawula iteknoloji eyaziwayo.

Ntandathu, kunye nokufunyanwa iinkampani ezifana Leica uyakwazi ukulawula idatha entsimini, kunye nokufunyanwa Intergraph ERDAS + uyakwazi ukulawula zomzekelo lwendawo, ngoku yenza indlela ibitheni kutshanje AutoDesk ukulawula uyilo, ukwenziwa kunye uphiliso. Ukungathethi zonke iinkampani ezifakwe kwi-emporium, nto leyo ekubhekiselele kuyo into efanayo.

Kwelinye icala, Bentley olawula uyilo, ukusebenza kunye nomjikelo uluhlu olubanzi kushishino Building, Architecture, Engineering Civil and Industrial. Noko ke, Bentley akubonakali ukuba babe nomdla ngokweba isithuba kwabanye, uze ubone njani ubuhlobo Trimble wathenga phantse zonke okhuphisana enxulumene nolawulo kunye ngumzekelo intsimi, Siemens ukubanolawulo eliphezulu woveliso ne Microsoft enenjongo yokufudukela kwiziseko zedatha -ukuze ungashiywa ngaphandle, kuba kule ndawo yombono ulahlekile kunye neWindows + Office yakho-

Apho sibona, iinkampani zinkulu ukubheja i BIM ukuba izakhono zabo luzayo nezamazembe ezintathu yisa ukusebenza kwe-Smart Cities: Imveliso Media, Supply Infrastructure kunye Innovation bayifunayo ezintsha iimveliso / iinkonzo. Kakade ke, izilwanyana ezikhulu ukulungelelanisa iibhloko ezifana ESRI, IBM, Oracle, Amazon, Google, ukuba igama abathile kwabo abaziyo ukuba abanomdla kumaphulo zakho Smart Cities.

Kucacile ukuba ibhizinisi elilandelayo yiMadolophu aseMasipala, phantsi kokuhlanganiswa kwe-PLM ye-BIM + apho ayiyi kuba khona iMicrosoft ethatha i-95% yemarike. Lo mzekelo onzima kakhulu, kubonakala kwakhona ukuba iinkampani ezingagqithanga kule shishini ziya kushiywa ngaphandle zenze i-CAD, i-Excel sheets kunye neenkqubo ze-CRM ezivaliweyo. Amashishini okudibaniswa yilawo angengomjikelezo wobomi bemiDlalo, Ubunjineli, Ukwakhiwa kunye nokuSebenza (AECO); abo balawula ezinye izinto zomntu phantsi kweendlela ze-geo-ezibonakalisiweyo zentlalo-qoqosho, ezifana nokuvelisa, urhulumente wekhompyutha, iinkonzo zentlalo, imveliso yezolimo kunye ngakumbi nokulawulwa kwamandla kunye nemithombo yendalo.

I-GIS iya kuhlanganiswa kwi-BIM phantsi kombono wee-Smart Cities. Okwangoku badibene ngokudibaniswa kwedatha nokufakela imodeli, kodwa kubonakala ngathi banemibono eyahlukileyo; Ngokomzekelo, ukulandelelaniswa kwezibonelelo-mali akusixanduva lwe-GIS, kodwa lugqwesileyo kakhulu ekuhlalutyweni nasekuhambisweni kwezinto zendawo, ekuboniseni iziganeko, ekulawuleni imithombo yendalo kunye nolwazi olupheleleyo lwezesayensi yehlabathi. Ukuba siqwalasela iSithandathu SesiXhosa (6D) ukuba ngamaxesha e-smart cities, ukulinganisa, ukusebenzisa, ukuvuselela nokuvelisa amandla kuya kubaluleka, ngoko kuya kufuneka ukuba ube nekhono lokuba i-GIS ngoku yenzayo ngokubanzi. Kodwa ukuhlaziya umthamo wokuvelisa amanzi kwisitya, oko kukuthi kusetyenziswe kangakanani ukusebenza kumakitha ayi-cubic yekhonkrithi. eziza kuzaliswa kumlinganiselo wokuba umsebenzi uqukwa njengomjikelezo okwabelwana ngawo kwezi zifundo zimbini.

Ekupheleni.

nina egeomatesKukho okungakumbi ukuthetha ngawo, kwaye ndiyathemba ukuqhubeka ndichaphazela kwesi sihloko. Okwangoku, abaqeqeshi be-Geo-Engineering bashiywe ngumngeni wokuzibandakanya ngokwasemthethweni kunye nokufunda kwizinga lobuchwepheshe, kuba kusengabaza ukuba i-Roadmap yokuphumeza i-BIM inokwenziwa ngaphandle kokuxhomekeka kwiqela eliSebenza elikhokelayo. Ngaphezu kwazo zonke, kuba i-BIM kufuneka ibonwe kwimiba emibini: Enye yezinto kufuneka zenziwe kwinqanaba lobugcisa, lezemfundo, elisebenzayo, ngenjongo yokuzinzileyo kwaye ngoko-optics oorhulumente, abalindeleyo kwibala elifutshane kakhulu , ukulibala ukuba amandla abo aqhelekileyo ayedla ngokukhawuleza. Ukongezelela, kuba abo basemadolobheni abanokwakucinge malunga namaCom Smart, kukukhawuleza ukuba kubekho ugxininiso kubemi, kunokuba iteknoloji.

🙂 Ukuba le meko izalisekile, iphupha lokuqala lomnye wabacebisi bam, elithemba ukutshala iihektha ze-3,000 zehlathi le-mahogany, kunye nomjikelezo wobomi oqinisekisiweyo obunxulumene nokukhula kwayo, kuya kuba yinyani; ngoko kuya ku-bhanki ngonyaka kunye nokubolekwa kwempahla yokuqala kwinjongo yokuqala yokuxhasa ngemali. Kwiminyaka ye-20 uya kuba neerigic million million yempahla onokuyilombulula ngayo kuphela umhlalaphantsi wakho, kodwa nangaphandle kwetyala lakho langaphandle.

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