Mna data LiDAR - ntoni ngoku?

Kwinqaku umdla ezipapashwe kutshanje kaDavide Mckittrick, apho othetha iziphumo ulwazi olwaneleyo ubuchule ezinxulumene ukusebenza LIDAR GIS yaye ebhekisela Global Mapper njengesixhobo inkxaso nokulungiswa kwedatha ifunyenwe.

Emva kokufunda eli nqaku ndakhuphela Global Mapper ukuba udlale, yaye ndimele ndivume ukuba ugcina ukubaluleka ukuba isixhobo sadibana yaye oko lula wayifanisa ntlango yedijithali kwifayile xyz kwisicatshulwa. Namhlanje, xa ephakadeni kuya kusiba kakhulu ukufikelela ngakumbi data LiDAR, hayi embi jonga kwi miba ukuze ingqalelo xa usebenza kwezi ngokungalindelekanga ukukhankanya into Global Mapper wenza kakuhle. Oko ndiyinyamezelayo, undishiyile into endiyifunayo; kunye nobuso entsha, inkqubo ugcina elula data ezivulekileyo kwaye iwubonise iingcebiso kunye ngaphambilini.

Ngenye imini, etafile yeGeofumadas, ndabona emehlweni kaDon H -omnye wabacebisi bam-ukukhanya okhuphisayo emehlweni akhe kwisipho esenziwe ngumzeli we-drone; yayisisicelo sokuhlaziya idatha ye-cadastral; ngosizi olukhulu kuye kwafuneka ndiyikhuphe kwilifu ndikukhumbuze ukuba kumazwe amaninzi asakhasayo akukho zimo zincinci kuzinzo lobuchwephesha; nangona ekugqibeleni sifikelela kwimvumelwano yento enokwenzeka ngendlela esebenzayo. Ukuphazamiseka kwale ndlela kwiminyaka embalwa eyadlulayo kuvelise imvakalelo enkulu kumasebe athile aseMelika, ngoku ishenxiselwe nakwamanye amazwe akumxholo we-Hispanic, onokuthi ungene ekulangazeleleni kokufumana "amandla amatsha" kokusetyenziswa kwetekhnoloji entsha. , ukufaka idatha kodwa ndingazi ukuba yenze ntoni ngayo.

Ukuba sicinga ngeendleko ezifunekayo ngokusetyenziswa kwe-LiDAR kwiprojekthi, siya kubona ukuba kubaluleke kakhulu, sicinga ukuba kuthini ukuqala ukuqokelela iqoqo leenkcukacha (ukuthetha nge-'Point Cloud Collection 'ethile); nokuba siqaphele ukuba ukusetyenziswa kwayo kusinika umphumo ophumelelayo kunye nokulondoloza ixesha elide. Ukusetyenziswa ngokufanelekileyo, idatha ye-LiDAR ivumela ukuba siqonde ihlabathi ngendlela eyahlukileyo kwizinto esizifezekisileyo ngokwemephu yemveli yemephu. Ngoku unokufumana umbono wangempela usebenzisa iifom ze-3D kwaye unako ukusebenzisana nedatha apho uphuhliso olutsha olwenziwa khona.

Yintoni iLiDAR

UDavide uthi: "Idatha ye-LiDD ayiyona imveliso kodwa izinto eziluhlaza"Yintoni eyenza ingqiqo yokuqala yokona, ngombono wethu, ukuqonda isifundo. Ngokwenyani, ukufumana idatha yile galelo esiya kusivumela, emva kokusebenza ngokufanelekileyo, ukufumana iindlela ezahlukeneyo ezintathu.

Kodwa, ukucaca kufuneka sibuyele kwaye sikhumbule ngesakhiwo esisiseko kunye neempawu ze-LiDAR idatha. I-LiDAR (isichazizwi sokuKhanya kunye noLwazi lweRange) yindlela yokwakheka kwee-3D. Ifayili nganye yeLiDAR okanye isetyenzisi sedatha iqulethe izigidi, okanye iibhiliyoni zeendawo ezikufutshane kunye nezikarhulumente ezidibeneyo. Ukusondelana kobubanzi phakathi kwabo kuxhomekeke kwindlela idatha eyayifumaneka ngayo.

Idata ye-LiDAR ifumaneka kuluntu sele iqulunqwe, ngokubanzi kusetyenziswa iqonga eliseburhulumenteni ngokusebenzisa i-laser transmission kunye ne-technology reception, kwisicelo esihlangeneyo kunye nokusetyenziswa kweendlela ezichanekileyo kunye neendlela zokuhamba. Ixabiso x, y, z elithathwe kwimizuzu yexesha elibalwe phakathi kokusasazwa kunye nokufumana i-laser pulse ibonakaliswe kwinqanaba ngalinye.

A moya kancinci ukudala ilifu amanqaku bebekwe enye etshisayo, ngakumbi ngokukhawuleza kwi ezise zintabeni. Kuxhomekeka des woluvo esebenzisa-moya okanye moya, kwaye ukuba ukusebenza kunye data njani, oko kufakwa iimpawu ezongezelelweyo, ixabiso umbala, reflection ophezulu kunye nenani imbuyekezo ukubetha nganye, ngokuba ukubukela nokuhlalutya.

Yintoni enokuyenza ngeData yeData

Ukuba ecacileyo data LiDAR ivavanywa a inguqu iba ngokubanzi imodeli 3D, ngoko uthethe isizukulwana a Digital Umphakamo Model (DEM) okanye, sentlalo / utsalo oluzenzekelayo kumda wesangqa izinto 3D yezabelo iipatheni zejometri matrix amanqaku. Kwakhona kuyenzeka, ngokuguqula ukumelwa efini ngongoma, ukufumana ulwazi olunentsingiselo, emele iintlobo ezahlukeneyo komhlaba, ukuphakanyiswa yencopho kuthelekiswa emhlabeni, okanye ukwehluka lexinene amanqaku, phakathi kwezinye izinto.

Ukuhlela kunye nokucoca kwedatha ye-LiDAR

Kuqhelekile ukuba iifayile zeefayile zifunyenwe ziquka amanqaku amaninzi kunokuba ziyimfuneko. Ngoko ke, ngaphambi kokusebenzisa inkqubo yokucoca kwinqanaba lefu, kulungele ukuhlolisisa imethadatha yobume. Isishwankathelo esifumanekayo siya kunika ulwazi oluyimfuneko malunga neempawu zelifu eziza kubonisa ukuba kwenziwe izigqibo ezaneleyo zokucoca inkqubo.

Ukuphucula umgangatho weenkcukacha ze-LiDAR

Emva kokuphelisa iingongoma ezingadingeki, isinyathelo esilandelayo kukufumana nokuhlaziya kwakhona loo maphulo omhlaba awazange ahlukaniswe ekuqaleni. Oko kukuthi, kufuneka silungise idatha. Oku kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba bakwazi ukuvelisa iDEM yesigqibo esilungileyo.
Apha sibheka ukuba ngaba sikwazi ukwenza inkqubo yokucoca idatha efanelekileyo kunye nokuhlaziywa kwazo emva koko. Zombini iinkqubo, ngokucacileyo ziyimishini, zibaluleke kakhulu kwiziphumo ezifunyenweyo.

Kulo Mhlaba weMhlaba jikelele wenza ngokwenene. Ubuncinane, kwimeko yokuhlela nokuhlunga. Kwaye kunjalo, kufuneka sikhumbule ukuba ngokuphelisa iingongoma ezibangela ingxolo, kukho idatha echazwe njengendawo engabalulekanga. Ngokusebenzisa i-Global Mapper, akunakwenzeka kuphela ukuphelisa ukukhawulelwa ngokwaneleyo kwamaphuzu angaphandle kwendawo yommandla weprojekti, kodwa kunye nalawo afunwayo ngenxa yeempawu zabo, kuba isicelo sineendlela ezininzi zokucoca.
Ngoku makhe sithethe ngokucokiswa kwedatha. I-Global Mapper iquka iinkqubo ezininzi ezidibeneyo apho idatha ichongiwe ngokuzenzekelayo kwaye iingongoma zomhlaba ezingakhange ziqwalaselwe ekuqaleni ziyahlengahlengiswa ukuphepha ukulahlekelwa ngedatha ebalulekileyo. Ngaloo ndlela ipesenteji ezinxulumene neengongoma ezingasetyenziswa ekudalweni kwe-DEM kunye nesisombululo esiphezulu sinyuka.

Umzekelo endisebenza ngawo nedata ngaphambi nangemva kweqhwithi; ngokuqinisekileyo ngaphandle kokuba ne-wizzard, isofthiwe inezixhobo eziphantse ziphakanyiswe ekuphumeni komsebenzi wokufumana, imodeli, ukucoca, ukuvelisa imodeli entsha.

Ngokusebenzisa ezinye iinkqubo zokuhlaziywa ngokuzenzekelayo, izakhiwo zesebenzi, imithi kunye neetambo zingabonwa kwaye ziphinde zenziwe kwakhona, nto leyo isinyathelo sokuqala kwinkqubo yokukhangela iimpawu.

Ukudalwa kweModeli yokuPhumela kweDijithi

Ukwenza inkqubo yohlalutyo lwe-3D, phantse kuwo onke amaxesha, ifu yeLiDAR ifu kufuneka idityaniswe idatha. Sisebenzisa inqubo ebizwa ngokuthi 'lattice' apho ixabiso elihambelana nendawo nganye ye-matrix (ngokuqhelekileyo ixabiso lokuphakama) lisetyenziswe njengesiseko sokwenza imodeli eqinile ye-3D. Lo mzekelo ungabonisa indawo kuphela (imodeli yendawo yedijithali) okanye umphezulu ongaphezulu komhlaba, njenge-canopy yehlathi (i-digital surface model). Ukwahlula phakathi kwezi zibini kuvela kuluhlu nokukhethwa kwamaphuzu asetshenziselwa ukuvelisa umhlaba.

Ukuba sicinga ukuba uninzi lwabasebenzisi be-LiDAR lubheka isizukulwana se-DTM (i-Digital Terrain Model) njengenjongo yabo ephambili, i-Global Mapper inikezela ngokuqokelelwa okwaneleyo kwezixhobo zokuhlalutya umhlaba, kubandakanya ukubalwa kwemitha; ukusika nokuzalisa ukulungiswa; isizukulwana semigca yokujikeleza; ukucaciswa kwamanzi amaninzi; kunye nomgca wokuhlalutya kwamehlo.

Ukususwa kweMpawu

Ukukwazi ukuvelisa ukufumaneka okukhulu kwedatha ukusuka efini lamaphuzu angamaqhinga ichaza indlela entsha eya kwindlela entsha yokulungisa idatha ye-LiDAR. Ukuhlaziywa kweepatheni kwisakhiwo sejometri yeendawo ezikufutshane kunokukhokelela ekuhlanjululeni imodeli eyakhiwe, emele iipolgoni ezintathu; imigca yamagesi okanye iintambo ezidlula emhlabeni, zimelele njengemigca emithathu; kunye namaphuzu emithi, evela kwisakhiwo esihlangeneyo samaphuzu afakwe njengezityalo eziphakamileyo. Amathuluzi okukhupha i-vector Global Mapper afaka kwakhona inketho yokucinywa kwenkcubeko apho imigca ye-3D kunye neepoloni ziyakwenziwa ngokulandela uluhlu lweembono zeeprofayili eziphambili kwiindlela ezichazwe ngaphambili. Esi sixhobo singasetyenziselwa ukudala imodeli enemilinganiselo emithathu yesakhiwo salo naluphina isakhiwo esiphezulu, njengomgca wendlela eya ngasendleleni.

Isigqibo sikaDavide sibonakala. Ukuba nedatha ayilona yonke into xa isebenza ne-LiDAR; Ukuba nesixhobo esinokuyisebenzisela ngendlela eyiyo yinto eyenza ukusetyenziswa kwezi teknoloji.

Kuhlekisa ukuba ngexesha lokugqibela ndabona le sicelo i-2011, nge 11 version. Ndandisebenza kunye ne-LiDAR kodwa kwakuphoxise ekusebenziseni izibonelelo, ndayeka ukuyijonga 13 version apho eso sakhono siphucule khona. Yimiba yokulanda nokuyivavanya, kuba le nguqulo ye-18 ibonakala kum enye yeyona ndlela yindlela engcono kakhulu yesoftware yindleko ephantsi esenza yonke into efunekayo ukuba isebenzise idatha ye-LiDAR.

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