Ukusetyenziswa kwemithetho yeengcinga kwiimeko ze geospatial

Esinye sezivakalisi ze-6 2014 zeCadastre, ezichazwe kwi-1995, apho iingcali ezininzi ezivela kwi-International Federation of Geometricians zibeka phambili oko iCadastre ziyakubonakala ngathi ngonyaka we-2014, yile: "ICadastral Cartography iya kuba yinxalenye yexesha elidlulileyo. Inkqubo iza kuqhubeka u mzekelo".

Yemephu yokuziqeqesha endala kakhulu, yaye maxa onke amaxesha ubekhonza amaphulo ezibaluleke kakhulu abantu, kuxhomekeke kwixesha: Uloyiso, War, Religion, Uphando, ukhenketho, kwendalo, njl Namhlanje asikho imeko eyahlukileyo kwamanye amaxesha, nangona iimveliso zokumela zihluke ngokupheleleyo; ngaphambi kokuba imephu ibe ngumsebenzi wokwenene wobugcisa kwinqanaba leenkcukacha kunye neendleko zokulungiselela. Imigangatho kulezi zihlandlo ijikelezwe kwimimandla yembonakalo yombonakalo, njengobuninzi beeleta, isimboli yemigca, amanqaku, ukuzalisa, isakhiwo, njl. nangona iimfundiso zenzululwazi zisalokhu zifana nexesha langoku. Ukunciphisa ubuchwephesha kwenza ukuba kuyimfuneko ukuphatha imizekelo eyahlukeneyo yeenkcukacha, kwizikali ezahlukeneyo.

Namhlanje sinemithombo yolwazi, iinkqubo zekhomputha kunye neenkcukacha ezixhunyiwe, ukwenzela ukuba iinguqu ezahlukeneyo ezinokwenene zingabonakaliswa kumzekelo ofanayo wedatha.

imigangatho yezobupolisa

Umzekelo wesampula yimeko enye yinkimbinkimbi yobomi bethu boqobo, isetyenziswe kwimeko yokulawulwa komhlaba:

  • Kukho impahla yokuqala.
  • Kwi-cusp iye yanikezela ilungelo kwinkampani yefowuni ukuxhaphaza ukusebenzisa kwayo iminyaka eyi-25.
  • Ukongezelela, kukho isitrato, esakhiwe yinkampani enomkhumbi, ongenalo kuphela ilungelo leendlela kodwa kunye noxanduva lokutshala iRandi ye-8,000 kulondolozo ngamnye ngonyaka.
  • Indlu yomnikazi isezantsi sitrato.
  • Ukongezelela, kukho indawo ephawulwe ngephuzi, enepropati efanelekileyo yinto yokuba umnikazi oshonile ubhale. Lo myalelo uthi unyana uya kuba ngumnini wepropati, xa athe watshata kwaye unyana wakhe wazalwa. Ngaphandle koko, ipropathi kufuneka ibe yipropati yoluntu. Unyana watshata, kodwa ufumene ukuba uyinyumba. Inkundla ephakamileyo ayikwazi ukusombulula nantoni na ngokuphathelele ukuthanda ukukhupha isivakalisi, ingakumbi ngoku ukuba umfazi uyatshatyalalisana kwaye akanako abantwana ...

Kucacile ukuba ityala lokugqibela ndagxininisa kuphela ukuba ndikhumbule ububanzi bezinto ezibonakalayo. Ukufika kwexesha lobukhompyutheni kubonisa ngokucacileyo into ebalulekileyo ekulawuleni ulwazi, kungekhona nje kuphela ukuba kuyimfuneko yokwenza iinkqubo zokusebenzisana kwabantu, kodwa nangenxa yokuba umdla wokwabelana ngolwazi kwiimeko zehlabathi lizwe jikelele. Kwimeko ISO 19152 ngumzekelo ocacileyo wokuba zonke ezi zinto zenzeke ekulawuleni umhlaba ziye zahlonyiswa, iiklasi ezikhoyo, iisklasi kunye neempawu ezichazwe kwimeko nganye.

Kunokuba anike ukuntsokotha kumba, esijoliswe LADM standard (ISO 19152) kukuncedisa iziko ophetheyo ekulawuleni ilizwe ilizwe ukuhlangabezana indima yayo generic, kungakhathaliseki ukuba inkangeleko yabo, udityaniso noqhagamshelo Registry - Cadastre, njl Kwaye loo nxaxheba iya kuba njalo:

  • Gcina ulwalamano lwamalungelo epropathi olutsha.
  • Ukubonelela ngoluntu malunga nale ngxelo.

Ukumodareyitha imodeli yesicelo semathematika kwixesha le-geospatial.

imibandela yokuziphatha

1. Umgangatho uyimbopheleleko yokulinganisa kwe-semantic.

Ubungqina bokuba umntu unobundlobongela, ngakumbi xa ukuthengiswa kweziphumo kukukhuphisana kakhulu, yonke imihla sisimangalisa izicelo ezintsha ezisekelwe kulawulo lweengxolo zendawo. Isidingo somgangatho sifana nje ukudala ukulinganisela phakathi sinikezelo yeenzuzo zeteknoloji kwimida yolwazi lwendawo, i-GIS, i-intanethi, umthombo ovulekileyo, izixhobo zokusebenza eziphezulu kunye, ngakwelinye icala imfuneko abantu, amaziko karhulumente kunye namaziko abucala ukuba asebenzisane nolwazi ngokufanelekileyo. Ubukho belemigangatho, lukwazisa ukuqwalaselwa kwemithetho kunye nemimiselo onokuyilungisa izinto eziyinyaniso phantsi kolwimi olufanayo lwe-semantic. Umgaqo-mvume wehlabathi jikelele owamkelekileyo we-international standard standardization (ISO) uvumela namhlanje, -kwimeko yejografi- ukuba ukuhamba okubandakanya ukufumana, ukucubungula, ukuhlalutya, ukuhanjiswa nokudluliswa kwedatha yendawo phakathi kwabasebenzisi abahlukeneyo, iinkqubo kunye neendawo ziququzelelwe. Ngenxa yoko, iinkampani eziye zazingena indawo yazo ngeemveliso okanye iinkonzo, ngoku zifuna ukwenza ukuthotyelwa kwimiqathango.

2. Indima ye-OGC kwimigangatho yegosati.

Kwimeko yeemeko ze-geospatial, amanqanaba amaninzi e-ISO ayenziwa yi- Vula i-Geospatial Consortium OGC -phambi kwe-Open GIS Consortium- ethatha inxaxheba kwiKomidi yobuGcisa (TC / 211) ejongene nezihloko zolwazi ngeendawo kunye ne-geomatics, ngokuqhelekileyo kwicandelo le-19000. Kwi-OGC, i-481 ngoku inxaxheba ithatha inxaxheba kwimibutho, phakathi kweenkampani, amaziko kunye namaziko karhulumente anxulumene neengqeqesho zeendawo ze-geospatial. Siyabulela kulo mzekelo, ukusebenzisana ngokusetyenziswa kobuchwepheshe kwimihlaba yendawo kuye kwaphuculiswa kakhulu. Kwakhona kuyimfuneko ukuqaphela ukuba inxalenye yokufaneleka kwe-OGC ngenxa yeendlela ezikhoyo zedemokhrasi yolwazi olukhuthaza ikhowudi yamahhala. Nangona i-OGC inelo gama ukususela kwi-1994, i-antecedent yayo ingenxa yokuzama ukuzinza komthombo omdala kunazo zonke i-Geographical Information System: i-GRASS, ekhoyo kusukela ngo-1970. Kwakumnandi ukubona, ukuba kukho ukungafihli amaziko karhulumente, amacandelo namazwe ngamazwe ukubethelela ukuzinza nokusetyenziswa kwemigangatho. Kuba Administration Land sinokungqinelwa amaphulo afana ZOMELEZA, leyo yamkela ISO 19152 njenge izifundo kulawulo lizwe, LANDxml.org yenye kunjalo, i-European Land Information Service EULIS kunye Isazobe efanayo.

3. Imingeni yabafundi abatsha kwindawo ye-geospatial.

xml uml umhlabaUkubaluleka kwangoku kwemigangatho yongqinisiso lwamatsha amashishini anxulumene nesifundo sejejethi, kungekhona nje kuphela ukwazi kodwa ukunyusa. Beyond lungabanjwa, ukuhlalutya, ukulawula kunye data zotshintshiselwano, imifuziselo kufuneka bakwazi ukufunda, ukutolika imithetho, iipatheni spatial nangaphezulu zonke iilwimi apho zibhalwa. Umngeni awulula. Imisebenzi emveli ababezahlule yokufakwa (abahloli, abahloli), nto leyo zihlalutywe (zejografi, iinjineli, zokuma), ekuthi kwezo nto kuphume izinto lokugqibela (mappers, draftsmen) kunye nabo neenkqubo zolawulo data (computer) . Ngoku zonke iinqununu zidibaniswe ekusebenziseni ubuchwephesha, obufuna ulwimi olumanyeneyo lwenkqubo, lo yi-UML.

Kodwa: Zingaphi imigangatho esifanele siyazi?

Siyazi ukuba kukho umngcipheko wokulahleka kumaphepha amaninzi, imithetho, imigaqo kunye neenkqubo. Ngaphandle kokusebenzisa imigangatho, esenzayo rhoqo xa sidibanisa uhla lwe-WMS, i-WFS, kulungele ukuba abaqeqeshi bajonge kulo mongo kancane kancane.

  • Kwimeko yokuqala, kuyilungele ukuba ujongisise iinkalo eziphambili zolimi lwe-UML. Oku kunokwenziwa ngokulandela ukwazi i-CSL (ulwimi lwe-schema yolwimi), kulula ukuqonda ukususela ekubeni ububanzi balo buyikimimiselo kwinqanaba lokukhutshwa kweli hlabathi. Siye senza oko ukususela esikolweni esiphakeme, xa senza iimephu zengqondo okanye iimephu zengqondo; ophuhlise ikhono lethu lokuqonda, ukuhlanganiswa, ukukhutshwa, kwaye i-CSL yimiqathango esetyenziswayo kweso ssimo.
  • Emva koko kuya kuba lula ukukwazi imimiselo ephambili, ngakumbi ezo ezihambelana nenkqubo yesikimu sabo ngaphakathi kwimijikelezo yokuveliswa kwedatha yendawo. Ukuze sibale ezinye, Space (ISO 19107), sixunela kwezingabonwayo (ISO 19108), Umgangatho (ISO 19115), Gazetteer (ISO 19112) kunye Udweliso metadata (ISO 19115).
  • Kwimeko yesithathu, kuya kulungeleka ukuqonda imimandla kwiinkqubo zekhompyutheni, ngokukodwa ezo zijoliswe kwiinkonzo (SOA), apho le nkqubo yoyilo ingabonwa ngokucacileyo kwimbono jikelele jikelele kwiindlela zokwenza iinkcukacha kunye nedatha.

Ekugqibeleni, ukubandakanywa kwemiqathango yeengqondo kwiimeko ze geospatial yimiba ethi, nangona yenza inxaxheba yoluchwepheshe olutsha kwiinkalo zezenzululwazi zomhlaba, yimbangela yokuqhelana okuqhubekayo kokusetyenziswa kolwazi lwemihlaba kwiinkqubo ezininzi zemihla ngemihla. Ukufunda ukuqonda imodeli kuya kuphucula amathuba okuba ngabaqeqeshi abalindele ukukhuphisana kwimeko entsha yendawo yokuhlala.

Shiya impendulo

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