I-Georeferencing ifayili ye-CAD

Nangona kungumxholo wezinto ezininzi ezisisiseko, ngokuqhelekileyo kubonakala kwizintlu zokuhambisa kunye ne-Google imibuzo. Akumangalisi ukuba ukuklanywa kwekhompyutheni kuthatha ixesha elide phantsi kweGrajine, i-Architecture kunye noKwakha ngelixa i-geospatial issue iye yazinxulumana nolawulo lwentsimi. Asikwazi ukulibala ukuba yonke imihla zoqeqesho zombini ukuguqulwa, kwinqanaba lokuba ii-AutoCAD kunye ne-Microstation ziquka ukuguqulwa kwemihlaba njengento eqhelekileyo kwiinguqulelo zakutsha (AutoCAD 2009 phezulu AutoCAD 2012 y Microstation XM kwiV8i).

Nangona kunjalo Dwg okanye Dgn unokukwazi ukufumana i-georeferencing kuboniswe kwiiprogram zabo, ukuvulwa kwesicelo se-GIS esingekho umenzi ofanayo ocinga ukuba ifayile ayinayo indawo. Kule georeferencing yeefayile ze-CAD isasetyenziswayo kwiinkqubo zohwebo olufanayo, ngoku ngoku. Inkqubo ye-GIS ayiyi kwenza imimangaliso ukuba ifayile ifakwe kwiinqununu ezingaqhelekanga okanye kwindawo engafanelekanga yeCartesian.

Makhe sibone ukuba nini, kutheni kwaye kunye ne-AutoCAD nangona kunjalo nanye nayiphi na inkqubo ye-CAD.

Kutheni i-georeferencing kwi-CAD inebunzima

Ngezizathu ezifanelekileyo, izicwangciso zokwakha zenziwe ngaphandle kokucinga malunga ne-georeferencing, kwaye oku kunezizathu ezahlukeneyo:

  • Senza izicwangciso zokukhangela ukulungelelaniswa kwesikrini. Nangona ehlabathini lokwenene isakhiwo sijikelezwa ngokubhekiselele kummandla wasezantsi, ngexesha lokutsala encinci sinomdla kuloo nto, sikhetha ukujikeleza isimboli senyakatho kwindiza.
  • Ngokuqhelekileyo izicwangciso zenziwe ngeenjongo zokwakha, ngoko sifuna iindlela zokuququzelela ukudala izicucu kunye neenkwenkwezi, kunye nokulungelelaniswa ekudalweni iindawo ukuprinta kufana nejometri.
  • Nangona kukho iindlela ukwenza iinkqubo reference particularized, akunakusebenza ukuba ukusebenza kunye uhlenga encinane logic, ubuncinane xa zisenza izicwangciso phantsi format yakwaNtu xa phantse yonke into yenzelwe orthogonally.
  • Xa sifuna ukwenza imephu yendawo, sidla ngokuba ngumfanekiso, iifoto okanye imephu ye-cadastral, sijikeleza kwaye siyilinganise ngenjongo yenkcazelo kodwa ngeembalwa ezimbalwa esicinga ukuba sisebenze kanye kweso sikhala.

i-georeference imephu

"Inkqubela yomsebenzi wobugcisa kufuneka ibonakaliswe, ngokukodwa, ekusebenzeni kwayo ukusuka kumbono womntu, ubuchule bezobugcisa abukwazi ukuchaza ubugcisa."

Alvar Aalto

Umyili wezakhiwo ndiyisebenzisa njengomzekelo

Kutheni i-georeferencing iyimfuneko

Indlela classic ukwenza izicwangciso zitshintshile, intshayelelo yokubumba kwenza ngcembe ukulungiselela iinkqubo imisebenzi apho into ukucinywa 3D okanye olungaphambili na japan ukusebenza.

Nangona oku kuhamba, kwiimeko ezininzi ziyaqhubeka zenziwe isitrato kwisityalo se-2D. Kodwa asimele sikhohlwe ukuba le nto ayinakuguqulwa, imfuno yokwenza iziphakamiso zokuhlalutya iziguquko zendawo kunye nendlela ye-BIM ngokunyukayo Izicelo zeCAD, njengoko kuboniswe kwi-Revit okanye ArchiCAD.

i-georeference imephu

Yiyiphi i-georeferencing ithetha

Ukujongana nokuziphatha, ubuncinane ubuncinane imiba kufuneka icatshangelwe:

1 Lungisa iiyunithi ukuya kumitha. i-georeference imephu Ukuba siya kuthumela kwinkqubo ecwangcisiweyo njenge-UTM, kuya kufuneka ukuba iiyunithi ziimitha. Kwiimeko ezininzi, iinqwelo zingathathwa kuthathwa njengeyunithi ii-millimeters okanye iisentimitha zesiXhosa.

Oku kwenziwa ngomyalelo units. Yaye apho satshintshela umboniso wohlobo lwezakhiwo zoMhlaba ukuya kwi-Decimal kwaye kwiiyunithi zamasentimitha ukuya kwiimitha. Ngokwenza utshintsho waphawula kwi bar yewonga kwaye utshintsho ifomu ukubonisa, kodwa oku awuyitshintshanga thina isikali umzobo, yaye ukuba umlinganiselo umnyango kufuneka umlinganiselo 2.30 ubonakala 92 emele intshi emele 7 '- 7. "

Ngoko kufuneka ulinganise umzobo owodwa, kulo mzekelo ukulingana nokuguqula amasentimitha ukuya kwiimitha, kuya kuba yi-0.0254.

  • Umyalelo wenziwa Isixa, inqaku lokubhekisa likhethiweyo, umlinganiselo wesikalo ubhaliwe kwaye ke ukungena.

2 Hambisa ifayile kwi UTM ulungelelanise.

Oku kufuna ukuba i-coordinated geographic coordinates, ingafunyanwa nge-GPS, ukusuka kwi-orthophoto ye-georeferenced, imephu ye-cadastral eye yakha isakhiwo okanye i-Google Earth ekugqibeleni kunye neengozi ezibandakanyeka ngokuchaneka kwayo. Kule meko, ngokomzekelo ndisebenzisa iGoogle Earth:

i-georeference imephu

I1

X = 3,273,358.77

Y = 4,691,471.10

I2

X = 3,274,451.59

Y = 4,691,510.47

Sifaka ezi ngongoma ngomyalelo indawo.

  • Umyalelo ufakwe indawo, kwenziwa ukungena, ulungelelwano lubhaliwe kwifom ye3273358.77,4691471.10 kwaye yenziwa ukungena.

Ngokufanayo kwenye indawo. Emva koko yonke imidwebo esiya kuhamba iya kukhethwa:

  • Myalelo shukuma, sicofa kwiqalo lokuqala elihambelana nekona lomdwebo ngaphandle kokuhamba, kwaye ngoko sibhala ukulungelelaniswa kwe-1; ukuba ungayibhala kwakhona sisebenzisa i-arrow cursor ukuya phezulu kwaye sibuyisele oko sitshintshile kwisinyathelo esedlule.

Ngelo xesha ukungena, umzobo uza kusishukumisela kwindawo yomdla njengoko kuboniswe kumfanekiso. Siya kusebenzisa umyalelo ubukhulu bomda ukuyibona Okanye kwibhodibhodi z, faka, e, faka.

i-georeference imephu

Ukuba asibukeli kakuhle kumaphuzu, sinokutshintsha ifomathi ngokusebenzisa umyalelo ddptype.

3 Guqula umzobo

Ngoku into ekhoyo kukuba ujikeleze umzobo ukusuka kwikhowudi ekhohlo esiyazi ukuba ilungile.

  • Zonke ezizojikelezwa zikhethiweyo, umyalelo ujikeleze, i-axis of rotation ibhalwe ngokuchofoza kwindawo ekhohlo (i-magenta point), ukhetho lukhethiweyo niselo, nqakraza kumacandelo amabini achaza i-vector rotation, kuqala kwindawo ye-magenta uze ube kwindawo ebomvu.

i-georeference imephu

Eli nyathelo lifana nokusebenzisa umyalelo ojikelezayo kunye namanqaku amathathu oku-Microstation, nangona apha i-horizontal ithathwa njengesiseko.

Yiyiphi enye into eyenziwayo yokubandakanya i-georeferencing?

Ngale nto, ifayili ayiyiyo i-georeferenced. Into esiyenzile ukuyibeka kwinkqubo yokucwangcisa ecwangcisiweyo, apho umntla wayo uhambelana nomntla weendawo kunye neendawo kunye ne-UTM.

Njalo xa uyibiza kwisicelo se-GIS, inkqubo iya kucela idata elifanayo elibandakanya ukuqikelela kunye neDatum. Ukuba sinquma ukwenza oku inkqubo yeGIS ngokusebenzisa isimiso sokulungiswa kufuneka sikhumbule ukuba kuya kwenza njalo imodeli, i Kuluhlu ziya kulahleka kunye ne-xml iimpawu xa ziphinde zithunyelwa kwi-dxf.

I-AutoCAD izisa isixhobo esibizwa ngokuba zendawo, ukuba siza kubona olunye usuku, kunye nokukhethwa kwe-georeference kunye nokuhlaselwa kwe-Microstation.

4 Ngxelo zangaphandle

Ukwenza le nqubo kuyenzeka kuphela ngenjongo yesikhashana yokwenza i-3D imifanekiso, eyaneleyo ukuthumela isityalo sokwakha. Ukuba sifuna ukwenza njengento esicacileyo kwiiprojekthi ezipheleleyo, kufuneka siqwalasele iingxelo zangaphandle -esiyisebenzisayo ukusindisa ukusebenza kunye neefayile ezinkulu okanye ukudibanisa abasebenzisi ezahlukeneyo- kodwa oko kuthetha ukuhlukana kweefayili ezihambelanayo kwindawo yokusebenzela. Ukuba senza oku ngefayile, ezo zimele zizinze.

Kwakhona into yokuba ngamanye amaxesha ifayile enye iyakopishwa ngaphakathi kwayo imodeli, ukunyathelisa injongo ... ngelixa ucinga ngokulahleka iindawo.

"Ngenye imini naphi na, naphi na bekuza ngokwakho, nokuba, kuphela, uyakwazi kuba ngabona bavuyayo okanye kakhulu krakra leeyure zakho."

Pablo Neruda

Ndiyazi, inxalenye yeso sikhundla sinako, isiphelo asikho nto emfutshane yokudaka; kodwa kungekudala okanye kamva kufuneka sikwenze, ngakumbi xa kuthengwa umthengi ofuna ukubona into enjengale:

i-georeference imephu

Iimpendulo ze-19 kwi-"Georeferencing iFayile yeFayile"

  1. Eli nqaku lihle kakhulu.
    Ingxaki kwaye sonke sizama ukuyisombulula.
    Ngamaxesha amaninzi ngaphandle kokuphumelela.

  2. hello umbuzo yam ndiya kusebenza kakhulu kunye sendawo 3d yoluntu, kwaye 600 nokulungelelanisa amanqaku, kwaye ixabiso lwedata 3d civil kwaye georreferenciarlo, indawo ngoko ke umfanekiso satellite 3d aseburhulumenteni ukufiphala apho kuya kubakho umyalelo ukuze ibe ngaphezulu ukubonakala kwendawo.

  3. Ewe, andizange ndiyazi ukuba ndiphendule, kuya kufuneka ukuba ndibone ukuba ungena ngokufanelekileyo kwimigca yokuvela okanye kwindawo.

  4. Molo, ndenza routine kwaye ukundishiya cingela ukuba xa uhambisa umfanekiso apho ufuna (kunye uququzelelo), ukufudukela kwindawo entsha ezichaza ukuba sele unayo uququzelelo echanekileyo, yaye am akafuni kundinika ezinye izilungelelaniso kunye neziphakamiso ezingenanto nento endiyifunayo, ndiyenza njani?

  5. Ewe, into yokuqala ukufaka izilungelelaniso zakho zefayile kwi CAD.
    Emva koko, biza iFayili yefayili njengendlela yokubhekisa, kwaye uyishukumisele kwaye uyijikeleze ngokuhambelana nezicwangciso ezichongiweyo.

  6. Sawubona!

    Ndibhalela ukucela uncedo kweli nqaku. Ndiyathanda kakhulu umsebenzi ondizama ukuyenza kodwa awusebenzi, okanye andizange ndiwaqonde onke amanyathelo.

    1 Ndinefayile (cad) ngendiza ngaphandle kweenkcukacha.
    2 Ndinefayili enkulu kunye ne-50 UTM ethathe ngqo kwindawo yelo moya.
    3 Injongo kukujonganisa i-ndege kwaye ikwazi ukufaka i-UTM njengamaphuzu.

    Ezi ngongoma ziza kukhonza, ukuqhubeka nokusebenza kumzobo, oya kuba sele uguqulwa, kodwa oku akunakucaluleka, ngokubonisana.

    Siyabonga ngewebhusayithi epheleleyo kubathi bethu abafana no-cad, kwaye bathi xa umntu enokuncedisa, ndingachaza oko ndimele ndenze okanye ngento ukuze ndikwazi ukwenza onke amanyathelo achazwe.

    Imuchas Gracias

  7. into kuphela akazange aqonde ebengazi ukuba ufumana njani iingongoma X kunye Y, kuba kuwo umhlaba wam google kundinika efanayo alungelelanisa ezi 25 ° 43'29.97 "N - 100 ° 22'39.55" Owu, okanye ukuba singathi nje ukuguqula kwiindawo ze-X neY, mbulela ...

  8. Siyabonga, Mario.
    Into oyikhankanyiyo iyinyani. Ukuba bekukho umgangatho onokwenziwa ngabavelisi ... nangona kungekho lula.

  9. Iifayile ze-CAD mazibe nefayili "yendawo yonke", oko kukuthi, ii-georeferencing ziyavunywa kungazi ukuba zivelaphi. Ndihlala ndifanele ukuba ndenze iifayile ze-DWG ze-georeference yophando oluphezulu nge-orthophoto, apho ama-ArcGis engandiboniyo athi georeference. Ndiyakuvuyela eli nqaku, ndilifumene eliluncedo. Imibuliso

  10. Ngokwenyani, andizibonanga izicelo ezininzi ze-iPad ezikuvumela ukuba uvule ifayile ye-kmz. Okwenzekayo kukuba i-kmz yifayile edityanisiweyo (njenge-.zip okanye i-.rar), equlathe ngaphakathi kwe-kml okanye imifanekiso emininzi ye-gelfolt okanye equlathwe kwifayile ye-kmz efanayo.

    Zama ukubona ukuba isebenza njani le KMZ Loader, uMhleli wam weMephu, iMapBox, uMbonisi we-PoI, uMhleli weMephu, iGPS-Trk

    Eyona nto ibaluleke kakhulu yi-GIS pro, kodwa ixabisa imali eninzi.

    Enye ingxaki kukuba nangona ezinye zezicelo zifuna ukuxhasa i-composz kmz, ezinye ziqhuba iGoogle Earth ifakwe kwi-iPad, kwaye oku akufumaneki kuwo onke amazwe, ngakumbi kwiLatin America.

  11. Ndiyawuncoma kwi blog yakho, ndifuna ukucela inceba, akwazi ukuba aphawule kum njengoko unako ukulayisha inqwelo-moya leyo CAD wayijika ibe buyimilo (ifoto) ukuya KMZ (KML) ifayile kwaye andikwazi ndiyibone on iPad wam. Ndizamile yonke into kwaye andifumananga. Kubonakala kucacile, kodwa andiyazi indlela yokwenza ngayo. Kukho ezinye izicelo ezivumela ukulayisha i-KMZ, kodwa kuncinci (izikhundla kuphela), Ndiyabonga kakhulu!

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