Ngobuciko oxhomekeke Cadastral njongo - ndlela, intsebenziswano, yobugcisa okanye yimfeketho?

Kukho nge-2009 ndichaze indlela yokwenza inkqubo ukuguquka kweCadastre kamasipala, ekuthiwa kwimilo yayo yemvelo iphakamisa inkqubela phakathi kwezizathu zokuba i-cadastre ithatha iinjongo zerhafu ngendlela yangaphambili, kwaye ukuba kufuneka njani ukudibanisa idatha, abadlali kunye nobuchwepheshe bathatha ukudibanisa imeko.

Kwi-2014 i-Cadastre 2034 ichaze ukuba ukuvela kombono wenqaku le- "Cadastre", apho ukubekwa phambili kukamasipala, ingingqi okanye ilizwe, kubaluleke ngaphezu kokucacisa, kuthathelwa ingqalelo ukuba idatha iya kuhlaziywa ngokuthe ngcembe. Into efana nenkqubo yam yaloo minyaka, kwinto esasiyibiza ngokuba yi "kulawulo lwemeko yendawo» ukuthatha ithuba lokuphathwa kwe- "geomatic management".

Fit ngenjongo: Umqhubi?

Enye igrafu iyathathwa ikhondo lam wokugqibela woLawulo loMhlaba kwi CIAF of Colombia, kwaye kubonisa indlela Cadastre 2034 elizayo iye yaphakamisa inxaxheba lwabasebenzisi ekuhlaziyeni idatha ngexesha lokwenene yaye efake ulwazi ngendlela apha naphaya ngenjongo

Kwaye iColombia iya kuba ngumqhubi wenqwelomoya ovavanyiweyo apho sinokuvavanya oko kubizwa ngokuba yi- "Fit for Moreuse" Cadastre, ngokuphoxeka koko kwenziwe kwi-Afrika kwaye kubonakala ngathi kuyinto elizothe kwimeko apho indlela, ukuchaneka kunye Inkqubo sele ibaluleke ngaphezu komsebenzisi ngokwakhe.

Siza kubona nokuphoxeka kokwenza i "cadastre engachanekanga" kwindawo esele inesidanga; Yintoni eya kuba ngaphaya komdla.

En I-GIM International ishicilelwe inqaku elinomdla kakhulu ngokubhekisele kwi "Cadastre" ehlengahlengisiweyo. Nangona kusenokubonakala kububudenge, uvavanyo lwentsimi oluye lwenziwa eKenya luye lwaquka izinto ezingaguqukanga ngaphambili kweemeko ezifanayo: Amaqumrhu kaRhulumente, iTekhnoloji kunye noLuntu.
Nangona kunjalo, ngokwenene abalobi balo, le ncoko yokuqala ibe 'amava okufunda' apho 'iimvavanyo ezipheleleyo kufuneka ziqhutyelwe ukubonisa ukungahambi kwalo ndlela', kubonakala ngathi le nyathelo lokuqala Kwindlela 'yendlela', umsebenzi ofanayo ungenziwa ngokufanelekileyo kwaye, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ulungelelaniswe. Umzekelo ongaphinda uhlaziywe emva koko, ukucacisa ukulungelelaniswa kumxholo ngamnye.
Ngokukhawuleza ufika engqondweni yengingqi yaseLatin yaseMelika kunye neengxaki zayo ezibanzi. Apho kukho uluntu lwemveli uyawalwela ukuqondwa umhlaba wookhokho babo, uluntu abafudukayo ukuba ziwahlasele lwedolophu (ebizwa ngokuba 'sikweni') okanye ubunini iimbambano phakathi kwezinye iimeko kunye, nangona okuvelisa amaphulo ukonga, zonke kubonakala kubonisa ukuba iziganeko zenzeka ngokucothayo kakhulu kwaye ngenkani unyanzelisa ngqo phambili kwimimandla esezidolophini.

Njengomhlobo wam wasePeruvia uthi, Nan,Kwimvelaphi sonke sichaza ibali elifanayo ngokuphindaphindiweyo' Akunjalo ngenxa yokuba siyingcali, kodwa ngenxa yokuba ezi zinto zithobela kuphela ukuqonda okulula. Kunomdla ukuba omnye wabalobi beli nqaku OngumKristu uLimmen, endayibhala ngalo loo nqaku kulo nyaka u2009idatha kwi cadastre«, Ebhekisa kwinto ebisiluncedo kuthi eHonduras ukusukela ngonyaka we-2003 kwindawo ebizwa ngokuba yi-" Core Cadastre Domain Model », isixhobo sokuqala kwento esiyaziyo namhlanje njenge-" Land Managementation Domaination Domain Model ". Nangona le nguqulo ebizwa ngokuba yi-CCDM yeLimmen yatshintshwa xa iphuma njenge-ISO 19152, ukulula akutshintshanga, kuba kukho amanani amathathu aphambili emodeli.

Umgangatho LADM inika bonanzas ukuba kusenokwenzeka ukuba ayigqitywanga zazisebenzisela ngokuba le njongo, nangona kunjalo, ukuba kukho yaphakamisa imiba efana into yokuba iyelenqe kubonwa nje model (hayi imaphu) banokuvuselwa ngokusebenzisa iindlela ezingezo-ngqo kwaye ngcono ngayo ngamaxesha wempawu zolawulo ukuchaza umgangatho, ukuchaneka nokufaneleka.

Kuyafaneleka ngenjongo: i-Synergy?

Ngaphambi kokuqhubela phambili ukushwankqisa amava eKenya, ndingathanda ukuqwalasela ibinzana lokuqala labalobi:

"Iindlela ezifanelekileyo zokulawula umhlaba eKenya ziye zazama, zijolise ekunikezeni izihloko zomhlaba kunye nokufakwa kuzo zonke ngendlela efikelelekayo, ngokukhawuleza nangendlela 'efanelekileyo'. Injongo eso sishwankathelo singabhalwa ngokuthi: 'Ukubonelela ngezihloko zepropati, ezibandakanya bonke abadlali kwinkqubo ukwenzela ukufezekisa umphumo onokuthenjelwayo onokuzikhawuleza'. Indlela abayifumene ngayo iba sisizathu soluhlalutyo lwangoku.

Isiza eyakhethwayo kule County of Makueni eKenya, uvavanyo lwaqhutywa yi-Institution of abahloli of Kenya, i-National Ministry of Lands, ngeZindlu kunye noPhuhliso ezisezidolophini kunye neSebe of Lands, Mines and County Planning Physical Makueni, kunye ngokuhlanganyelana nabaniki-software ne-hardware zisetyenziselwa le njongo.
Njengenqaku lokuqala ebalulekileyo lugxininisa ingqalelo arhente zikarhulumente ukuze igqiza leengcali (baseKenya abahloli kunye nezixhobo lobugcisa Kadaster International) ekube kuphela uhlobo protocol kodwa waphawulwa kunokuba yi ukukulungela ufuna ukufunda ngalo imfuneko, ukubaluleka kunye neziphumo zale projekthi ethe yabonisa ngokucacileyo (ngamazwi wababhali) kwi "iingxoxo eninzi le ndlela: nxaxheba, umgangatho, iindleko, ixesha ukusebenza, imfuno eziphezulu monumentar, ukuchaneka kuthelekiswa coverage , njl "ungadibanisa umdla uMphathiswa kaZwelonke of Lands kwaye ulandele-up uvavanyo olwenziwa nguMphathiswa Lands.
Isibini sibalulekileyo. Ukuthatha inxaxheba kulo lonke uluntu ekuphuhliseni umsebenzi. Ababhali musa ukuthandabuza bazingqinayo: ". I-nxaxheba yoluntu kusisiseko impumelelo" bahlanganisa ukuba, njengoko uphando cadastral wafuna uncedo abamelwane, amalungu entsapho, njl, abantu abadala baye kwaziswa kwangethuba kunye nabahlali ukuba "baqinisekise ukuqonda kunye nokubandakanyeka kwabo bonke amaqela"; apho ibonisa ukuba indima yolwazi lizaliseke injongo yokuba aqondwe "Wonk 'ukwazi ukuhlola inkqubo entsimini." Kwaye ngaphandle, ulwazi oluqokelelweyo yadluliselwa kwindawo GIS ezisekwe efini, nabani na unako ukulandela inkqubo , ukudala uhlobo 'lokuthatha inxaxheba ekude.'

Yanyanzeleka ukuba ifumane isishwankathelo sobudlelwane obuphakathi kwabantu nomhlaba wobunini ngokusesikweni nobunokungekho semthethweni, kubandakanya ukubanjwa nokuhlala emhlabeni. Amabango kunye neengxabano kufuneka ziboniswe, kuba kwakubalulekile ukuba abasemagunyeni bafumane isishwankathelo seendawo zeendawo okanye imida ephikisanayo. Le "mephu yengxabano" yindawo yokuqala yokuxhasa iinkqubo zokuxazulula ukungqubana. Ukuhlala ucinga ngesizukulwana semodeli yendlela yesizwe enokuthi ixhaswe luluntu lwendawo ephezulu.
Kwimeko yeengxabano zendawo, abo bachaphazelekayo kufuneka 'bavumelane' bobabini kwindawo ephikisanayo kunye nendawo yabo. Njengoko ngethuba lokwabiwa kwintsimi, ukugqithiswa kwenziwa phakathi kwama-polygons akhiqiweyo, 'i-mapped' ukuze iziphathamandla ezihambelanayo zingakwazi indawo ekhoyo kunye nohlobo lweengxabano ezikhoyo.

Ukuhlolwa koluntu kunye nezinye iinkqubo eziqhelekileyo (ngokuqhelekileyo ezenziwa ngumkhandlu wendawo) zivame ukuqhutyelwa kwiintlanganiso zedolophu ngokubambisana nabantu abathathu abathembekileyo. Kulapho, amalungu omphakathi adibana ukuze abone yonke idatha eqoqwe kwimephu, ukuxoxa nokuxolelanisa iziphumo. Ngethuba lokuvavanya kwintsimi, iinkcukacha ezinikeziweyo zaqinisekiswa ngokuvakalayo luluntu.

Kuyafaneleka ngenjongo: I-Technique?

Iteknoloji esetyenziswayo

Indawo yokuyila isekelwe kwisicelo se-ESRI sokulawula ukuqokelela idatha. Oku kusetyenziswe ngokudibanisa ne-submetric ukuchonga idivayisi ye-GPS ye-Trimble, esebenzisa uxhumano lweBluetooth. Le nto yayilungeleke kakhulu kwilizwe leentaba ngenxa yobunzima bayo obuphantsi. Isixhobo se-GPS esibanjwe ngesandla sidinga uphawu lokulungiswa kweempawu zendawo ze-GPS kunye nokuchaneka kwe-meter kwanele, ngoko-ke oku kungekho izixhobo ezichanekileyo ezichanekileyo.
Indlela yohlengahlengiso ngeenjongo icebise ukusetyenziswa "kwemida yokubonwayo" ukuchonga ukuncitshiswa kwamalungelo omhlaba. Njengakwiindawo ezisemaphandleni zaseKenya kukho imida ebonakalayo yendalo, abantu balapha benza eminye imida besebenzisa izityalo zesasal. Ngale ndlela yonke imida yayilula ukuyichonga ebaleni nakwimifanekiso yesatellite. Emva kokuchongwa ebaleni, imida yokubonwayo yadwetshelwa kusetyenziswa ipensile okanye "umzobo wedijithali" kusetyenziswa izixhobo ze-GPS kwimifanekiso.

Ulawulo lweenkcukacha

Emva kokuqokelela idatha yenkalo, kwafuneka ihlolwe ingqibelelo kwaye ilungiselelwe ukuhlolwa koluntu emva koko. Kufuneka udweliso ukubonisa idatha yendawo, ngokubhekiselele ekubaleni kweendawo eziqhelekileyo zemida esekelwe kumnikelo wommelwane kwicala ngalinye lomda.

Inkqubo endle

Umsebenzi wasemzimbeni wawuquka ekudaleni ulwalamano lwabo bonke ubudlelwane phakathi kwabantu kunye namazwe akhoyo, kubandakanywa ubunikazi obungasesikweni nabungabonakaliyo bomhlaba kunye namabango akhona. Abahlali kunye namafama bamenywa ukuba bahambe iiperimeters zeenjongo zabo kwaye baveze imida yabo imida ngokusebenzisa i-antenna ye-GPS. Umphenyi ubhale ingxelo ngokusebenzisa isicelo. Imifanekiso ye-satellite yesithili iboniswe kwisikrini se-GPS yeselula. ukuqokelelwa kwedatha wenziwa ngendlela ehlangeneyo: iiperimeter igcinwe njenge yepholigoni evaliweyo kuquka uhlobo ilungelo ntoni umnini ifoto okanye isicelo kweso kwakunye ukuchongwa photo ikhadi umnini okanye kummangali kongezwa. Isihlomelo sokuqala sasisetyenziswe njengesiqhosha soqhagamshelwano. Ukuchana khange isekelwe phezu geometry, kodwa kunokuba yayigxile ekuhlanganiseni iinkcukacha kunye nolawulo lomhlaba, okt xa kudityaniswa abantu maninzi. Ekubeni abemi befuneka ukuba banikele ubungqina besazisi babo, urhulumente kufuneka amelelwe phantsi. Oku kubaluleke kakhulu ukuphumelela kule ndlela.

Kuyafaneleka ngenjongo: Ahluke?

Uvavanyo lwentsimi olwenziwa eMakeni County lubonise ukuba ukuqokelela idatha yeenkcukacha kunye nokuphathwa kwedatha kunokwenziwa ngendlela edibeneyo, inxaxheba, ngokukhawuleza, efikelelekayo kwaye ethembekileyo. Abaphandi babini baqokelela idatha kwi-40 iziqendu kwindawo yeeyure ezintandathu kwintsimi kwaye iziphumo zamukelwa kakuhle. Nangona kunjalo, ukucwangciswa komthetho kunye neziko kufuna ukunqwalasela ukuze kusetyenziswe indlela, kwaye ininzi yabathathi-nxaxheba iyavuma ukuba idinga ukunakekelwa okungakumbi ukuze wonke umntu athole itayitile yabo yesitifiketi.
Xa ufumana ukugqithiswa kwezicwangciso unxibelelwano olunokuthenjwa olufunekayo luhlobo olufanelekileyo kunye nomnini. Ngako oko, kwakucatshangelwa ukuba kubekho ukubeka ii-beacons nokuqhuba uphando oluchanekileyo kamva, ngexesha lesigaba sokugcina, enokuthi kwenziwe ngabantu abanjalo.
Kulinganiselwa ukuba, ngeli xesha, malunga ne-20% yeepakethi zomhlaba eKenya zihlolwe (ngendlela enye okanye enye) kwaye zibhaliswe. Iindleko zamanje zokwabela, ukubalalisa, ukuhlola, ukuza nokubhalisa i-plot yehektare ezimbini eKenya malunga nama-dollar ambalwa kwiqhinga ngalinye. Ngokubhekiselele kwiindleko ezipheleleyo, kucacile ukuba akukho ukufumaneka okubonelelwe ukuba izicwangciso ziyacetyiswa ukuba zifakwe kwi-registry kwisilinganiso se-15.000.000.
Imibuzo emininzi ihlale isetyenziselwa kwaye isetyenziswe kwixesha elizayo. Phakathi kwazo kukugcina nokulawula idatha edibeneyo. Sebenzisa ii-subset ze-cadastral okanye i-registry data? Ngokufanayo, omnye umbuzo uhambelana nokugcinwa kwedatha, ngaba kufuneka igcinwe ngokupheleleyo kwifomathi yedijithali okanye ngaba kufuneka ifakwe inkcazelo eprintiweyo? Enye indlela kunokushiya ikopi eprintiweyo yomfanekiso wesathelayithi ukuba igcinwe ngabantu basekuhlaleni.

Isiphelo

Ngokungathandabuzekiyo kucacile ukuba oku kuza kukhuthazwa ukukhawulezisa umlinganiselo amalungelo abo abondliwa. I-Synergy, engenakukhutshwa; kule nhlanganisela ehambisa iteknoloji kunye ne-geolocation yangaphakathi yoluntu. Practice ngokuqinisekileyo ukuphuhlisa iindlela abangakholwayo yemveli neentloni, esebenzisa FLOSSOLA uhlobo izicelo izixhobo mobile logama nje ukulungisa ukuchaneka umehluko lunedemokhrasi ngakumbi. Ixesha kuphela, ukuthotyelwa kwemigangatho nokuthobeka xa ubhekene nezikhubekiso kunokubonisa ukuba akusizi.

Ndicetyiswa ukuba ndiyazi into eyenzekayo eColombia, kunye nabaqhubi beCadastre abaninzi. Xa i-LADM inxulumene nenjongo, i-INTERLIS kunye neengqondo ezivulekileyo zingabakho izithako ze-geofundada kunye neengcamango ezingenakwaziyo ngabantu baseYurophu, ekubeni iimfuno zabo ekuhlaleni komhlaba zihluke ngokupheleleyo kwiimeko zethu zelizwe. iindlela zokuphuhliswa, okanye njengoko umlawuli athi: ilawulwa ngaphantsi.

Shiya impendulo

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Le sayithi isebenzisa i-Akismet ukunciphisa ugaxekile. Funda indlela idatha yakho yokubhaliweyo isetyenziswe ngayo.