Ukunaba Urban, isihloko 2011

Inkomfa yabemi iya kuba sefashini kulo nyaka -kunye nezi zilandelayo- kuba akukho nto enokuyenza ukujongana nezisombululo kwihlabathi. Ugxininiso lwalo nyaka kwiSizwe-Geographics ngokuchanekileyo kubemi behlabathi ngokuhlwayela i-7 billion. Inkqubo yeJanuwari yintlanganiso yeklasi.

natgeo

I-Lincoln Institute of Poitorial Policies iye yalungiselela izinto ezininzi kunye nezixhobo zophando ezivela kwelinye uphando lwezixeko ze-3,000 ezidlulileyo kwabemi be-2000 kunyaka lwe-100,000.

Impapasho endiyithandayo kakhulu yincwadi ebizwa ngokuba cwangciso lwe dolophuUkwenza indawo yeeplanethi yezixeko. Umbiko othakazelisayo ohlalutya ixesha elidlulileyo, langoku kunye nekamva lokukhula kwedolophini emhlabeni jikelele. Iphakamisa umgaqo omtsha weendlela esifanele sizilungiselele ngayo ukukhula kwiminyaka ezayo.
Umsebenzi omkhulu Ingelosi, uShlomo, kunye noJason Parent, uDaniel L. Civco, kunye no-Alejandro M. Blei. Ungayithenga kwinguqu eprintiweyo ye-US $ 15 kwaye ukhupha kwifomati yefayili mahhala (kufuneka ubhaliswe kuphela kwiphepha). Ngonyaka we-2012, ukupapashwa kwezinto ezibizwa ngokuba Ukwandiswa kwamadolophu, ngokuqinisekileyo ibe yiphakamiso esithakazelisayo ekufuneka iquke imifanekiso ICharter Cities, ondikhumbuza ngemigaqo ye-Facebook yeCitiVilles kunye nokuba kuyingozi ukudala iingxaki ezintsha zezopolitiko kuba nangona isiphakamiso esinomdla kakhulu, abaninzi bayibona njengendlela entsha yekoloniyaliyali.

Esinye isiqulatho se-Lincoln Institute, esoloko kulo mbandela Iiplastiki zandiso lweedolophu. Le ngqokelela ebalulekileyo yeenkcukacha ezitholakalayo ekukhutsheni eziqukethe imephu kwifomati yesithombe, i-kml kunye nama-xls amaphepha asebenza njengesiseko sokwakhiwa kwe-nabanyeuxwebhu olukhankanywe ngasentla. Kukho nedatha kwifomathi ye-GIS ukuze kufundwa kwinkqubo ye-GIS.

Oku kuhlelwe ngamacandelo amahlanu:

1 Inxalenye yokuqala, kukho iifoto ze-jpg kwifom yeebini ezidibeneyo njengokushicilela kumafowuni. Omnye umfanekiso uqukethe idatha yeenkcukacha kunye nemifanekiso, ezinye iimephu zokusetyenziswa komhlaba osemadolobheni ezakhiwe ngeendlela eziqhelekileyo zokubona kunye nemifanekiso yesatellite kwimimandla yamadolophu Iidolophu ze120 ngamaxesha amabini: Omnye uthathe kufuphi ne-1990 ngonyaka kunye nesibini kwi-10 iminyaka kamva kwi-2000.

Imephu-yesithoba-iindawo-ze-2000
Imephu ephezulu ibonisa indawo yeedolophu ze-120, imibala yimizi njengoko isifundo sidibene. Njengomzekelo ndishiya ibini leMadrid.

Imephu ye-2000-madrid 2000-madrid

2 Inxalenye yesibini yee-atlas ziquka ukufundiswa kokukhula komlando kwabantu Iidolophu ze25, ukuhlaziywa kweemephu ukusuka kwi-1800 ekupheleni kwexesha eligqityiweyo. Loo mizi 25 zisasazwe, njengoko kuboniswa kwimephu ilandelayo: 7 e Melika, eYurophu 4, 6 eAfrika, 12 1 eAsia Oceania.

imephu-esithoba-yehlabathi-iindawo-zembali

Imifanekiso engezantsi ngumzekelo wecala lommandla waseMexico. Ngasekhohlo imimandla kuhlawulwa yi-ndawo zavela 1807 2000 phezulu, kwaye ngasekunene idatha labemi, leehekthare igqunyiweyo, ukuxinana imizobo kunye nemephu endala ummeli.

imbali-mexico-dolophu-imephu kwimbali-i-mexico-idolophu

3 Icandelo lesithathu Iquka itafile kwi-Excel kunye nayo yonke idatha exhasa umsebenzi we-15 kunye ne-120 idolophu. Ngaphandle, kuba iifayile ze-Excel zivumela ukuba sibone olu datha ngokwemiba yethu.

4 Icandelo lesine iquka idatha ekufuneka iboniswe kwiiprogram ze-GIS. Zombini geometries imimandla yolawulo ngeengcamba .shp .dbf kunye .shx yokwenza nayiphi na inkqubo, njengoko .prj iifayile georeferencing, .img ukubonisa yeraster kwaye .lyr ukubona umaleko ngempahla theming kunye nesakhiwo ArcGIS.

5 Icandelo lesihlanu Iquka ulwazi lweedolophu ze-3,646 kwiphepha le-Excel kunye nakwifayile ye-kml nayo yonke indawo yasezidolophini ezifundwe, ukuyijonga ngeprogram ye-GIS okanye Umhlaba ka-Google.

Ngamafutshane, izinto ezixabisekileyo ezinokuba luncedo kakhulu kubafundi, ngamagosa karhulumente, abaphandi, abacwangcisi kunye nabantu abandakanyekayo kwimicimbi yophuhliso loluntu.

Zombini i-atlas kunye nexwebhu libonelela ngesakhelo sengqiqo kwaye, kubonakala kwinqanaba lokuqala, idatha ebhaliweyo yexesha elidlulileyo, elikhoyo kunye nekamva kwimizi yasezidolophini emhlabeni jikelele. Ivula imbono yomngeni esingazi ukuba ungayilungisa njani kwiminyaka emashumi alandelayo.

Kuba ngoku andiyikubona ukuba kunokwenzeka ukuyithenga kwi-CD okanye kwiDVD, kuba ukukhuphela kufuneka kwenziwe ngokwabo.

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