Ulawulo lweprojekthi: phakathi kwemingeni eyenziwa yinjineli yomntu eklasini

Emva kokugqiba umsebenzi kunye nokugqweswa njengejinjini, ukuzaliseka kwesinye seenjongo abafundi abasenzayo xa beqala izifundo zabo zaseyunivesithi zihlanganisiwe. Kubaluleke nakakhulu ukuba umsebenzi ogqityiweyo uhlala kwindawo enomdla. Ubunjineli bezobugcisa ngumsebenzi wokuba unyaka emva kweminyaka ukhuthaza amawaka abafundi ukuba babhalise kwiiyunivesithi benethemba lokuba xa begqibile izifundo zabo baya kuba nensimu enkulu yomsebenzi apho bangahlakulela khona izakhono zabo zobuqu kunye nezakhono; kuba ihlanganisa isifundo, iprojekthi, ulwalathiso, ukwakhiwa kunye nokulawulwa kwemisebenzi kula masebe alandelayo: ucoceko (amanzi, amanzi, ukucocwa kwamanzi, ukuphathwa kwamanzi, njl), indlela (iindlela, iindlela, amabhuloho, ii-airports, njl.), izixhobo zamanzi (amamamitha, amadama, ama-docks, imingxube, njl.), kunye nezakhiwo (ukuhlaliswa kweedolophu, izindlu, izakhiwo, izindonga, i-tunnels, njl.

Ukulawulwa kweeprojekthi zokwakha ngenye yeengxoxo ukuba yonke imihla iheha abaninzi oonjiniyela bezithuthi ukuba bazinikezele kule nsima yobugcisa, kwaye abo bazama ukuqalisa iiprojekthi ngaphandle kokuba balungiselele, baphelise ukubandezeleka kwemiphumo nokuqonda ukuba kwikholeji yaseyunivesithi akuwona wonke ulwazi olufunekayo lunikezelwa ukujongana nomngeni walo mkhulu.

Ukuze uphumelele ekulawulweni kwiprojekthi yokwakha, kufuneka ube nolwazi olubanzi kwimimandla eyahlukeneyo yolwazi kunye neminyaka emininzi yamava, kodwa izakhono ezongezelelweyo zifunekayo ezingafundwa kwigumbi lokufundela, njengoko zizinto ezinxulumene nazo. ngengqiqo yengqondo kunye nokuphuhliswa kobudlelwane obundlelana nabo.

Iprojekthi yimizamo ecwangcisiweyo, yesikhashana kunye neyodwa, eyenziwe ukudala iimveliso ezikhethekileyo okanye iinkonzo ezongeza ixabiso okanye ezibangela ukuba utshintsho luncedo. Zonke iiprojekthi ziyahlukileyo kwaye nganye yazo iveza imeko kunye nemingeni efuna ubuchule kunye nobunzima ukwazi indlela yokuzisombulula ngendlela engcono. Nangona kunjalo, wonke umntu oqala kwiprojekti yolawulo ngeprojekthi ethile yokuqala, kwaye siza kuzama ukukubonisa ezinye iingcebiso malunga nendlela yokujongana nayo ngendlela engcono.

Iingcebiso ezilungileyo kakhulu esinokuzibonelela ngeenjineli zomhlaba eziceba ukunikela ngobomi babo bobugcisa kwiindawo zokulawulwa kweprojekthi, kukuba kufuneka baqale ngokukhawuleza emva kokugqiba ukunyusa ulwazi lwabo lweengcali kulo mbandela kwaye indlela eyona ndlela ingcono ukwenza i-degree degree, i-postgraduate okanye uthathe izifundo ezizodwa kulo mbandela. Iprojekthi yoLawulo lweProjekthi (PMI), inhlangano engenzi nzuzo kunye nenye yeyona mibutho ephezulu kakhulu yobungcali kwihlabathi, kunye nesigidi sezigidi eziqinisekisiweyo kumphathi weprojekthi kumazwe angama-150, sisona sikhewu sokuqala sokufunda kwinqongo yeeprojekthi ngokusebenzisa imigangatho kunye nokuqinisekiswa kwayo, eyaziwayo kwihlabathi jikelele, kwaye iyalela ukuba ijikeleze ihlabathi ngokusebenzisa intsebenziswano. Unokufumana ulwazi oluninzi malunga nokuqinisekiswa kwe-PMI kwiwebhusayithi yabo: www.pmi.org. Ezinye iinketho emhlabeni jikelele zingahlaziywa kwiwebhusayithi: www.master-maestrias.com. Apho i-44 ibonisa ukhetho lomphathi kwiprojekthi, kumazwe ahlukeneyo. Ezinye zezi zifundo ziyakuthatyathwa ngokukhawuleza kwaye ngokufanelekileyo, njengoko kunjalo Inkqubo yoBugcisa kwiProjekthi yoLawulo (PMP).

Ukujongana nale projekthi yokuqala, ngokuqhelekileyo kufuneka ibe yincinci, sincoma ukuba sicinge ngale miba elandelayo:

  • Ukuphonononga, ukufunda kunye nokuphanda kakuhle kunye neenkcukacha ngokuphathelele kwiprojekthi, unembopheleleko njengomphathi kwaye kufuneka wenze izigqibo ezibalulekileyo zobugcisa ngexesha lolawulo lonke. Ekupheleni kweli nqanaba kufuneka wazi yonke inkqubo yokwakha kunye nobubanzi ngokwemali, ixesha kunye nomgangatho ofunekayo ukuwugqiba ngokupheleleyo.
  • Lungiselela iinjongo zakho kunye neenjongo. Yintoni ekulindelwe kwiprojekthi? Yintoni ekulindeleke kubaphathi bakho? Ziziphi iingenelo zenkampani?
  • Sebenzisa ixesha elininzi ekuqaleni kweprojekthi ukucwangcisa indlela izinto eziza kwenzeka ngayo, cela iqela lakho lomsebenzi ukuba ubone imibono yokwakhiwa kwendawo, ishedyuli, uhlahlo lwabiwo-mali kunye nokuchonga ingozi.
  • Yazi iqela, laphula iimfuno zabo. Abantu abasebenza ngokuzonwabisa, baya kuxhaphaza amandla abo ngokupheleleyo ukwenza umsebenzi wabo ngokunokwenzeka.
  • Hlanganisa iqela lakho. Kwindlela abantu abazivakalelwa ngayo kwiprojekthi, baya kuba nemveliso engcono.
  • Lawula iprojekthi. Chaza iintlanganiso zokulandelelana ngezihlandlo, apho ulawula ukuqhutywa kwemisebenzi, ukusetyenziswa kwemali-mali, abantu, ingozi kunye naluphi na ukuphazamiseka okungavela.
  • Gcina amaqela anomdla anolwazi. Umxhasi ochaphazelekayo ongazange aziswe ngexesha elifanelekileyo unokukwenza izigqibo ezingafanelekanga zolawulo lwazo, kubalulekile ukuba zihlale zikwaziswa kwaye zanelisekile.
  • Ukuba iphakame iingxaki okanye ukuba iprojekthi yakho ayikudibana neenjongo eziphambili, ungadikibali. Kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba uphatha njani imeko. Ukuphonononga imbangela yengxaki, sebenzisa iimpawu zokulungisa ezifanelekileyo, ukulawula utshintsho olufunekayo kwizicwangciso, wazise amaqela anomdla malunga nemeko kwaye uqhubeke nolawulo.

Ulawulo lweprojekthi lunokuchazwa njengoluleko lokuhlela nokulawula izixhobo, ngendlela enokuthi igqityiweyo linikezelwe ngokupheleleyo kwiinkqubo zenkalo, ixesha kunye neendleko eziphakanyisiwe ekuqaleni. Ngenxa yoko, kubandakanya ukuqhuba uchungechunge lwemisebenzi, edla izixhobo ezinjengexesha, imali, abantu, izinto, amandla, ukunxibelelana (phakathi kwabanye) ukufezekisa iinjongo ezichazwe ngaphambili.

Ngokusekelwe kule nkcazo yolawulo lweprojekthi, imimandla efunekayo yolwazi ukuba umphathi omhle kufuneka abe neenjongo zokusebenza ngokufanelekileyo umsebenzi wawo achazwe kwaye uyasungulwa, kwaye:

  • Ukuhlanganiswa kunye nobubanzi beprojekthi: le ngingqi isishwankathelwe ngamagama amabini: umsebenzi kunye nombono. Umphathi weprojekthi kufuneka acacise malunga nobubanzi beprojekthi ngokwemiqathango kunye namaxesha, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ngokwempembelelo. Oku kuquka ukuphuhliswa nokusetyenziswa kwesicwangciso kunye nokulawulwa kweenguqu. Kule nto kufuneka uwazi iinkalo ezithile zobugcisa kunye nokwakhayo ukwenza umsebenzi.
  • Uqikelelo lwexesha kunye nemihla yokugqibela: Olu buchule lubandakanya ukulungiswa kwishedyuli apho imisebenzi ehleliweyo imiselwe khona, ixesha labo lokubulawa kunye nezibonelelo ezifumanekayo ngamnye. Umphathi weprojekthi kufuneka akwazi ukusebenzisa iinkqubo kunye nezicelo ezisetyenziselwa ukuphuhlisa iishedyuli zomsebenzi, umzekelo weMicrosoft Project, Primavera, njl.
  • Ulawulo lweendleko: Umphathi weprojekthi omhle kufuneka aphathe iindleko ezithile kunye neendleko ngokubanzi ngomsebenzi wangaphambili wokucwangcisa izixhobo (zombini, izinto eziphathekayo, izixhobo kunye neengcali).
  • Ulawulo lweMigangatho: yimisebenzi efunekayo ukuphunyezwa kwezenzo ezivumela ukuvavanya umgangatho weemveliso, iinkonzo okanye umxholo kunye nokuphelisa zonke ezo thintelo ezithintela ukufikelela kumgangatho ophezulu wokwaneliseka. Ukuzalisekisa olu buchule umphathi kufuneka azi imithetho yezobugcisa kunye nemigangatho esetyenziswayo kwimeko apho ukwakhiwa kwenziwa khona.
  • Ulawulo lwabasebenzi: oku kubandakanya ukuqashwa kwabasebenzi abaqeqeshekileyo, ukuvavanya ukusebenza kwabo kunye nokulawulwa kwezikhuthazo; kunye nembono yokwenza izigqibo ezandisa izinga lokuvelisa nokuzibophezela kwabo babandakanyekayo kule projekthi.
  • Ulawulo lobudlelwane: umphathi weprojekthi unembopheleleko yokulungiselela ulwalamano kunye nesicwangciso soqhagamshelwano esilungelelanisa neemfuno zecala ngalinye. Isicwangciso esicacileyo kufuneka sicinge ngokusasazwa kolwazi, ukuchithwa kwalo kunye nokuchazwa kwimo yesigaba ngasinye seprojekthi, ukususela ekuqaleni ukuya ekuhambisweni kokugqibela.
  • Ulawulo lomngcipheko: lo mmandla wolwazi unxulumene nokutshatyalaliswa kweengcipheko ezenziwa yikomiti yomsebenzi nakwiyiphi na isigaba sokwenza, kunye nokulawulwa kwezi ngcipheko, nokuba kunciphise imiphumo yabo okanye ukuguqula impembelelo yabo.

Ulawulo olutshanje lweprojekthi ngenye yeengxaki ezinzima ukuba unjiniyela wezobunjineli kufuneka abhekane nazo ngexesha lobomi bakhe bobugcisa, kwaye engayilungiswanga ngokupheleleyo kwiiiklasi, ngoko ke zonke iingcali ezifanelekileyo ezenza isigqibo sokuzinikezela. Kulo qeqesho, kufuneka wenze isigqibo sokuzilungiselela nganye nganye kwimimandla yolwazi oluyimfuneko ukuba ube ngumphathi weprojekthi efanelekileyo.

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