Ulawulo lweprojekthi: phakathi kwemingeni eyenziwa yinjineli yomntu eklasini

Ukugqitywa kwesidanga kunye nokuthweswa isidanga njengenjineli, ukuzalisekiswa kwenye yeenjongo ezimiselwe ngumfundi ngamnye xa eqala izifundo zabo eyunivesithi kuyadityaniswa. Okubaluleke nangakumbi ukuba ikhondo lomsebenzi elifikelela esiphelweni likwindawo oyithandayo. Ubunjineli bobuNjineli ngumsebenzi othi minyaka le ukhuthaze amawaka abafundi ukuba babhalise kwiiyunivesithi ngethemba lokuba xa begqiba izifundo zabo baya kuba nenqanaba elibanzi lomsebenzi abanokuthi baphuhlise izakhono zabo kunye nezobugcisa; Kuba igubungela uphononongo, iprojekhthi, ulwalathiso, ulwakhiwo kunye nolawulo lwemisebenzi kula masebe alandelayo: ucoceko (imijelo yamanzi amdaka, ukuhambisa amanzi amdaka, indawo yokucoca amanzi amdaka, ulawulo lwenkunkuma, njl.), indlela (iindlela, iindlela, iibhlorho, Izikhululo zeenqwelo moya, njl. njl.), i-hydraulic (idik, amadama, iipeyile, imijelo, njl. njl.), kunye nolwakhiwo (ucwangciso lwedolophu, amakhaya, izakhiwo, iindonga, amatonela, njl.

Ulawulo lweprojekthi yolwakhiwo yenye yeendlela zokuziphatha ezithi mihla le zitsale iinjineli ezingakumbi zaseburhulumenteni ukuba zizinikele kule nkalo yeengcali, kwaye abo banobuganga bokwalathisa iiprojekthi bengalungiselelwanga, baphela befumana imiphumo emibi kwaye beqonda ukuba kwigumbi lokufundela eyunivesithi ayilulo lonke ulwazi oluyimfuneko olunikezelwa ukujongana nomceli mngeni wobukhulu obu.

Ukuphumelela kulawulo lweprojekthi yokwakha, umntu kufuneka abe nolwazi olubanzi kwiindawo ezahlukeneyo zolwazi kunye neminyaka emininzi yamava, nangona kunjalo, izakhono ezongezelelweyo ziyafuneka ezingafundiswanga kwigumbi lokufundela, ezinje ngemiba enxulumene noko. Ngobukrelekrele bemvakalelo kunye nokukhula kobudlelwane phakathi kwabantu.

Iprojekthi yimizamo ecwangcisiweyo, yesikhashana kunye neyodwa, eyenziwe ukudala iimveliso ezikhethekileyo okanye iinkonzo ezongeza ixabiso okanye ezibangela ukuba utshintsho luncedo. Zonke iiprojekthi ziyahlukileyo kwaye nganye yazo iveza imeko kunye nemingeni efuna ubuchule kunye nobunzima ukwazi indlela yokuzisombulula ngendlela engcono. Nangona kunjalo, wonke umntu oqala kwiprojekti yolawulo ngeprojekthi ethile yokuqala, kwaye siza kuzama ukukubonisa ezinye iingcebiso malunga nendlela yokujongana nayo ngendlela engcono.

Elona cebiso lilungileyo esinokuzinika iinjineli zaseburhulumenteni eziceba ukuzinikela kubomi bazo bobuchwephesha kwindawo yolawulo lweprojekthi, kukuba kufuneka ziqale kwangoko emva kokuthweswa isidanga ukomeleza ulwazi lwazo malunga nalo mbandela kwaye eyona ndlela ilungileyo kukwenza isidanga senkosi, isidanga okanye uthathe izifundo ezizodwa kwesi sifundo. IZiko loLawulo lweProjekthi (i-PMI), umbutho ongajonganga kwenza nzuzo kunye nomnye wemibutho emikhulu yobungcali emhlabeni, nesiqingatha sesigidi samalungu aqinisekisiweyo kulawulo lweprojekthi kumazwe angaphezu kwe-150, lolona khetho luphambili lokufunda Ulawulo lweprojekthi ngokwemigangatho kunye nokuqinisekiswa kwayo, eyaziwayo kwihlabathi liphela, kunye nokuyalelwa kwihlabathi liphela ngokusebenzisana noluntu. Unokufumana ulwazi oluthe kratya malunga nokuqinisekiswa kwe-PMI kwiwebhusayithi yabo:  www.pmi.org. Ezinye iinketho emhlabeni jikelele zingahlaziywa kwiwebhusayithi: www.master-maestrias.com. Apho iinketho ezingama-44 zeedigri ze-master kulawulo lweprojekthi zibonisiwe, kumazwe ahlukeneyo. Ezinye zezi zifundo zinokuthathwa ngokukhawuleza kwaye ziphantse, njengoko kunjalo Inkqubo yoBugcisa kwiProjekthi yoLawulo (PMP).

Ukujongana nale projekthi yokuqala, ngokuqhelekileyo kufuneka ibe yincinci, sincoma ukuba sicinge ngale miba elandelayo:

  • Ukuphonononga, ukufunda kunye nokuphanda kakuhle kunye neenkcukacha ngokuphathelele kwiprojekthi, unembopheleleko njengomphathi kwaye kufuneka wenze izigqibo ezibalulekileyo zobugcisa ngexesha lolawulo lonke. Ekupheleni kweli nqanaba kufuneka wazi yonke inkqubo yokwakha kunye nobubanzi ngokwemali, ixesha kunye nomgangatho ofunekayo ukuwugqiba ngokupheleleyo.
  • Lungiselela iinjongo zakho kunye neenjongo. Yintoni ekulindelwe kwiprojekthi? Yintoni ekulindeleke kubaphathi bakho? Ziziphi iingenelo zenkampani?
  • Sebenzisa ixesha elininzi ekuqaleni kweprojekthi ukucwangcisa indlela izinto eziza kwenzeka ngayo, cela iqela lakho lomsebenzi ukuba ubone imibono yokwakhiwa kwendawo, ishedyuli, uhlahlo lwabiwo-mali kunye nokuchonga ingozi.
  • Yazi iqela, laphula iimfuno zabo. Abantu abasebenza ngokuzonwabisa, baya kuxhaphaza amandla abo ngokupheleleyo ukwenza umsebenzi wabo ngokunokwenzeka.
  • Hlanganisa iqela lakho. Kwindlela abantu abazivakalelwa ngayo kwiprojekthi, baya kuba nemveliso engcono.
  • Lawula iprojekthi. Chaza iintlanganiso zokulandelelana ngezihlandlo, apho ulawula ukuqhutywa kwemisebenzi, ukusetyenziswa kwemali-mali, abantu, ingozi kunye naluphi na ukuphazamiseka okungavela.
  • Gcina amaqela anomdla anolwazi. Umxhasi ochaphazelekayo ongazange aziswe ngexesha elifanelekileyo unokukwenza izigqibo ezingafanelekanga zolawulo lwazo, kubalulekile ukuba zihlale zikwaziswa kwaye zanelisekile.
  • Ukuba iphakame iingxaki okanye ukuba iprojekthi yakho ayikudibana neenjongo eziphambili, ungadikibali. Kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba uphatha njani imeko. Ukuphonononga imbangela yengxaki, sebenzisa iimpawu zokulungisa ezifanelekileyo, ukulawula utshintsho olufunekayo kwizicwangciso, wazise amaqela anomdla malunga nemeko kwaye uqhubeke nolawulo.

Ulawulo lweprojekthi lunokuchazwa njengoluleko lokuhlela nokulawula izixhobo, ngendlela enokuthi igqityiweyo linikezelwe ngokupheleleyo kwiinkqubo zenkalo, ixesha kunye neendleko eziphakanyisiwe ekuqaleni. Ngenxa yoko, kubandakanya ukuqhuba uchungechunge lwemisebenzi, edla izixhobo ezinjengexesha, imali, abantu, izinto, amandla, ukunxibelelana (phakathi kwabanye) ukufezekisa iinjongo ezichazwe ngaphambili.

Ngokusekelwe kule nkcazo yolawulo lweprojekthi, imimandla efunekayo yolwazi ukuba umphathi omhle kufuneka abe neenjongo zokusebenza ngokufanelekileyo umsebenzi wawo achazwe kwaye uyasungulwa, kwaye:

  • Ukuhlanganiswa kunye nobubanzi beprojekthi: le ngingqi isishwankathelwe ngamagama amabini: umsebenzi kunye nombono. Umphathi weprojekthi kufuneka acacise malunga nobubanzi beprojekthi ngokwemiqathango kunye namaxesha, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ngokwempembelelo. Oku kuquka ukuphuhliswa nokusetyenziswa kwesicwangciso kunye nokulawulwa kweenguqu. Kule nto kufuneka uwazi iinkalo ezithile zobugcisa kunye nokwakhayo ukwenza umsebenzi.
  • Uqikelelo lwexesha kunye nemihla yokugqibela: Olu buchule lubandakanya ukulungiswa kwishedyuli apho imisebenzi ehleliweyo imiselwe khona, ixesha labo lokubulawa kunye nezibonelelo ezifumanekayo ngamnye. Umphathi weprojekthi kufuneka akwazi ukusebenzisa iinkqubo kunye nezicelo ezisetyenziselwa ukuphuhlisa iishedyuli zomsebenzi, umzekelo weMicrosoft Project, Primavera, njl.
  • Ulawulo lweendleko: Umphathi weprojekthi omhle kufuneka aphathe iindleko ezithile kunye neendleko ngokubanzi ngomsebenzi wangaphambili wokucwangcisa izixhobo (zombini, izinto eziphathekayo, izixhobo kunye neengcali).
  • Ulawulo lweMigangatho: yimisebenzi efunekayo ukuphunyezwa kwezenzo ezivumela ukuvavanya umgangatho weemveliso, iinkonzo okanye umxholo kunye nokuphelisa zonke ezo thintelo ezithintela ukufikelela kumgangatho ophezulu wokwaneliseka. Ukuzalisekisa olu buchule umphathi kufuneka azi imithetho yezobugcisa kunye nemigangatho esetyenziswayo kwimeko apho ukwakhiwa kwenziwa khona.
  • Ulawulo lwabasebenzi: oku kubandakanya ukuqashwa kwabasebenzi abaqeqeshekileyo, ukuvavanya ukusebenza kwabo kunye nokulawulwa kwezikhuthazo; kunye nembono yokwenza izigqibo ezandisa izinga lokuvelisa nokuzibophezela kwabo babandakanyekayo kule projekthi.
  • Ulawulo lobudlelwane: umphathi weprojekthi unembopheleleko yokulungiselela ulwalamano kunye nesicwangciso soqhagamshelwano esilungelelanisa neemfuno zecala ngalinye. Isicwangciso esicacileyo kufuneka sicinge ngokusasazwa kolwazi, ukuchithwa kwalo kunye nokuchazwa kwimo yesigaba ngasinye seprojekthi, ukususela ekuqaleni ukuya ekuhambisweni kokugqibela.
  • Ulawulo lomngcipheko: lo mmandla wolwazi unxulumene nokutshatyalaliswa kweengcipheko ezenziwa yikomiti yomsebenzi nakwiyiphi na isigaba sokwenza, kunye nokulawulwa kwezi ngcipheko, nokuba kunciphise imiphumo yabo okanye ukuguqula impembelelo yabo.

Ulawulo olutshanje lweprojekthi ngenye yeengxaki ezinzima ukuba unjiniyela wezobunjineli kufuneka abhekane nazo ngexesha lobomi bakhe bobugcisa, kwaye engayilungiswanga ngokupheleleyo kwiiiklasi, ngoko ke zonke iingcali ezifanelekileyo ezenza isigqibo sokuzinikezela. Kulo qeqesho, kufuneka wenze isigqibo sokuzilungiselela nganye nganye kwimimandla yolwazi oluyimfuneko ukuba ube ngumphathi weprojekthi efanelekileyo.

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