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AutoCAD-AutoDeskIiphotographyGoogle umhlaba / imephu

Ukuqonda ukucaciswa kwe-UTM

Uninzi lwabantu luhlala lubuza ukuba ungatshintsha njani ulungelelwaniso lwejografi uye kwi-UTM. Siza kusebenzisa ithuba lokuba wedwa kule hotele kwaye sichaze ngento esinayo ngesandla ukuba uqikelelo lwe-UTM lusebenza njani ukuphelisa amathandabuzo asisiseko.

Ndikucebisa ukuba sele usazi kakuhle isifundo, musa ukuchitha imizuzu yakho uyadika ... kodwa ungasidibanisa nebhlog yakho :). Ayisiyo injongo yale post ukuthetha malunga noqikelelo, kuba maninzi amanye amanqaku, ngokusisiseko kunomdla ukuchaza ukuphathwa kolungelelwaniso, siya kusebenzisa uGoogle Earth ukubonisa imizekelo.

Ukulungelelaniswa kweendawo

zika Geographic zivela ukusuka umhlaba ngezigaba njengoko ubuya nge-apile, yenza nkqo imisiko esiqu (ebizwa ngokuba ubude) kunye amanxeba nkqo wenze ngaxeshanye (ebizwa ngokuba ezinezinga).

Ukubala amanqanaba, siqala ukusuka kwi-equator, ngasentla okanye kusezantsi ukusuka kwi-zero ukuya kwi-degrees ze-90 kwizibonda, kwaye ezi ngxenye zimbini zibizwa ngokuba yi-hemispheres.

Kwimeko yobude, ezi ziqala ukudweliswa ukusuka kwi-Greenwich meridian ebizwa ngokuba yi-zero meridian empuma, zidwelisiwe zade zafikelela kwi-180 degrees, apho kwa-le meridian yahlula umhlaba (ebizwa ngokuba yi-antemeridian), esi siqingatha sibizwa " Bucala ngasekhohlo". Emva koko esinye isiqingatha sabizwa ngokuba yiNtshona, ngokubanzi simelwe ngu-W (entshona), ii-meridians ziqala eGreenwich kodwa kwicala elingafaniyo ukusuka kwi-zero ukuya kwi-180 degrees.

i-geographies 1

Ngaloo ndlela ulungelelaniso eSpain lunokuba yi-Latitude 39 N nobude be3 W, ukulungelelaniswa ePeru kuya kuba yi-Latitude 10 S kunye nobude 74 W.

Le ndlela yokumisela izilungelelwaniso ezingadibani nokuphakama ngaphezulu komphakamo wolwandle, kuba sisixhobo esiqala embindini womhlaba siye kumphezulu womhlaba, le yingqikelelo esetyenziswa nguGoogle Earth, kwaye nantsi indlela yolungelelwaniso olusetyenziswa ziifayile ze-kml, ukongeza ispheroid yereferensi yongezwa, eyindlela yokuthelekelela umphezulu womhlaba ngeenjongo zokulinganisa. UGoogle usebenzisa iWGS84 njenge-spheroid yesalathiso (nangona zikhona izixhobo ezivumela ukuba ungene kwii-UTM zolawulo kwiGoogle Earth). Olona ncedo lukhulu kolu qikelelo kukuba ulungelelwaniso lulodwa kumphezulu womhlaba, nangona imisebenzi yokuphatha ukubala imigama okanye iibheringi akwenzeki "kubantu abangabajografi".

UTM idibanisa

Izikhokelo ze-UTM zisekelwe kwingcamango yokuqwalasela i-reference spheroid kwinqanaba lolwandle ukususela kwi-cylindrical projection Traverso de Mercator. Umhlaba uhlala wahlulwe zii-meridians, ngokwamacandelo ama-degrees amathandathu enza ama-60 ewonke, abizwa ngokuba yimimandla. Ukubalwa kwezi ndawo kuqala kwi-antemeridian, ukusuka kwi-zero ukuya kwi-60 ukusuka entshona ukuya empuma.

Amacandelo avelisa ukufana ahamba ukusuka ku-84 S ukuya ku-80 N, kwaye abalwa ngoonobumba abasuka ku-C ukuya ku-X ("mna" no-"O" ababandakanywanga), icandelo ngalinye lineedigri ezi-8 zobubanzi. ngaphandle kwe-X ene-12 degrees.

I-A, B, Y, Z isetyenzisiwe ngendlela ekhethekileyo yokuba i-polar iphelile; I-Google ayifaki le nxalenye kuba ifuna ukubalwa okungapheliyo kwindawo yenzalo kuphela kweebhere ze-polar :).

i-geographies 1

i-geographies 1Iyonke iindawo zeNyana ze-60 zeeklasi ze-6 nganye, ngokunjalo

  • IMexico iphakathi kwe-11 kunye ne-16
  • I-Honduras kwi-16 kunye nxalenye kwi17
  • EPeru phakathi kwe-17 kunye ne-19
  • I-Spain phakathi kwe-29 kunye ne-31.

Uqikelelo lwe-spheroid yesalathiso kwinqanaba lolwandle lwenza i-arc eyenziwe yile migca ibe nemilinganiselo efana ncam nenyani yemilinganiselo yendawo. Le spheroid yesalathiso, ngaphambili (eyayisaziwa kwiLatin America) yayiyi-NAD27, ngoku i-NAD83 isetyenziswa ngokubanzi, eyaziwa ngabantu abaninzi njenge-WGS84. Ngokufumana ireferensi eyahlukileyo ethe tyaba, iigridi zozibini ii-spheroids zahlukile.

Ke umda unesiqalo x, y sokulungelelanisa, kwimeko yoMbindi Merika, umda phakathi kwemida ye-15 neye-16 une-178,000 elungelelanisiweyo kwaye inyukela ngaphezulu okanye ngaphantsi kwe-820,000. Olu luhlu lokunxibelelanisa luyafana kwindawo nganye, kububanzi obufanayo kodwa siyacacisa, ayisiyiyo igridi yomgaqo kodwa ngeenjongo zemilinganiselo yendawo, iyafana. Imida phakathi kwemimandla iyavala, kodwa yonke into iqala kwi-axis esembindini, apho kukho imeridian ethe nkqo ethe nkqo enobude obungama-300,000 eyaziwa njenge "mbombo mpuma", ukwenzela ukuba zombini ekhohlo nasekunene kwale meridi akukho yunithi engalunganga.
Ulungelelaniso (Y ulungelelaniso), luqala ukusuka kwi-0.00 kwi-equator kwaye lenyukela phezulu kwipolisi enyakatho kunye nezicwangciso ezikufutshane ne9,300,000.

Indawo ye-16 utm

Iimephu esaziyo ngeenjongo ze-cadastral, ngezikali 1: 10,000 okanye 1: 1,000 kuvela kwi sahlulo kule ndawo, kwisithuba esilandelayo siza kuchaza indlela esi sahlula ngayo.

i-geographies 1

zika Geographic, ezifana 16N 35W sikhethekile, kunjalo, a UTM ukunxibelelanisa ngokuthi X = 664,235 Y = 1,234,432 ilingana indawo ngokuphindaphindiweyo kwiindawo 60 ngama enye, kokubini North kwaye lasezantsi; Kudinga indawo kunye ne-hemisphere ukuchaza apho ivela khona.

Ke zombini ezi zilungelelaniso ziya kuhlala kwispheroid sesalathiso. Kwimeko yolungelelwaniso lwe-UTM, ukuba ikwi-NAD27 ayizukulingana ne-WGS84 kuba i-meshes ezenza i-grid azingqinelani. Ukuguqula izilungelelaniso ze-UTM kwii-Geographic coordinates okanye ngokungafaniyo, kukho izicelo eziququzelelayo, ezifana Iifomati zeGeofumed.

Kubalulekile ukuba uqonde ukuba iinkqubo ze-CAD ngokwesiko bezingaxhasi uqikelelo, njenge-AutoCAD okanye iMicrostation, kuphela yi-AutoCAD Map3D okanye iMicrostation Geographics (Njengokuzenzekelayo kwe-AutoCAD 2009 kunye neMicrostation 8.9 XM abayenzayo). Xa usebenzisa imephu eboniswe ngomhlaba kwi-AutoCAD, kunye nokulungelelanisa i-UTM, into esinayo yimephu ngaphakathi kwenqwelomoya yaseCartesian, kodwa kufuneka siqonde ukuba ezi zilungelelaniso zikhona nakwezinye iindawo ezingama-60 kububanzi obufanayo kumantla nakumazantsi e-hemispheres; yiyo loo nto, kuya kuba nzima ukusebenza kwi-UTM kunye neepropathi eziphakathi ezimbini mimandla.

Ukusebenzisana ne-UTM, iGoogle Earth kunye ne-Excel idibanisa, ezi ziqhagamshelwano zinokuba luncedo kakhulu:

UTM uhlela ku Google Earth

Ukuguqulwa kweGeographical ku-UTM kunye ne-Excel

Ukuguqula i-UTM idibanisa kwi-Geographical nge-Excel

Golgi Alvarez

Umbhali, umphandi, ingcali kwiiModeli zoLawulo loMhlaba. Uthathe inxaxheba ekucingeni nasekuphunyezweni kweemodeli ezifana ne: INkqubo yeSizwe yoLawulo lwePropati SINAP eHonduras, iModeli yoLawulo loMasipala abaManyeneyo eHonduras, iModeli eDityanisiweyo yoLawulo lweCadastre - iRegistry eNicaragua, iNkqubo yoLawulo lweTerritory SAT eColombia. . Umhleli weblogi yolwazi lwe-Geofumadas ukususela kwi-2007 kunye nomdali we-AulaGEO Academy equka izifundo ezingaphezu kwe-100 kwi-GIS - CAD - BIM - Digital Twins izihloko.

Amanqaku Afana

58 Comments

  1. Kuxhomekeke kwiphina isofthiwe ofuna ukuyijonga ngayo.
    Olu lungelelwano oluyifunayo ukongezelela lufuna ummandla, kuba luphindaphindiwe kwiindawo ze-60 nganye, zombini nasenyakatho naseningizimu.

  2. Ndinezi ngqungquthela kwaye ndifuna ukwazi indawo, kufuneka ndiyenze ntoni
    N1300113 E 1040271. KUTHANDA

  3. Andiwuboni umfanekiso wale nto uyivezayo. Kodwa kuya kufuneka uqonde ukuba ulungelelwaniso lwe-utm aluzodwa, luyaphindwa kwindawo nganye kwindawo enye.

  4. Ndisebenza njani kwi georeferencing ndikwindawo elinganiselweyo phakathi kwe 13 kunye ne 14 ukusuka kwifayile yesixeko esikummandla we-13 kunye nenye ifayile yesixeko esikummandla we-14 kwaye ndiwancamathelise kwifayile enye ukubona ukuba ikhangeleka njani, umbuzo wam ngowokuba kutheni beqelelene xa enyanisweni besondelelene? Ndisele ndiyijongile kuGoogle emhlabeni kwaye yonke into igqibelele, kuphela ukuba bakude kwaye kubonakala ngathi bajonge phantsi isixeko esikwi-zone 13 ngaphambi kwe14 xa enyanisweni akunjalo.

  5. mholweni. Ngaba kunokwenzeka ukuba unokundinceda ngale nto ilandelayo: kwintsimi ndihlala ndithatha amanqaku nge-gps, kwi-UTM kwaye emva koko ndikhuphe idatha yokusebenza kwiplanimetry kwi-AutoCAD, kodwa xa ndifuna ukuthumela ngaphandle kwimephu ye-cadastral, inqaku elilodwa kuphela livela. kodwa hayi umzobo opheleleyo, yintoni le ibangelwa …… e-Ecuador

  6. Uyakwazi ukunyamezela nokuzinikela ukwabelana ngolwazi lwakho, Geofumed!

  7. Indlela ndafumana amanqaku zam 2 iigridi imigodi enikwe concession lwemigodi eBolivia ukuba iileta bam 56 psad kunye zilungelelanise zam WGS 84 nceda ukuba ungandinceda ngenxa yam GPS cell phone ndiye desplasado elide

  8. UFernando Ojeda ngoFebruwari, i-2017
    Ndandifuna ukuguqula izicwangciso ze-volcano yasePapocatepetl ukuya kwi-UTM, ezi:
    I-19 ° 13'20.00 "
    Ubude 98 ° 37¨40.00 "

    Yaye inkqubo ebalaseleyo yokubala ayifumanga i-98 ° ubude.
    Ndingayifaka njani ukuba undixelele ukuba akufanele ndidlule i-80 ne-90, xa idatha i-9

    UTM Z14 WGS84
    2125458.053 539124.2666 14

  9. Ndandifuna ukuguqula izicwangciso ze-volcano yasePapocatepetl ukuya kwi-UTM, ezi:
    I-19 ° 13'20.00 "
    Ubude 98 ° 37¨40.00 "

    Yaye inkqubo ebalaseleyo yokubala ayifumanga i-98 ° ubude.
    ukuba Ndiyaqhubekeka njani ukuba ndithe ukuba kufuneka usuka 80 kunye 90, 98 xa idatha?

  10. Ngaba umntu unokundinceda ukuba ndilandele ubukhulu beqhinga kumephu ??? Ndineenkcukacha ze-4 zeemigangatho kunye nezobude. Ukuba umntu ekunikezela, ndiya kukuthumela ulwazi endikunayo kwaye ndiya kukubulela kakhulu. Ndiyabonga

  11. Sawubona Bruno.
    Asicaci ngokucacileyo malunga noko ucebisayo:
    Mhlawumbi ukuba uyichaza ngakumbi imeko: Ingaba isikwere yintoni oza kuyenza? Ingaba inani alifani?
    Ngaba uya kulwahlula kwimephu?

  12. Mna ezintsha ukuphatha GPS kunye neemephu, ucele kum umzekelo ukuba ezinye iingongoma x, y (amanqaku 4) kunye nesakhiwo endulini, ukuba indawo yi 4 eehektare kwaye kufuneka babe iziphindwa ze 100 x ngamnye, kwaye Nceda, qhelana. Enkosi (bruficarrasco123-4qoutlook.com)

  13. Bendingazi ukuba mandiyiqonde njani, kuxhomekeke kwisiguquli osisebenzisayo. Khumbula ukuba ukuba umguquli ubandakanya ubuxoki oku, akusoze kwafana nee-UTM eziqhelekileyo, eziboniswa yiGoogle.

  14. Sawubona! Ndiyathemba ukuba unokunceda, kuba ndizame yonke into kwaye ayiphumeli:
    Ndizama ukuguqula iinkcukacha ezithile ze-geographic ukuya kwi-UTM, usebenzisa ahlukahlukeneyo abaguquleli abakhona kwi-intanethi. Ekuqaleni ndacinga ukuba kwakungalunganga, kodwa ndiyihlolisayo kwaye iyafana nayo yonke into.
    Ndikhangela ulungelelwaniso lwezinye iintaba-mlilo eMexico; Ndisebenzisa iGoogle Earth kule nto kwaye indinika ulungelelwaniso lwejografi. Ingxaki kukuba xa ndibaguqulela kwi-UTM, ndisuka kwindawo ye-13 ukuya kwi-14 kwaye oku kutshintsha ngokupheleleyo ulungelelwaniso, kwi "x", ukuya kwinqanaba lokuba intaba yekhephu yaseColima (ekufutshane ne-Pacific Ocean) ibonisa. Ndinxibelelanisa ne-600,000, ngelixa i-Nevado de Toluca (embindi welizwe) indinika amaxabiso angama-400,000. Andiqondi ukuba kutheni.
    Ndiyabulela kwangaphambili

  15. Ndiza kukunika umzekelo ongeyonto ebonisa ngakumbi ukuze uwuqonde. Khawube nomfanekiso-ngqondweni we-spheroid edlula kumphakamo wolwandle, enye edlula iimitha ezingama-200 ngaphezulu, enye idlula i-1000 leemitha ngaphezulu. Zonke ziyi-spheroid yesalathiso, kwaye inqaku liyafana kuzo zonke kodwa igridi ayikho, ngoko inqaku le-UTM linokuba nolungelelwaniso olwahlukileyo kwidatum eyahlukileyo.

  16. njani loo nto ibonisa ukuba usebenzisa i-datum ethile

  17. njengoko ndibala umgama kwiikhilomitha (umlinganiselo) kwi-utm

  18. Jonga inqaku kwindawo onomdla kuyo kuGoogle Earth. Ukuba isemantla eikhweyitha, ngummandla we-17 emantla. Ukuba ingezantsi, yiZone 17 eMzantsi.

  19. Sawu, unokundinceda ngombuzo:
    Landa DEM into e WGS84, kufuneka iprojekthi ukuba UTM indawo yokufunda yam kumzantsi ntshona Colombia (Nariño), umbuzo ngulo, yeyiphi indawo I sebenzisa ukwenza UTM projektha, uMmandla 17s 17n Caravan.
    Ndiyabonga ngcaciso yakho kwaye ndixolele ukungabi nolwazi kumxholo.

  20. Ewe, andiyiqondi.
    Sithumelele u-UTM ulungele ukubona, kuba andinakuzibona kakuhle ngxaki.

  21. Xa ndingena kwixesha elide lokuqala, lat iwela elwandle, kwi-gulf yase-mexico. Ukusebenzisa i-WGS84
    Ezi zilandelayo, eziyi-UTM, kufuneka uchaze ukuba yeyiphi indawo.

    Ngokuqinisekileyo, ukuba neendlela ezininzi kunye nokulungelelanisa iinkqubo ofuna ukuchaza ukuba ngubani owathathayo.

  22. Ndiyayibulela ukuba nizithathele ishwangusha ukuchaza konke oku, mna buqu ukufumana encomekayo kakhulu kwaye ezixabisekileyo, clarifier, kodwa kukho iingcaciso ozisebenzisayo ukuba andinako ukuqonda namava wam. Ndinombuzo malunga netafile elandelayo umntu azisa kum. Ngaba khawundixelele kuphela ezo data thaca ngezantsi, ukuba pertencen ukunxibelelanisa inkqubo kunye oyi (ukuba kukho nayiphi na) iyasetyenziswa. Ndiyabulela kwangaphambili, ndihlala ndilindele.

    Ubude beLatitude eMpuma (X) kuMantla (Y)
    -92.170660948 19.294503558 587135.5 2133622.5
    -92.170643520 19.294488976 587137.4 2133620.9
    -92.170620402 19.294469407 587139.8 2133618.8
    -92.170618372 19.294467695 587140.0 2133618.6
    -92.170614312 19.294464279 587140.5 2133618.2
    -92.170610252 19.294460862 587140.9 2133617.8
    -92.170597249 19.294449921 587142.3 2133616.6

  23. Ndingazikhuphela phi iifom nge-intm zone reticle?

  24. Masibone, cacisa ngakumbi
    Uyiphi iguquli oyisebenzisayo?

    Ngaba usho ukuthini ukuba ukuguqulwa okuphambeneyo kukunika ulwahlulo oluhlukile?

  25. Jonga, ndisebenzise abaguquli ukusuka kwi-utm ukuya kwiidigri kwaye e-El Salvador ulungelelwaniso luyi-89 ° kunye nobubanzi be-13 ° ndisebenzisa indawo ye-16 kunye ne-hemisphere engasentla kodwa xa uguqula iimitha indinika i-89 ° kunye ne-latitude 2 ° ayinakuba. into endiyenzayo.

  26. Molo, i-CONAGUA indicela "Isicwangciso esinemilinganiselo kunye nemida yendawo ekunxibelelanisa i-UTM" ngaba kukho nabani na owaziyo onokundinika le nkonzo?

  27. I-POst egqibeleleyo, qhubekani nale ndlela entsha yokufundisa abo bafuna ukufunda okanye bakhumbule ezi zihloko.

  28. Ixabiso linikezelwa, ziphi iiyunithi? Ndisebenza nge-algebra ukuqonda umgama phakathi kwamanqaku amabini kwaye iziphumo zikumamitha?

  29. Ndicinga ukuba ngokuthe ngqo kwi-AutoCAD ayinakwenzeka. Mhlawumbi i-Civil3D inento, kodwa ngokwesiqhelo kufuneka uyiguqule.

  30. Ndingayitshintsha njani i-lat / lon coordinates ukuya ku-UTM kwi-autocad efanayo Ndiyathemba ukuba undibanceda kule ngoma

  31. inika umdla kakhulu yonke into besendiyilibele yonke into ngoku for my daughter I'm dusting off the brain thanks.

  32. Ewe yingxaki eqhelekileyo kakhulu kunye nobuthathaka benkqubo ye-UTM. Kukho iinketho, kodwa zixhomekeke kwiinjongo ezifunekayo.

    Ngenjongo yomsebenzi, enye indlela kukuhambisa impuma yobuxoki, okuthetha ukuba umbindi wemeridian wommandla uyashukuma. Oku kuvunyelwe ziinkqubo, kunye nokhetho lokuguqula inkqubo yoqikelelo.

    Enye inketho kukusebenza kunye ne-latitudes kunye ne-longitudes kule ndawo, okanye iipasela ezichaphazelekayo kumda wendawo. Emva koko, ngeenjongo zokushicilela, kulungele ukunika idatha ngale ndlela ukuze ungenzi ukudideka.

  33. Unomdla kakhulu kwaye uyisisiseko esibonakaliswe kwisifundo, kodwa umbuzo wam: ukuba ngaba ndinendawo yokulinganisa kwaye kwimihlaba emibini yendawo, njengoko ndimelela kwimephu?, Ukuba kufuneka ndiqwalasele indawo enye okanye zombini?
    okanye ngamanye amagama ndingayibonisa njani indawo elinganiswe kwi-TRASLAPO AREA?

  34. Ewe, andinakuyiqonda into yonke, kodwa kufuneka uhlolisise indawo, kuba iZacatecas zikho kwiindawo ze-13 kunye ne-14.

    Ukuba akukho nanye ifana nendawo okulindeleyo, indlela yodwa yokupanda ikhona ngubani othabatha idatha, kuba inokuba yinto enqamlekileyo engafanelekanga into ebonisa ukuba i-meridiya ephakathi x = 500,000 ine-displacement.

  35. ukuba kulungile kangakanani ukuba le ndawo ikwazi ukuphelisa ukungathandabuzeki, ndibe ndithatha iidridi ngokudibanisa i-utm kwaye lo ngumzekelo.

    igalelo zokulungelelanisa isicwangciso sepeliti
    nale datha
    x= 636,130.00 y= 2,656,898.00
    kwaye ndifumana 24.01828298 -103.6614938

    phezulu apho sihle, umbuzo uwukuthi:

    xa ii-coordinates x = 507258 y = 2658745
    Ukuba siseZacatecas kunye nezicwangciso ezikhankanywe ngasentla, zithumela kwelinye ilizwe kwaye intaba.
    kokuba Kuthathwa ukuba uququzelelo kukho iziza ingeniso, yiyo le ngxaki ukuba uhlobo GPS okanye UTM format wathabatha, njani ukuphanda iintlobo ezahlukeneyo UTM neempawu.

    Siyabonga ngqalelo yakho.

  36. Kwandenza ndenze umdla, ndingathanda ukukubona ngcono kuMhlaba

  37. Ndiyabonga galvarezhn, ngaba uyayazi naziphi na iinkqubo, eziqhelekileyo okanye ezifanayo ezikwenza oko ndibonisayo malunga nomanyano wemimandla emibini? Ndiyifunayo kwisicelo kwi-autocad.

    mbuliso

  38. Sawubona Ismael
    Ukuzoba usebenzisa ulungelelwaniso lwe-UTM kwimimandla egqagqana nemimandla, kuyimfuneko ukutshintsha impuma engeyonyani esembindini wendawo, kungenxa yokuba inkqubo yolungelelwaniso ye-UTM yenzelwe ukubona iindawo zalapha ... kwaye bubuthathaka ubuncinci phantsi kwezo meko.

    Le sicelo ayikho loo nto

  39. Le nkqubo iluncedo ekuboneni kwi-autocad phakathi kwemihlaba emibini? ukususela ngo-utm ulungelelanisa imilinganiselo yokuphinda i-autocad ayiqondi. Ndiyicinga ukuba xa ungena kwii-geographic coordinates kwaye ubonisa ummandla, le nkqubo yenza umanyano wemida emibini? kwizikhokelo ze-utm zekhosi

  40. ingenakuqondakala, ngoko sinokuqonda ukuba siqala kuphi.
    Iinkqubo zokufakela ngenye into kunye nohlobo lokulinganisa omnye.
    Isicwangciso sebalazwe kufuneka sichaze zombini, rhoqo.

  41. Uxolo Yorel, kunzima ukuhlala nomntu wonke, kodwa ukuba uyasicacisela ukuba ngowuphi kwezi ubuzama ukuba sisidenge singakuthumela kwezinye iiblogi ezichaza ngendlela engenangqondo ... mhlawumbi inqanaba lale blogi alikho kuwe kwaye siyaqonda

    ... yeyiphi kwezi ... isipili okanye enye ...

    kwaye ungakhathazeki, ndiyiqonda ngokucacileyo intsingiselo yegama elithi troll

  42. Le nto yokulungelelanisa ibonakala ibaluleke kakhulu kum kuba siyazi apho sikhoyo

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