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I-QGIS 3.0-Njani, nini kwaye yintoni; kuthetha ukuba

Abaninzi bethu bayazibuza:

Iyakukhutshwa nini iQGIS 3.0?

Kunyaka ophelileyo (i-2015) iqela leprojekthi liqale ukuphanda ngexesha kunye nendlela i-QGIS 3.0 iza kukhutshwa ngayo. Ba thembisa, ngokwemiqathango esuka kuyo Anita Graser, ababeza kuzidlulisa ngokucacileyo kubasebenzisi kunye nabaphuhlisi bezicwangciso zabo ngaphambi kokukhupha i-QGIS 3.0. Kutshanje bazamile ukuveza ezinye zeengqwalaselo zokukhutshwa kwe-QGIS 3.0 kwaye ekupheleni kwesithuba kukho ithuba lokuba siveze izimvo zethu.

Kutheni 3.0?

QGis_LogoNgokwesiqhelo uguqulelo olukhulu lubekelwa amaxesha apho utshintsho olukhulu lwenziwe kwi-API yesoftware yakho. Eli khefu ayisosigqibo esincinci seprojekthi ye-QGIS kuba singamakhulu amawaka abasebenzisi abaxhomekeke kwi-QGIS, kokubini ukuzisebenzisa kunye neenkonzo ezinikezelwa kubantu besithathu.

Ukususela ngamaxesha ukuphula i-API kuyimfuneko ukulungiselela ukuhlaziywa kwezakhiwo kunye nokuphuculwa kweendlela, amathala eencwadi amatsha kunye nezilungiso kwizigqibo ezenziwe kwangaphambili.

Yimiphi imiphumo yokuphula i-API?

Esinye isizathu sokuba oku kukophula API e QGIS 3.0 kukuba oku kuya kuba negalelo elikhulu, leyo wayenokuyaphula amakhulu lweplagi ngophuhliso ukuba akusayi esihambisanayo nale API entsha kunye nababhali aba baye ukwenza ukuhlaziywa kophuhliso lwabo ukuqinisekisa ukuhambelana ne-API entsha.

Ubungakanani beenguqu ezifunekayo kuxhomekeke kumlinganiselo omkhulu kwi:

  • Zingaphi utshintsho kwi-API ezithintela ukusebenza okwangoku.
    Ngangaphi amanqaku ababhali beeplagi asebenzise iindawo ze-API eziza kutshintsha.
  • Ziza kuba ziphi iinguqu eziphambili ze-3.0?

Kukho iinkalo ezine eziphambili ozijonga ukutshintsha kwi-3.0:

 

Uhlaziyo Qt4 kwiQT5: Olu luluhlu olusisiseko lwamathala eencwadi ukuba i-QGIS yakhiwe kumgangatho ophezulu, sithetha nge-CORE-inqanaba lokusebenza kweqonga. I-QT ikwabonelela ngeelayibrari ukwenza ulawulo lwememori, imisebenzi yoqhagamshelo, kunye nolawulo lwemizobo. I-Qt4 (i-QGIS esekwe kuyo ngoku) ayiphuhliswanga ngabalondolozi bethala leencwadi le-Qt kwaye inokuba nemiba yokusebenza namanye amaqonga (umzekelo, i-OS X) kwaye ikwenze kube lula ukulawula iinguqulelo zokubini (umz. Uvavanyo lweDebian kunye nokhupho lweDebian olulandelayo. "Yolula"). Inkqubo yokuzisa i-QGIS kwi-QT5 sele inenkqubela phambili ebalulekileyo (ingakumbi into eyenziwa nguMatthias Kuhn) ukuba kunye noMarco Bernasocchi umsi kwi-Android "QField" esekelwe ngokupheleleyo kwi-QT5. Nangona kunjalo, kukho imida ekufumaneni i-QT5 entsha kwaye isebenze ngenxa yempembelelo yayo kwi-QGIS - ngokukodwa kunye namawijethi esiphequluli sewebhu (isetyenziswa kakhulu kwi-Composer kunye nezinye iindawo ezimbalwa kwi-QGIS).

Ukuhlaziywa kwePyQt4 kwiPyQt5: Ezi ziinguqu ezinxulumene nolwimi lwePython lweQt apho iQGIS Python API isekelwe khona. Kuvela ukutshintsha zamathala i QT5 C ++, nayo kulindeleke ukuba ukudlulisela PyQt5 ilayibrari Python ukuze bakwazi ukuthatha ithuba iingenelo API entsha Python QT5.
Ukuhlaziya iPython 2.7 kwiPython 3: Okwangoku yonke into iqhubeka kwiPython 2.7. IPython 3 yinguqulelo yamva nje ye-python kwaye iyacetyiswa ngabo bakhokela loo projekthi. I-Python 2 ayihambelani noko ne-Python 3 (phantse ngokulingana nokungahambelani phakathi kwe-QGIS 2 kunye ne-Qgis 3). Uninzi lwabaphuhlisi benze i-python Python 3 ubukhulu becala ibuyela umva iyahambelana nePython 2, kodwa ukungqinelana ngasemva akukuhle kangako.
Ukuphuculwa kweQGIS API ngokwayo: Enye yeengxaki zokugcina ukuhambelana kwe-API phakathi kweenguqulelo kukuba kufuneka uphile kunye nokukhetha kwakho koyilo ixesha elide. Yonke inzame yenziwa kwi-QGIS ukuba ingaphuli i-API kuthotho lwezinto ezincinci ezikhutshwayo. Ukukhulula inguqulo ye-QGIS ye-3.0 kunye ne-API engaxhaswanga okwangoku iya kusinika ithuba "lokucoca indlu" ngokulungisa izinto kwi-API esingayithobeliyo. Ungalubona uluhlu lwethutyana lwe Utshintsho olwenziweyo lwe-3.0 API.

Indlela yokuxhasa ukutshintsha kwe-API ye-3.0

Njengoko sele kukhankanyiwe, uguqulelo lwe-3.0 luza kwaphuka nge-2.G ye-QGIS kwaye kukho ithuba lokuba iiplagi ezininzi, usetyenziso esele ikhona kunye nenye ikhowudi esekwe kwi-API yangoku iya kwaphuka. Ke yintoni enokwenziwa ukunciphisa utshintsho? UMatthias Kuhn, uJürgen Fischer, uNyall Dawson, uMartin Dobias, nabanye abaphuhlisi abaphezulu bebefuna iindlela zokunciphisa inani lotshintsho lwe-API ngelixa beqhubeka nokuqhubela phambili ikhowudi ye-QGIS esekwe kwisizukulwana esilandelayo samathala eencwadi kunye ne-API yangaphakathi. Kwintlanganiso yethu yokugqibela yeQGIS yeProjekthi yokuLawula iProjekthi siye sajonga ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo. Le theyibhile ilandelayo ishwankathela into enobubele uMatias Kuhn kwaye sizamile ukuyiguqulela kweli nqaku ngokwento thunyelwe kwi bhulogi yakhe:


QGIS 2.14 LTR
QGIS 2.16 ??? QGIS 3.0
Umhla wokukhutshwa Ekupheleni kukaFebhuwari Iinyanga ze-4 kamva 2.14 Umjikelezo weenyanga ze8?
Amanqaku Gqiba kumbindi QGIS Python ikhowudi Python 3 ukuba liwuthobele kwaye lixhasa PyQt5 (ngokusetyenziswa kwenxenye kwiqhosha functionality umz console, plugins Python core njl)
Qt4 Si

Ukuchithwa kwiDebian Stretch (ngenxa yonyaka)

(i-webkit isuswe)

Ewe Hayi
Qt5 Hayi

I-Misses QWebView - ukutshintshwa okutsha kungekhona kuwo onke amapulatifomu. Ukhumbula kwakhona i-Intanethi yeQPainter.

Si Si
PyQt4 Si Si Hayi
PyQt5 Hayi Si Si
Python 2 Si Si Hayi
Python 3 Hayi Si Si
API yo kucoca Hayi Hayi Si
Wrappers
PyQt5 -> PyQt4
Ukubonelela nge-90% Ukuhambelana kwangaphambili
Hayi Si Si
KwiBinary Qt4 esekelwe Qt4 esekelwe Qt5 esekelwe
Inkxaso ephambili I-Python wrappers

Kukho izinto ezimbini ezibalulekileyo ukugcina engqondweni malunga nesiphakamiso sikaMatas:

Kwisigaba sokuqalaLo msebenzi wenziwe kuthotho ukugqibezela 2.x inkxaso QT5, PyQt5 usebenzisa Python 3.0, ukuxhasa Qt4, PyQt4 kunye Python 2.7. Oku kuthetha ukuba zonke iinguqu ezenziwe kwisigaba sokuqala ziya kuhambelana neenguqulelo zangaphambili ze-2.x. iimpawu Python ziya kufakwa ziza kuqaliswa ukuze API PyQt4 badala zisengasetyenziswa ingakumbi xa yenziwe nxamnye QT5, PyQt5, Python 3.0. Ngokusebenzisa QGIS aqulunqwe nxamnye Qt4, PyQt4 kunye Python 2.7 akathandanga ehambelanayo.
Kwi sigaba sesibiniBekuya kusebenza ukuvelisa QGIS 3.0, ukungenisa API entsha, ngokupheleleyo susa Python 2.7, kubandakanywa inkxaso Qt4 kunye PyQt4. Izixhobo ezintsha ze-python eziza kuqaliswa kwisigaba sokuqala ziya kugcinwa, ziqwalasele ukuba yonke ikhowudi ye-python kunye nophuhliso lwe-QNGX 2.x ziza kuqhubeka zisebenza kwiinguqu ze-3.x ze-QGIS. Esi sigaba nayo kulindeleke ukuba utshintsho kwi QGIS API ukuba lowanyathela ezinye iiplagi. Ukulungisa oku kuya kunika isikhokelo aa yokufudukela ukuzama ukwenza lula ukudluliselwa iinguqulelo 2.x QGIS 3.x QGIS iinguqulelo.

Caveat emptor

Kukho iinkcazo ezimbalwa kufuneka ziqwalaselwe ukuqinisekisa ukuba ukufudukela kwiQGIS 3.0 izandi zibuhlungu kakhulu.

  • 1. IcandeloKufuneka iqatshelwe ukuba ngelixa indlela ebekwe apha ngasentla izama ukunciphisa inani lomsebenzi kwi-python script kwiiplagi, oku akuyi kuba yi-100%. Kuya kubakho iimeko apho ikhowudi kufuneka iguqulwe kwaye kuzo zonke iimeko ubuncinci, kuya kufuneka iphinde ihlaziywe ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba iyaqhubeka nokusebenza ngokufanelekileyo.
    2. Akukho sibonelelo semali simiselweyo ngokusesikweni sokuhlawula abaphuhlisi abazinikele ngokuzithandela ixesha labo kule nkqubo yokufuduka. Ngenxa yoku, kuya kuba nzima kakhulu ukunika ixesha elithe ngqo lokuba icandelo ngalinye lenkqubo liyakuthatha ixesha elingakanani. Oku kungathandabuzeki kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo xa kucwangciswa. Ewe iminikelo yamkelekile ukunceda ukwenza oku kwenzeke.
    3. Kunokubakho abaphuhlisi kunye namaziko phaya axhasa ngezimali izinto ezintsha ze-QGIS 2.x kwaye oku kunokuchaphazela umsebenzi wakho. Kuyimfuneko ukubandakanya kwizicwangciso nohlahlo lwabiwo-mali lweeprojekthi, ulwabiwo oluthile lokujongana nemfuduko kwiqonga le-QGIS 3.x.
    4. Ukuba iqela le-QGIS lisebenza "ngotshintsho olupheleleyo", kuya kubakho ixesha elifutshane kakhulu apho i-QGIS iya kungazinzi kwaye ihlale iguquka ngenxa yohlaziyo oluqhubekayo kwi-QGIS 3.0.
    4. Ukuba uphuhla ngendlela 'ezivelelayo', ubeka umngcipheko wokuba uphuhliso lwe-3.0 lungathatha ixesha elide ngaphandle kokuba uneqela elithembekileyo labaphuhlisi abasebenza kulo kwaye lilungele ukuthuthwa.

    Iziphakamiso

Ngokubhekiselele kulo lonke ulwazi olukhankanywe ngasentla, enye yeendlela ezimbini zenzathelo icetywayo:

Isiphakamiso se-1:

Khupha uguqulelo lwethutyana u-2.16 kwaye emva koko uqale ukusebenza kuhlobo lwe-3.0 njengomba ophambili, kunye nefestile yophuhliso lweenyanga ezili-8. Utshintsho olwenziwe kuhlobo 2.16 luya kufuna ukuhambelana nohlobo lwe-3.0 (jonga python3 / pytq5).

Isiphakamiso se-2:

Lunging kanye 3.0 nge window bexesha elide ngakumbi QT5, Python 3.0 kunye PyQt5 uze ucele ababhekisi ukuba benze umsebenzi wabo 3.0. Qhubeka kunye neenguqulelo ze-2.x kunye ne-frequency frequency kuze kube yi-3.0 ilungile.

Ezinye iziphakamiso

Ngaba unayo enye isindululo? I-QGIS inomdla wokwazi ngezinye iindlela ezinokwenzeka. Ukuba ufuna ukungenisa isicelo, nceda uthumele ku tim@qgis.org ngomxholo othi "QGIS 3.0 Proposal".

Kukulungele ukulandela QGIS blog, apho le ncwadi ivela khona.

Golgi Alvarez

Umbhali, umphandi, ingcali kwiiModeli zoLawulo loMhlaba. Uthathe inxaxheba ekucingeni nasekuphunyezweni kweemodeli ezifana ne: INkqubo yeSizwe yoLawulo lwePropati SINAP eHonduras, iModeli yoLawulo loMasipala abaManyeneyo eHonduras, iModeli eDityanisiweyo yoLawulo lweCadastre - iRegistry eNicaragua, iNkqubo yoLawulo lweTerritory SAT eColombia. . Umhleli weblogi yolwazi lwe-Geofumadas ukususela kwi-2007 kunye nomdali we-AulaGEO Academy equka izifundo ezingaphezu kwe-100 kwi-GIS - CAD - BIM - Digital Twins izihloko.

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