I-QGIS 3.0-Njani, nini kwaye yintoni; kuthetha ukuba

Abaninzi bethu bayazibuza:

Iyakukhutshwa nini iQGIS 3.0?

Kunyaka ophelileyo (i-2015) iqela leprojekthi liqale ukuphanda ngexesha kunye nendlela i-QGIS 3.0 iza kukhutshwa ngayo. Ba thembisa, ngokwemiqathango esuka kuyo Anita Graser, ababeza kuzidlulisa ngokucacileyo kubasebenzisi kunye nabaphuhlisi bezicwangciso zabo ngaphambi kokukhupha i-QGIS 3.0. Kutshanje bazamile ukuveza ezinye zeengqwalaselo zokukhutshwa kwe-QGIS 3.0 kwaye ekupheleni kwesithuba kukho ithuba lokuba siveze izimvo zethu.

Kutheni 3.0?

QGis_LogoNgokwesiqhelo uguqulelo olukhulu lubekelwa amaxesha apho utshintsho olukhulu lwenziwe kwi-API yesoftware yakho. Eli khefu ayisosigqibo esincinci seprojekthi ye-QGIS kuba singamakhulu amawaka abasebenzisi abaxhomekeke kwi-QGIS, kokubini ukuzisebenzisa kunye neenkonzo ezinikezelwa kubantu besithathu.

Ukususela ngamaxesha ukuphula i-API kuyimfuneko ukulungiselela ukuhlaziywa kwezakhiwo kunye nokuphuculwa kweendlela, amathala eencwadi amatsha kunye nezilungiso kwizigqibo ezenziwe kwangaphambili.

Yimiphi imiphumo yokuphula i-API?

Esinye isizathu sokuba oku kukophula API e QGIS 3.0 kukuba oku kuya kuba negalelo elikhulu, leyo wayenokuyaphula amakhulu lweplagi ngophuhliso ukuba akusayi esihambisanayo nale API entsha kunye nababhali aba baye ukwenza ukuhlaziywa kophuhliso lwabo ukuqinisekisa ukuhambelana ne-API entsha.

Ubungakanani beenguqu ezifunekayo kuxhomekeke kumlinganiselo omkhulu kwi:

  • Zingaphi utshintsho kwi-API ezithintela ukusebenza okwangoku.
    Ngangaphi amanqaku ababhali beeplagi asebenzise iindawo ze-API eziza kutshintsha.
  • Ziza kuba ziphi iinguqu eziphambili ze-3.0?

Kukho iinkalo ezine eziphambili ozijonga ukutshintsha kwi-3.0:

 

Uhlaziyo Qt4 kwiQT5: Esi siseti esisiseko samathala eencwadi apho i-QGIS yakhiwe kwinqanaba eliphezulu, sithetha ngenqanaba lokusebenza kweqonga. I-QT ikwabonelela ngeelayibrari zokwenza ulawulo lwenkumbulo, ukusebenza konxibelelwano, kunye nolawulo lwemizobo. I-Qt4 (ekusekwe kuyo i-QGIS okwangoku) ayiphuhliswa okwangoku ngabo banoxanduva kwithala leencwadi le-Qt kwaye inokuba neengxaki ngokusebenza namanye amaqonga (umzekelo, OS X) kwaye iququzelele nolawulo lweenguqulelo zokubini (umzekelo uVavanyo lweDebian kunye nohlobo lweDebian "Stretch" olulandelayo). Inkqubo yokuzisa i-QGIS kwi-QT5 sele inokubaluleka kwangaphambili (ikakhulu okwenziwe nguMatthias Kuhn) abathi kunye noMarco Bernasocchi batshaye kwi-Android «QField» esekwe ngokupheleleyo kwi-QT5. Nangona kunjalo, kukho ukusikelwa umda ekusunguleni i-QT5 entsha ngenxa yempembelelo yayo kwi-QGIS-ngakumbi iiwijethi zewebhu (ikakhulu ezisetyenziswa kuMqambi nakwezinye iindawo kwiQGIS).

Ukuhlaziywa kwePyQt4 kwiPyQt5: Ezi ziinguqu ezinxulumene nolwimi lwePython lweQt apho iQGIS Python API isekelwe khona. Kuvela ukutshintsha zamathala i QT5 C ++, nayo kulindeleke ukuba ukudlulisela PyQt5 ilayibrari Python ukuze bakwazi ukuthatha ithuba iingenelo API entsha Python QT5.
Ukuhlaziya iPython 2.7 kwiPython 3: Okwangoku yonke into iqhubeka kwiPython 2.7. IPython 3 yinguqulelo yamva nje ye-python kwaye iyacetyiswa ngabo bakhokela loo projekthi. I-Python 2 ayihambelani noko ne-Python 3 (phantse ngokulingana nokungahambelani phakathi kwe-QGIS 2 kunye ne-Qgis 3). Uninzi lwabaphuhlisi benze i-python Python 3 ubukhulu becala ibuyela umva iyahambelana nePython 2, kodwa ukungqinelana ngasemva akukuhle kangako.
Ukuphuculwa kweQGIS API ngokwayo: Enye yeengxaki zokugcina ukungqinelana kwe-API phakathi kweenguqulelo kukuba kufuneka uphile ngokhetho lwakho lwexesha elide. Kwi-QGIS kwenziwa yonke imizamo yokungaphuli i-API kuthotho lwezinto ezikhutshwayo. Ukukhupha uhlobo lwe-QGIS ye-3.0 ene-API engahambelaniyo ngoku iya kunika ithuba "lokucoca indlu" ngokulungisa izinto ezikwi-API esikuyo ukuba akukho kuvumelana. Ungabona uluhlu lwexeshana lwe Utshintsho olwenziweyo lwe-3.0 API.

Indlela yokuxhasa ukutshintsha kwe-API ye-3.0

Njengoko sele kukhankanyiwe, uguqulelo lwe-3.0 luza kwaphuka nge-2.G ye-QGIS kwaye kukho ithuba lokuba iiplagi ezininzi, usetyenziso esele ikhona kunye nenye ikhowudi esekwe kwi-API yangoku iya kwaphuka. Ke yintoni enokwenziwa ukunciphisa utshintsho? UMatthias Kuhn, uJürgen Fischer, uNyall Dawson, uMartin Dobias, nabanye abaphuhlisi abaphezulu bebefuna iindlela zokunciphisa inani lotshintsho lwe-API ngelixa beqhubeka nokuqhubela phambili ikhowudi ye-QGIS esekwe kwisizukulwana esilandelayo samathala eencwadi kunye ne-API yangaphakathi. Kwintlanganiso yethu yokugqibela yeQGIS yeProjekthi yokuLawula iProjekthi siye sajonga ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo. Le theyibhile ilandelayo ishwankathela into enobubele uMatias Kuhn kwaye sizamile ukuyiguqulela kweli nqaku ngokwento thunyelwe kwi bhulogi yakhe:


QGIS 2.14 LTR
QGIS 2.16 ??? QGIS 3.0
Umhla wokukhutshwa Ekupheleni kukaFebhuwari Iinyanga ze-4 kamva 2.14 Umjikelezo weenyanga ze8?
Amanqaku Gqiba kumbindi QGIS Python ikhowudi Python 3 ukuba liwuthobele kwaye lixhasa PyQt5 (ngokusetyenziswa kwenxenye kwiqhosha functionality umz console, plugins Python core njl)
Qt4 Si

Ukuchithwa kwiDebian Stretch (ngenxa yonyaka)

(i-webkit isuswe)

Ewe Hayi
Qt5 Hayi

I-Misses QWebView - ukutshintshwa okutsha kungekhona kuwo onke amapulatifomu. Ukhumbula kwakhona i-Intanethi yeQPainter.

Si Si
PyQt4 Si Si Hayi
PyQt5 Hayi Si Si
Python 2 Si Si Hayi
Python 3 Hayi Si Si
API yo kucoca Hayi Hayi Si
Wrappers
PyQt5 -> PyQt4
Ukubonelela nge-90% Ukuhambelana kwangaphambili
Hayi Si Si
KwiBinary Qt4 esekelwe Qt4 esekelwe Qt5 esekelwe
Inkxaso ephambili I-Python wrappers

Kukho izinto ezimbini ezibalulekileyo ukugcina engqondweni malunga nesiphakamiso sikaMatas:

Kwisigaba sokuqalaLo msebenzi wenziwe kuthotho ukugqibezela 2.x inkxaso QT5, PyQt5 usebenzisa Python 3.0, ukuxhasa Qt4, PyQt4 kunye Python 2.7. Oku kuthetha ukuba zonke iinguqu ezenziwe kwisigaba sokuqala ziya kuhambelana neenguqulelo zangaphambili ze-2.x. iimpawu Python ziya kufakwa ziza kuqaliswa ukuze API PyQt4 badala zisengasetyenziswa ingakumbi xa yenziwe nxamnye QT5, PyQt5, Python 3.0. Ngokusebenzisa QGIS aqulunqwe nxamnye Qt4, PyQt4 kunye Python 2.7 akathandanga ehambelanayo.
Kwi sigaba sesibiniBekuya kusebenza ukuvelisa QGIS 3.0, ukungenisa API entsha, ngokupheleleyo susa Python 2.7, kubandakanywa inkxaso Qt4 kunye PyQt4. Izixhobo ezintsha ze-python eziza kuqaliswa kwisigaba sokuqala ziya kugcinwa, ziqwalasele ukuba yonke ikhowudi ye-python kunye nophuhliso lwe-QNGX 2.x ziza kuqhubeka zisebenza kwiinguqu ze-3.x ze-QGIS. Esi sigaba nayo kulindeleke ukuba utshintsho kwi QGIS API ukuba lowanyathela ezinye iiplagi. Ukulungisa oku kuya kunika isikhokelo aa yokufudukela ukuzama ukwenza lula ukudluliselwa iinguqulelo 2.x QGIS 3.x QGIS iinguqulelo.

Caveat emptor

Kukho iinkcazo ezimbalwa kufuneka ziqwalaselwe ukuqinisekisa ukuba ukufudukela kwiQGIS 3.0 izandi zibuhlungu kakhulu.

  • 1. IcandeloKufuneka iqatshelwe ukuba ngelixa indlela ebekwe apha ngasentla izama ukunciphisa inani lomsebenzi kwi-python script kwiiplagi, oku akuyi kuba yi-100%. Kuya kubakho iimeko apho ikhowudi kufuneka iguqulwe kwaye kuzo zonke iimeko ubuncinci, kuya kufuneka iphinde ihlaziywe ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba iyaqhubeka nokusebenza ngokufanelekileyo.
    2. Akukho sibonelelo semali simiselweyo ngokusesikweni sokuhlawula abaphuhlisi abazinikele ngokuzithandela ixesha labo kule nkqubo yokufuduka. Ngenxa yoku, kuya kuba nzima kakhulu ukunika ixesha elithe ngqo lokuba icandelo ngalinye lenkqubo liyakuthatha ixesha elingakanani. Oku kungathandabuzeki kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo xa kucwangciswa. Ewe iminikelo yamkelekile ukunceda ukwenza oku kwenzeke.
    3. Kunokubakho abaphuhlisi kunye namaziko phaya axhasa ngezimali izinto ezintsha ze-QGIS 2.x kwaye oku kunokuchaphazela umsebenzi wakho. Kuyimfuneko ukubandakanya kwizicwangciso nohlahlo lwabiwo-mali lweeprojekthi, ulwabiwo oluthile lokujongana nemfuduko kwiqonga le-QGIS 3.x.
    4. Ukuba iqela leQGIS lisebenza "kutshintsho olupheleleyo", kuyakubakho ixesha elifutshane xa iQGIS ingazinzanga kwaye itshintsha rhoqo ngenxa yohlaziyo oluqhubekayo kwiQGIS 3.0.
    4. Ukuba ukhula 'ngendaleko', ubeka umngcipheko wokuba ukukhula kwe-3.0 kungathatha ixesha elide ngaphandle kokuba uneqela labaphuhlisi abanyanisekileyo abasebenza kulo kwaye bakulungele ukufuduka.

    Iziphakamiso

Ngokubhekiselele kulo lonke ulwazi olukhankanywe ngasentla, enye yeendlela ezimbini zenzathelo icetywayo:

Isiphakamiso se-1:

Khupha uguqulelo lwethutyana u-2.16 kwaye emva koko uqale ukusebenza kuhlobo lwe-3.0 njengomba ophambili, kunye nefestile yophuhliso lweenyanga ezili-8. Utshintsho olwenziwe kuhlobo 2.16 luya kufuna ukuhambelana nohlobo lwe-3.0 (jonga python3 / pytq5).

Isiphakamiso se-2:

Lunging kanye 3.0 nge window bexesha elide ngakumbi QT5, Python 3.0 kunye PyQt5 uze ucele ababhekisi ukuba benze umsebenzi wabo 3.0. Qhubeka kunye neenguqulelo ze-2.x kunye ne-frequency frequency kuze kube yi-3.0 ilungile.

Ezinye iziphakamiso

Ngaba unayo enye isindululo? I-QGIS inomdla wokwazi ngezinye iindlela ezinokwenzeka. Ukuba ufuna ukungenisa isicelo, nceda uthumele ku tim@qgis.org kunye nesihloko esithi "QGIS 3.0 Proposal".

Kukulungele ukulandela QGIS blog, apho le ncwadi ivela khona.

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