QGIS 3.0 - Njani, nini kunye nantoni na; kuthetha

Abaninzi bethu bayazibuza:

Iyakukhutshwa nini iQGIS 3.0?

Kunyaka ophelileyo (i-2015) iqela leprojekthi liqale ukuphanda ngexesha kunye nendlela i-QGIS 3.0 iza kukhutshwa ngayo. Ba thembisa, ngokwemiqathango esuka kuyo Anita Graser, ukuba baya kubonisa ngokucacileyo kubasebenzisi kunye nabaphuhlisi bezicwangciso zabo ngaphambi kokuqalisa iQGIS 3.0. Kungekudala baye bazama ukuveza ezinye zeengqalelo malunga nokuqaliswa kweQGIS 3.0 kwaye ekupheleni kwithuba kukho ithuba lokuba sibonise iingcamango zethu.

Kutheni 3.0?

QGis_LogoNgokuqhelekileyo inguqu enkulu igcinwe ngamaxesha apho utshintsho olukhulu lwenziwa kwi-API yesofthiwe yakho. Lekhekhelo akusiyo isigqibo esincinci seprojekthi yeQGIS kuba sisinkulungwane zamawaka abasebenzisi abaxhomekeke kwiQGIS, zombini ukusetyenziswa kwabo kunye nenkonzo enikezelwa kumaqela esithathu.

Ukususela ngamaxesha ukuphula i-API kuyimfuneko ukulungiselela ukuhlaziywa kwezakhiwo kunye nokuphuculwa kweendlela, amathala eencwadi amatsha kunye nezilungiso kwizigqibo ezenziwe kwangaphambili.

Yimiphi imiphumo yokuphula i-API?

Esinye isizathu sokuba oku kukophula API e QGIS 3.0 kukuba oku kuya kuba negalelo elikhulu, leyo wayenokuyaphula amakhulu lweplagi ngophuhliso ukuba akusayi esihambisanayo nale API entsha kunye nababhali aba baye ukwenza ukuhlaziywa kophuhliso lwabo ukuqinisekisa ukuhambelana ne-API entsha.

Ubungakanani beenguqu ezifunekayo kuxhomekeke kumlinganiselo omkhulu kwi:

  • Zingaphi utshintsho kwi-API ezithintela ukusebenza okwangoku.
    Ngangaphi amanqaku ababhali beeplagi asebenzise iindawo ze-API eziza kutshintsha.
  • Ziza kuba ziphi iinguqu eziphambili ze-3.0?

Kukho iinkalo ezine eziphambili ozijonga ukutshintsha kwi-3.0:

Uhlaziyo Qt4 kwiQT5: Esi seto esisiseko samathala eencwadi apho i-QGIS yakhelwe kwinqanaba eliphezulu, sithetha ngenqanaba lokusebenza kwe-CORE yeqonga. I-QT ikwabonelela ngamathala eencwadi olawulo lwe-mummy, imisebenzi yokuqhagamshelwa kunye nolawulo lwemizobo. I-Qt4 (apho i-QGIS isekwe khona ngoku) ayikaphuhliswa ngoku ngabo bajongana nethala leencwadi le-Qt kwaye inokuba neengxaki ngokusebenza namanye amaqonga (umzekelo, OS X) kwaye ilungiselele nolawulo lweenguqulelo ze-binary. (umzekelo uvavanyo lweDebian kunye nohlobo olulandelayo lweDebian "Stretch"). Inkqubo yokuzisa i-QGIS kwi-QT5 sele inesiphumo esibalulekileyo (ikakhulu oko kwenziwe ngu-Matthias Kuhn) ukuba kunye noMarco Bernasocchi umsi kwi-Android «QField» esekwe ngokupheleleyo kwi-QT5. Nangona kunjalo, kukho umda othile ekuqaliseni i-QT5 entsha ngenxa yefuthe layo kwi-QGIS - ngakumbi iiwijethi zewebhu (ikakhulu zisetyenziswa kuMqambi kunye nakwezinye iindawo kwi-QGIS).

Ukuhlaziywa kwePyQt4 kwiPyQt5: Ezi ziinguqu ezinxulumene nolwimi lwePython lweQt apho iQGIS Python API isekelwe khona. Kuvela ukutshintsha zamathala i QT5 C ++, nayo kulindeleke ukuba ukudlulisela PyQt5 ilayibrari Python ukuze bakwazi ukuthatha ithuba iingenelo API entsha Python QT5.
Ukuhlaziya iPython 2.7 kwiPython 3: Njengamanje yonke into isebenza kwiPython 2.7. I-Python 3 yinguqulelo yakutshanje ye-python yaye icetyiswa ngabo baholayo loo projekthi. Python akuvumelani kancinane kunye 2 3 Python (in an phantse ngokomlinganiselo ukungavumelani phakathi QGIS uya 2 kunye 3 Qgis ukulinganisa). developers Abaninzi baye benza Python Python 3 becala ehambelana kunye neenguqulelo zangaphambili Python 2, kodwa uphawulo ngasemva ayikho nje elungileyo.
Ukuphuculwa kweQGIS API ngokwayo: Enye yeengxaki ezigcina ukuhambisana kwe-API phakathi kweenguqu kukuba kufuneka uphile kunye neendlela zakho zokwenza ixesha elide. Kwi-QGIS, yonke inzame yenziwe ukuba ingayiphuli i-API ngaphakathi kwinqaku lokukhutshwa okuncinci. Ukukhulula i-QGIS inguqulo ye-3.0 kunye ne-API engahambelani nayo ngoku iya kunika ithuba "lokucoca indlu" ngokulungisa izinto kwi-API esinazo izinto ezingekho. Uyakubona uluhlu lwesikhashana Utshintsho olwenziweyo lwe-3.0 API.

Indlela yokuxhasa ukutshintsha kwe-API ye-3.0

Njengoko sele kukhankanyiwe, uguqulelo 3.0 zahlukane QGIS version 2.x kunokubangela kwaye kukho kungenzeka ukuba iiplagi ezininzi, izicelo ezikhoyo kunye nezinye khowudi zisekelwe phezu breakage API yangoku. Ngoko, yintoni enokuyenza ukuze unciphise utshintsho? Matthias Kuhn, Jürgen Fischer, Nyall Dawson, uMartin Dobias kunye nezinye ababhekisi ezinkulu ziye ukukhangela iindlela ukunciphisa inani lotshintsho API ngokwaphula ngoxa phambili isiseko ikhowudi QGIS kusekelwa kwisizukulwana esilandelayo kwamathala eencwadi kunye API zangaphakathi zazo. Ngexesha lokugqibela kwintlanganiso yeKomiti yeKomiti yeGQQI yeQGIS, yayiyi-geofumed ngamathuba amaninzi. Itheyibhile elandelayo ifingqa oko uMatthias Kuhn atshwankathela ngokufutshane kunye nokuba inxalenye esilinga ukuyiguqulela kule nqaku ngokuphathelele thunyelwe kwi bhulogi yakhe:


QGIS 2.14 LTR
QGIS 2.16 ??? QGIS 3.0
Umhla wokukhutshwa Ekupheleni kukaFebhuwari Iinyanga ze-4 kamva 2.14 Umjikelezo weenyanga ze8?
Amanqaku Gqiba kumbindi QGIS Python ikhowudi Python 3 ukuba liwuthobele kwaye lixhasa PyQt5 (ngokusetyenziswa kwenxenye kwiqhosha functionality umz console, plugins Python core njl)
Qt4 Si

Ukuchithwa kwiDebian Stretch (ngenxa yonyaka)

(i-webkit isuswe)

Ewe Hayi
Qt5 Hayi

I-Misses QWebView - ukutshintshwa okutsha kungekhona kuwo onke amapulatifomu. Ukhumbula kwakhona i-Intanethi yeQPainter.

Si Si
PyQt4 Si Si Hayi
PyQt5 Hayi Si Si
Python 2 Si Si Hayi
Python 3 Hayi Si Si
API yo kucoca Hayi Hayi Si
Wrappers
PyQt5 -> PyQt4
Ukubonelela nge-90% Ukuhambelana kwangaphambili
Hayi Si Si
KwiBinary Qt4 esekelwe Qt4 esekelwe Qt5 esekelwe
Inkxaso ephambili I-Python wrappers

Kukho izinto ezimbini ezibalulekileyo ukugcina engqondweni malunga nesiphakamiso sikaMatas:

Kwisigaba sokuqalaLo msebenzi wenziwe kuthotho ukugqibezela 2.x inkxaso QT5, PyQt5 usebenzisa Python 3.0, ukuxhasa Qt4, PyQt4 kunye Python 2.7. Oku kuthetha ukuba zonke iinguqu ezenziwe kwisigaba sokuqala ziya kuhambelana neenguqulelo zangaphambili ze-2.x. iimpawu Python ziya kufakwa ziza kuqaliswa ukuze API PyQt4 badala zisengasetyenziswa ingakumbi xa yenziwe nxamnye QT5, PyQt5, Python 3.0. Ngokusebenzisa QGIS aqulunqwe nxamnye Qt4, PyQt4 kunye Python 2.7 akathandanga ehambelanayo.
Kwi sigaba sesibiniBekuya kusebenza ukuvelisa QGIS 3.0, ukungenisa API entsha, ngokupheleleyo susa Python 2.7, kubandakanywa inkxaso Qt4 kunye PyQt4. Izixhobo ezintsha ze-python eziza kuqaliswa kwisigaba sokuqala ziya kugcinwa, ziqwalasele ukuba yonke ikhowudi ye-python kunye nophuhliso lwe-QNGX 2.x ziza kuqhubeka zisebenza kwiinguqu ze-3.x ze-QGIS. Esi sigaba nayo kulindeleke ukuba utshintsho kwi QGIS API ukuba lowanyathela ezinye iiplagi. Ukulungisa oku kuya kunika isikhokelo aa yokufudukela ukuzama ukwenza lula ukudluliselwa iinguqulelo 2.x QGIS 3.x QGIS iinguqulelo.

Caveat emptor

Kukho iinkcazo ezimbalwa kufuneka ziqwalaselwe ukuqinisekisa ukuba ukufudukela kwiQGIS 3.0 izandi zibuhlungu kakhulu.

  • 1 SKufuneka kuqatshelwe ukuba nangona indlela esekwe ngasentla izama ukunciphisa inani lemisebenzi ekhoyo kwi-script malunga ne-python kwiiplagi, oku akuyi kuba ku-100%. Kuya kubakho ukuba kukho iimeko apho ikhowudi kufuneka ihlengahlengiswe kwaye kuzo zonke iinkalo ubuncinane kufuneka kuhlaziywe ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba iyaqhubeka isebenza ngokufanelekileyo.
    2 Akukho mithombo yemali eyenziwe ngokusemthethweni ukuhlawula abaphuhlisi abazondla ngokuzithandela ixesha labo kule nkqubo yokufuduka. Ngenxa yoko, kuya kuba nzima kakhulu ukunika ixesha elichanekileyo eliza kuthatha ixesha elide le nxaxheba kwinkqubo. Oku kuqinisekiswa kufuneka kuthathelwe ingqalelo ekucwangciseni. Ngokuqinisekileyo ukuvunywa kwiminikelo kuvulwe ukukunceda ukwenza oku kwenzeke.
    3 Kukho novelisi kunye namaziko aphuma apho axhasa ngemali iinkalo ezintsha kwi-series ye-2.x QGIS kwaye oku kunokuchaphazela umsebenzi wabo. Kufuneka sibandakanye kwizicwangciso kunye nebhajethi yeeprojekthi, isabelo esithile sokujongana nokufudukela kwiqonga le-3.x yeQGIS.
    4. Ukuba iqela leQGIS isebenza "kutshintsho olupheleleyo", kuya kuba nexesha elincinane ngexesha i-QGIS iya kuhlala ingazinzi kwaye iguqule rhoqo ngenxa yokuhlaziywa okuqhubekayo kwiQGIS 3.0.
    4 Ukuba ikhula ngendlela "yendaleko", kukho umngcipheko wokuba ukuphuhliswa kwe3.0 kungathabatha ixesha elide ngaphandle kokuba kukho iqela elithembekileyo labaphuhlisi abasebenza kule nto kwaye libenze bakulungele ukufuduka.

    Iziphakamiso

Ngokubhekiselele kulo lonke ulwazi olukhankanywe ngasentla, enye yeendlela ezimbini zenzathelo icetywayo:

Isiphakamiso se-1:

Ukukhuphela i-2.16 ingcaciso yesikhashana uze uqale ukusebenza kwi-3.0 inguqu ebalulekileyo, kunye nefowuni yokuphuhlisa iinyanga ze-8. Utshintsho olwenziweyo kwinguqu ye-2.16 iya kuhambelana ne-3.0 version (bona i-python3 / pytq5).

Isiphakamiso se-2:

Lunging kanye 3.0 nge window bexesha elide ngakumbi QT5, Python 3.0 kunye PyQt5 uze ucele ababhekisi ukuba benze umsebenzi wabo 3.0. Qhubeka kunye neenguqulelo ze-2.x kunye ne-frequency frequency kuze kube yi-3.0 ilungile.

Ezinye iziphakamiso

Ingaba unesinye isiluleko? I-QGIS inomdla wokwazi malunga nezinye iindlela ezinokwenzeka. Ukuba ufuna ukuhambisa isiluleko, nceda uthumele kuyo tim@qgis.org kunye nesihloko esithi "QGIS 3.0 Proposal".

Kukulungele ukulandela QGIS blog, apho le ncwadi ivela khona.

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