Yongeza
AutoCAD-AutoDeskUkulandaMicrostation-BentleyTopography

Yenza ndlela ibhokisi kunye nomgama ukusuka uqondisa UTM

Esi sithuba sisabela ku-Diego, waseParaguay osenzayo umbuzo olandelayo:

Ndonwabile ukubulisa ... ixesha elidlulileyo lokukhangela bendifumene ngokungazi kwiwebhusayithi yakho kwaye ndiyifumene inomdla kakhulu, yomxholo kunye nendlela emnandi yokunxibelelana nesayensi yakho. Ndingathanda ukukubuza, ukuba unayo nayiphi na incwadi ebhaliweyo, okanye nayiphi na inkqubo Excel ukundinceda ukwenza oku kulandelayo: Ndiye ndatshekisha kwi-CAD i-polygon kunye namanqaku ayo okuchongwa ngokuchanekileyo, kwaye kunye ne-UTM idibanisa. Andikwazi ngokupheleleyo kumazwe angaphandle ukuba txt ukufunda excel.Mi umbuzo: besazi data 1 UTM ... N amanqaku, unako ukufumana idata amaxesha, izalathiso imigama okt ukususela inkcazelo mna eyam? indawo 1 iye X ... Y ..., esazi nokwazi ukuba ingongoma 2 uye X ... Y ...; INGABE UNINGIXELISA UKUQALA OKUQHELEKILEYO KANYE NENKOSI YENYE? ukuze sikwazi ukulungiselela ifom ehambelanayo ngokuzenzekelayo? ndiyabulela ... ngokubalaseleyo kwiParaguay!

Ewe, oko uGeorge ofuna ukuba kuvela UTM izilungiso Veza itshathi yeebheringi kunye nemigama ... kwaye njengokuba i-Ista sele igqityiwe, xa sele nditye ikhekhe leentlanzi, turret enobusi kwaye ndithathe imifanekiso elungileyo yeekhaphethi ze-sawdust ... nantsi impendulo. Kuqala masiqonde ukuba eyona ndlela yokwenza le nto ngesixhobo esifanelekileyo (Inokuba njalo na Vba macro of Microstationnge Softdesk okanye i-AutoCAD Civil 3D) kodwa ngenjongo yokufunda, nokuqonda ukuba ebomini kufuneka usebenzise oko unakho, makhe sibone indlela yokwenza ngayo nge-Excel.

1. Yenza amanqaku

UDiego usixelela ukuba unendlela yokuthumela amanqaku kwifayile ye-txt, ukuyivula nge-Excel, ke kwimeko yam ndiya kuyenza ngeMicrostation. Kuba ndifuna ukuthumela idatha kwi-Excel, ndiza kubeka amanqaku kwi-vertex nganye. Ukubenza babonakale, nditshintshe ubukhulu bomgca, kwaye kubaluleke kakhulu ukuqonda ukuba iMicrostation iya kubathumela kwifayile ye-txt ngokulandelelana kwayo, ngenxa yoko kubalulekile ukuyenza ngokulandelelana.

i-microstation ibonisa ukugqwesa

Ukuzithumela kwi-Excel, "i-export coordinates" isixhobo sisetyenziswa, ndenza "ucingo" olugubungela onke amanqaku kwaye ndicwangcisa idatha:

  • Ndibabela igama lefayile ye-txt njenge-test444.txt
  • Ndibonisa ukuba umyalelo ondibathandayo ngu-XYZ
  • Ifomathi yeeyunithi ukusuka kwi-“master units” ekwimitha
  • Ndibonisa ukuba ndifuna kuphela izibini ezimbini
  • Emva koko umdibanisi ngama-commas kunye nenani le-1

Ngokucofa iqhosha elithi "fence" kunye nonqakrazo kwisikrini, inkqubo idale ifayile ye-txt kwaye idale inombolo nganye yeengongoma, ukusuka kwi-1 ukuya kwi-36.

i-microstation ibonisa i-txt

2 Vula itafile kwi-Exceli-txt exel microstation

Ukuvula le fayile kwi-Excel, yiya "kwifayile / evulekile" kwaye ukhethe uhlobo lwefayile "ifayile yombhalo, .prn .csv .txt" Emva koko, kwiphaneli evelayo, khetha ukuba umbhalo uhlukaniswe ngama-commas. Ekugqibeleni ifayile ivulwe ngeekholamu ezintathu, eyokuqala ngamanani eengongoma, kowesibini i-X ilungelelanisa kwaye kweyesithathu ilungelelanisa u-y.

3 Bala umgamai-trigonometry

Masibuyele kwimigaqo esisiseko ye-trigonometry kuqala. Khumbula ukuba sijonge umgama kunye ne-engile.

a = umahluko kulungelelwaniso lwe-Y (ethathwe ngokukhupha i-x2 - x1), kwikholam Mb = umahluko kwi-X iziququzeleli (zithathwe ngokukhupha i-y2 - y1), kwikholamu Lc = hypotenuse oluya kuba yingcambu ye-b isikwere kunye liphindwe kabini, kwikholamu P kunye nale iya kuba yinani lomgama.

hypotenuse trigonometry

4 Ukubala kwekhosi

Ngoku, ngenxa yeklasi sifuna ukwenza amanani amaninzi; kodwa zonke zivela kwinqanaba eliphakathi kwesitishi kunye nomlandelelwano.sine cosine ngakumbi Ukubalwa kwekota. Khumbula ukuba cosine kwinqanaba lilingana nokuhlukanisa phakathi kwe-c, oko kukuthi i-delta x phakathi komgama obalwa njengesiqu.

Ke yenziwe kuphela kwi-Excel yokwahlulahlula ikholamu L ngekholamu P. Senza ukubala kwe- sine, ezizahlulahlula i-Delta Y yi-hypotenuse (M ngo-P). Ngoku for balala i-angle, sisebenzisa kuphela i-cosine engenanto kwikholam equlethekileyo kwaye ekubeni i-Excel isebenzisa i-radians, sandisa ixabiso nge-180 kwaye sihlula PI; ifom ibonakala ngathi: = ACOS (ikholomu R) * 180 / PI ().

Ngoku ukubala Ukuqhelaniswa kweMpuma / yeNtshona Sabela imeko: ukuba i-cosine i-positive, bhala u-E, ukuba i-cosine i-negative, bhala u-W. Ifomyula ibonakala ngolu hlobo: =SI(R2<0,"W","E")...ikwikholamu T Ukubala i Ukhokelo lwaseNyakatho / lwaseMzantsi, sabela imeko efana nale yangaphambili, kodwa nge-sine; oko kukuthi, ukuba umsipha u-positive, bhala u-N, ukuba u-negetive, bhala u-S kwaye ifomula izakuba ngolu hlobo: =SI(R2<0,”W”,”E”)… ikwikholamu u-U

Ngoku khumbula ukuba i-engile ebalwe ngaphambili ivela kwindawo ethe tyaba, empuma kwaye into esiyifunayo ngokubhekisele emantla okanye emazantsi. Ke kwimeko ye-NW kunye ne-SW quadrants sithatha i-90 degrees kude, ke into esiyenzayo kukudala imeko yokuba ukuba i-cosine ine-negative, thabatha i-90 kwaye kwi-NE ne-SE quadrants sithathe i-90 thabatha i-angle kwikholamu V

ekhosini

Ikholamu V ibonisa i-angle, kodwa kwifomathi yedesimali Ukuguqula idesimali ibe yidigri, imizuzu kunye nemizuzwana into esiyenzayo kukuyinciphisa ngeendawo zedesimali, njengoko kunjalo kwikholamu W. balala imizuzu, sithatha iidigri ezipheleleyo uthabathe iidridi ezifinyeziweyo kwaye uziphindaphinde ngo-60. imizuzwana, imizuzu bayasuswa thabatha imizuzu esikiweyo, kwaye iphindaphindwe ngama-60. Okokugqibela, imizuzwana incitshisiwe kwiindawo ezimbini zokugqibela ... ulumke, ukuba ulungelelwaniso lwe-UTM ebelusetyenziswa alunandawo zingaphezulu kwesibini, ixabiso ledesimali lemizuzwana ngqo ngokuchanekileyo kungangcono ukubashiya baye kwishumi.

5 Ukudala izikhokelo kunye nemitha yeetafile

Amaxesha

izikhokelo kunye nemidaKoku ndisebenzise ifomula yokudibanisa, ngoko ke ndongeza iseli enenombolo u-1, emva koko isithuba seqhagamshela, kwaye emva koko iseli enenani u-2; ngoko ndinohlobo lwezikhululo "1 - 2"

Imida.  Ezi zivela kwikholam ye hypotenuse.imizuzu kunye nemizuzwana

Ikhosi.  Oku kufuna kuphela ukuzisa inani elibaliweyo kwiikholomu ezibalwe ngaphambili, kwaye iseli ukuba yonge isibonakaliso sesimbo, imzuzu okanye yesibini yenziwe kwiipropati zeseli njengoko kuboniswe kumfanekiso. Ukongezelela ndongeze iikholomu yokuqwalasela, kuba uphando lwezobuqhetseba lufunekayo. Ukusuka apha ungalanda ifayile kwifomathi Dwg, kwifomathi Dgn, ifayile ye-Excel kunye nefayili txt.

Ngoko ke Nantsi ifayile kwi-Excel onokuthi wenze ngayo isihloko kunye netafile yomgama ukusuka kulungelelwaniso lwe-UTM ngokulandelelana. Ukongeza amanqaku, unokukopa iikholamu kwaye uzifake, kungcono kuba ngale ndlela uqinisekisa iifomula, ufuna ukuhlonipha umqolo wokuqala nowokugqibela. Kuya kufuneka ukhuphele idatha ukusuka kwindawo yokuqala ukuya esiphelweni sokuqala, ukuze isikhululo sokugqibela sibalwe kakuhle.

Apha ungayilanda ithemplate ukwenza ibhokisi yeebherethi kunye nemida ukusuka kwii-UTM.

 

u-Rumbos DownloadsIfuna igalelo lokomfuziselo lokukhuphela, onokwenza ngalo PayPal okanye ikhadi lekhredithi.

Kufanekisela ukuba umntu ucinga ngento ebonelela ngayo kunye nokukhululeka okungafumaneka kuwo.

 


Funda ukuba ungayenza njani le kunye nezinye itemplate kwi Ikhosi yokukopela ye-Excel-CAD-GIS.


 

Golgi Alvarez

Umbhali, umphandi, ingcali kwiiModeli zoLawulo loMhlaba. Uthathe inxaxheba ekucingeni nasekuphunyezweni kweemodeli ezifana ne: INkqubo yeSizwe yoLawulo lwePropati SINAP eHonduras, iModeli yoLawulo loMasipala abaManyeneyo eHonduras, iModeli eDityanisiweyo yoLawulo lweCadastre - iRegistry eNicaragua, iNkqubo yoLawulo lweTerritory SAT eColombia. . Umhleli weblogi yolwazi lwe-Geofumadas ukususela kwi-2007 kunye nomdali we-AulaGEO Academy equka izifundo ezingaphezu kwe-100 kwi-GIS - CAD - BIM - Digital Twins izihloko.

Amanqaku Afana

41 Comments

  1. Kukho sisixhobo ekuthiwa Calculo_Topográfico.exe, wena automates inkqubo baguqukele UTM ilungelelanise lolwandiso, kubandakanywa engile, iibheringi kunye nemigama, kwakunye nezinye izixhobo eziluncedo ezifana ukufumana isiphoso mhlawumbi le saveyi, mhlawumbi ngasempumalanga okanye engile amabanga, linciphisa yepholigoni indawo wafuna alungise kwicala elinye okanye engile, ezilungele kwamalungu omzimba, yaye ngokukodwa wenze umzobo e AutoCAD, elikuvumela ukuba khuphelo no colo (okanye) Pilot (s) yepolygons nge ukuba u sebenza; kwakhona athumele kwelinye i data ukuba iifomati izikhululo zizonke, ukuba ukulayisha (okanye download) ingcaciso.

  2. Umbuzo: Ngenxa yokuba i-deltas ibabala ukusuka phezulu kwaye ayikho enye indlela?

  3. I-template ebalulekileyo, ndenze i-macro ngqo kwi-Microstation eyenza ngokufanayo kum kwaye iyakuthumela kwifayile ye-txt.

  4. Ndiyaneliseke ngokwenene kwaye ngelo xesha ndixolisa kakhulu ngenxa yokuba ndingakwazi ukukhuphela isicelo, kuba andinakukwenza igalelo lomfuziselo, kuba andiyikuvelisa okwangoku? kum umsebenzi wam nje njengomcebisi kwaye ndinomdla kuloo nkcazelo ukunyusa nokuqinisa umsebenzi wam, ukuba unokwenza unomdla wokuwuthumela kum ndiya kukubulela kakhulu
    I-Samana Dominican Republic

  5. Hlola i-imeyile yakho, ngogaxekile.
    Ukukhishwa kwekhonkco kungahamba khona.

    Phendula nge quote

  6. Ukugqwesa, kubaluleke kakhulu !! kodwa ndenza nje igalelo kwaye ithemplate ayikhutshwe ..
    Phendula nge quote

  7. Sawubona umva mva uya kuba neqendu okanye imizekelo yokubala kwe-factor factor? oko kukuthi i-aplicacaion nokubaluleka, imibuliso evela eMexico

  8. Ngokugqithiseleyo, kwesi sikhokelo ndikwazi ukucacisa iphepha eligqithisileyo elibala izikhombisi, siyabonga ngokukwabelana ngolwazi oluxabisekileyo.

    Izibingelelo zaseNicaragua

  9. Sawubona, unjani? I kakuhle ithemba, ndifuna ukubona ukuba enokusinceda ungazifunela oh uzobe imigama phakathi kweendawo ezimbini kunye nezifundo zabo zilungelelanise oh kunokuba kunye kwisibanzi nakwiside kuba ungenza ntoni na coordendas utm UX na ukuba akukho ngxaki kodwa mna andikwazi ukuyenza Olu luhlobo oluthile lwezilungeleliso abazibonisayo kumaphu amaphepha e-Google.
    Ukubulisa .. Ndiyathemba impendulo yakho ukuba kunokwenzeka ..

  10. Bahlobo, ukufunda imibuzo yakho malunga nokubala kwe-topographic, isizukulwana "setafile" yokulungelelanisa kunye nokuleyibheli kwezikhokelo kunye nemigama kwi-Autocad, ndincoma ukusebenzisa isixhobo se-CIVILCAD, esaphuhliswa eMexico, le modyuli iguqula i-autocad ibe sisixhobo sokubala i-topographic, iiprofayili , amacandelo. , imigca yecontour, njl., njl.
    Ngokumalunga nemibuzo yakho esuka kwi-UTM ukuya kwii-flat coordinates, zonke iinkqubo zokucwangcisa i-GPS (i-GNSS izixazululo ze-promarks, i-Ashtech solutions ye-Promark 2, i-Spectra Precision Survey Office ye-GPS Epoch 10 kunye ne-50, njl. Ubuncinci isibini okanye ulungelelwaniso olungaphezulu kwi-UTM nakwi "flat" zolungelelwaniso (oko kukuthi ulungelelwaniso abafuna ukulisebenzisa kunye nesikhululo sisonke) kwaye iinkqubo ziya kubala izinto zesikali kunye nolwazi olufunekayo, kufuneka nje ufunde okuhambelanayo. iimanyuwali zezixhobo zabo kunye nesicwangciso sokuqokelelwa kwedatha kakuhle. Imibuliso evela kwisiXeko saseMexico. imeyile yam gilberto1@sitg.com.mx.

  11. Kuya kufuneka ukuba wenze utshintsho kwitafile, kodwa inokwenziwa kakuhle. Ukuba usithumela umzekelo singazama.

  12. Igalelo elifanelekileyo Ndiyisele itafile yam sele ikulungele. Ndingathanda ukwazi ukuba unokundinceda ukuba ndifumane iingongoma zokungcolisa kunye nedatha osuyenayo kule tafile efanayo. Siyabonga!

  13. UNjingalwazi, kunye nenkqubo yokujika?
    Ukususela kwisikhokelo ukuya kwiinkcukacha zendawo?
    Imuchas Gracias

  14. ulungile, kwenzeka ukuba ibhanti ye-geofumadas.com, apho iifayile kunye nemifanekiso yale blogi zigcinwe khona, zagqitywa. Ndiza kufuneka ndikhuphuke ububanzi, zama emva koko.

  15. Kuthiwani, zama ukukhuphela ifayela eligqithisileyo kodwa undiphawule ongekhoyo, ndinokukunceda ngale nto.

    mbuliso

  16. Kufuneka ube yinto ecacileyo kwizinto ezibhekiselele kuzo.

    Ngaba usebenze ukusho i-geographic kunye neesigidi, imizuzu, imizuzwana? Ukuze usebenzise kwesi sixhobo.

    Ukuba awuzange ubhekisele kuyo, makhe sibone ukuba usinika umzekelo ukukunceda.

  17. Ndine-UTM idibanisa njengoko ndenzayo ukuze ndibencitshise kubambiswano lwezolimo.

  18. Into ebaluleke kakhulu kukuba ubale i-AutoCAD, into okhangelayo ayikho kuphela ukubala indawo kodwa ukuqinisekisa ukuvalwa, mhlawumbi kukho itemplate eyenza oko ufuna kodwa andiyazi.

  19. Lephepha lihle kakhulu. Ndingathanda ukwazi ukubala (kwi-Excel) indawo ephuma kwi-polygon eyenziwa ekulayisheni amacandelo kunye neebherethi ezifunyenweyo kwintsimi. Ndingu-draftsman kwaye ndisebenzisa inkqubo ye-Autocad, ndidibanisa neetafile ze-Excel.
    Ndiyayixabisa kakhulu umdla wakho ekuphenduleni umbuzo wam
    Izibingelelo ze-Asuncion del Paraguay
    Mabel

  20. Ndicinga ukuba udibanisa inkqubo, ukuba awunakho ulungelelaniso lwe-utm, akufuneki uwakhange. Udinga ukutolika oko umzobo wakho wokuvukela uthi, kukho indawo yokuqala, ukuba ayithethi ukulungelelanisa ukuyibeka naphi na ke, ubone ukuba kukho ikhosi kunye nomgama ukuya kwindawo elandelayo.

  21. Ifayile ayikho loo nto, kukubala iseshati yekhosi ngokusekelwe kumaphupha kunye nezilungiso

  22. I-Maestro Alvarez, eli fayile libala i-UTM izikhokelo ukusuka kwicandelo eliphambili eliphakanyiswe ngezithuthi kunye nenqanaba elimangalisayo kodwa andisayi kuqonda

  23. Khangela umhlobo wasePeru ungithumelele itemplate kunye nombuzo kodwa andiqondi ukuba i-UTM ifakwe ekuqaleni ekuqaleni kwePI nganye, njengoko ifayile ifakile

  24. Sawubona Jcp, Ndiyaqonda ukuba unomgca ophakathi, izitishi kunye nesitishi ngasinye kukho i-perpendicular ukuya ngasekunene nakwesobunxele. Ndicinga ukuba into efanelekileyo kakhulu kukuba awuzami ukwenza i-utm iququzelele, kodwa yenza izibonda ukusuka kwiphakathi, ubeke le ngongoma kwinqanaba lesangqa kunye nomgca.

    oku kuya kwenza ukuba ube nomnye ofana nalo msebenzi

    http://geofumadas.com/construir-curvas-de-nivel-usando-autocad/

    Emva koko, ukongeza iindawo eziphakamileyo, qwa lasela ifom apho apho ungena khona unganika ukuphakama.

  25. Mnumzana Alvarez endimthandayo ndisebenzisa i-civil 3d 2009, ndingena amanqaku e-UTM kwifomathi ye-.cvs kodwa ngoku kufuneka ndiguqule amacandelo eminqamlezo aphakanyisiweyo kunye nezinga lezithuthi ukuya kwinqanaba le-UTM ngokugqwesa, ndinendawo echaziweyo kwaye indawo yam yokuqala ngu-0 + 000 ndiyayiphakamisa ngeGPS ukuze ndikwazi ukuyibala ... ndizibala njani iindawo ze-POI ze-axis yam kunye namacandelo e-UTM

    Ndivela eHonduras

    jcpescotosb@hotmail.com

  26. Enyanisweni, sele ndinezilungelelaniso kwi-utm, kodwa ndifuna ukunciphisa i-plane ye-topographic ukuze ndisebenze ensimini

  27. Khangela, andizange ndisebenzise loo Phawula kodwa ndiyabona ukuba ibonakala ngathi i-Mobile Mapper isoloko ivela eThales.

    Kule nto ndiyenzile oku:

    1. Ucofa iqhosha elithi "MENU".
    2. Khetha "iiYunithi zeMaphu"
    3. Khetha "Ukulungelelanisa inkqubo" kwaye ukhethe i-UTM
    4. Ukhetha "Datum" kwaye apha ubonisa i-WGS84

  28. Bancinci, bhinqa i-2, kwisixeko saseMexico indawo ye14, ndiya kuxabisa naluphi na ulwazi onokunceda.

  29. … Ahem, ndicela… 🙂

    Yaye yintoni na i-gps, brand and model abayisebenzisayo?
    Kukuphi ilizwe kunye nendawo ohlala kuyo?

  30. sangeet Dear, ngaphezu kwabo bonke umbuliso, ndiye ndaphawula ukuba ulwazi lwakho topography software kusasele, ndibe nako ukunceda, inkampani Ndisebenzela, ukulawula GPS, kwaye ndifuna ukwazi ukuba ulungise uququzelelo UTM of ezihambelanayo nezobhalo O Planas, nolawulo entsimini, baye wakhangela inkcazelo eninzi ngayo aze kakhulu impendulo yakho.

  31. U-Pablo, uvavanyo lwakho luchanekile, ndenzile ukulungiswa kokubhala, kukho ikholomu L phakathi kwekholomu P

    enye ingxaki oyibekayo, ndicinga ukuba ulahlekelwe ukugqiba izimvo ukuze ukwazi ukuhlalutya

  32. Ndandilandela imiyalelo yesinyathelo ngamanyathelo. Ndiye ndaqonda kakuhle, kodwa ngokwenza oko andikwazi ukuphumeza iziphumo ezilungileyo.
    Ubonakala sengathi u-Mae wenza into engalunganga. Kwakhona kwindlela yokucwangciswa kweeyunithi ze-Autocad yinxalenye yeengalo kunye nesalathiso andiyicaca kakuhle.
    Ndingathanda ukucebisa ukuba uphonononge indawo yee-engile, ndicinga ukuba kukho impazamo, apho ithi "ukwahlula ikholamu N ngekholamu P" kubonakala kum ngathi yikholomu L ngekholamu P.
    Enye impazamo ebhaliweyo ibonakala ekubalweni kweNyakatho / yaseMzantsi, i-formula ithi: kuya kuba ngathi: = EYE (R2

  33. ukuba uthetha isiqwenga somlinganiso kwindawo apho indawo itshintsha khona ... ayizukusebenzela.

    Ukuba uthetha ukuba nalawo maqumrhu kwelinye indawo, akufuneki kubekho utshintsho kuba ufanele uxoxe malunga nolwahlulo olufanayo, ngoko iinqununu zilingana

  34. Sawubona,

    Ndiyayithanda le ndlela yokwenza kakuhle, ndinombuzo

    Isebenza njani xa kukho utshintsho lwesiguqu?

    Gracias

    juan

  35. mmm, thumela umbhalo othetha ngawo kum imeyile, ukuyihlolisisa.

    Ndiya kubona oko kukho

  36. ngqiqweni! Ngoku uye ku-100%, ndiyisebenzise kwaye yinyaniso! Ndiyabulela kakhulu umva, kuye kwaba luncedo kum.

    Umbuzo malunga nayo, kuba sikwiinkqubo ezizenzekelayo. Ukusebenzisa i-AutoCAD, emva kokuzoba i-polygon ye-georeferenced, kunye neengqimba zayo ze-UTM ezaziwayo, into endiyifunayo sisimaki samacandelo, ukuze ukucofa kubo kubanike "ileyibhile" yabo ehambelanayo, umzekelo: 176.35

  37. lungile, sele ndilayishe inguqulo ye-2 yefayile evelele. Isizathu sokuba kwi-NE ne-SE quadrants i-angle ye-90 kwakufuneka ikhutshwe.

    Zama kwaye undixelele nantoni na.

    Kufuneka ucace, ukuba i-decimals ethe xaxa isetyenziselwa ukulungiswa kwe-UTM, iya kutshintsha i-decimals yomzuzwana.

  38. mmm, ulungile, ndicinga ukuba ndiyazi indlela yokuyicombulula

    Ndiya kukujonga xa ndibuyela ekhaya

  39. unjingalwazi oyintanda, okokuqala kukubonga ngokuphendula kwakho ngokukhawuleza, ndiyifumana ngexesha!
    Ndiyanixelela ukuba yandinceda kakhulu, ndiyivavanya, nangona ndingathanda ukubonisa ukungathandabuzeki / isiphakamiso / inkxalabo: ibala umgama kakuhle kakhulu, ngoku i-angle inika umphelelisi, umzekelo endaweni yokuba ngu-88d13 '. I-13", indinika i-1d21'47"!!! Kufuneka kube luhlengahlengiso oluncinci kwaye silapha! Enkosi kakhulu kwakhona ngoncedo lwakho !!!

Shiya amazwana

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

Le sayithi isebenzisa i-Akismet ukunciphisa ugaxekile. Funda indlela idatha yakho yokubhaliweyo isetyenziswe ngayo.

Buyela phezulu kwiqhosha