Yiyiphi i geomat kufuneka ikwazi malunga nomgangatho we-LADM wolawulo lomhlaba

I-LADM yaziwa ngokuba ngumgangatho wokulawula umhlaba (uMmandla woLawulo lweZakhiwo zoMhlaba), owakwazi ukuba yi-ISO 19152 kwi-2012.

Akusikho isofthiwe, kodwa imodeli yombono ebonisa ubudlelwane phakathi kwabantu kunye nomhlaba; Ukumisela into ebonakalayo kwilizwe ngalinye lihlukile kwaye likhethekileyo; yinkqubo eyenziwe ngokwezinto ezibonakalayo zento ethile kwiCadastre ye-2014 ithathwa njenge-abastracto. Ifuna ukuphepha ukuvuselela nokuphinda kuphunyezwe kwezinto ezifanayo ngokusetyenziswa kwesiseko esilungeleleneyo kwaye iququzelele amaziko ukuba axhumane kunye neenkonzo eziqhelekileyo kumxholo wamazwe ngamazwe.

Uyazi ukuba i-geographer kunye nabantu abanxulumene ne-geomatics kufuneka baqonde ukutolika imodeli, senza lo mzobo ukuchaza imvelaphi yalo mgangatho ukususela kuloo mzuzu xa kuqondwa njengeCCDM.

Kuyathakazelisa ukuba i-LADM, ngenxalenye yokubhema kwayo elula, iphakamisa ukuba ukulawulwa komhlaba kungumxholo ongaguqukiyo ngexesha, akuguqukanga kumawaka eminyaka:

Kwakusoloko kubandakanya ubuhlobo obukhoyo phakathi komntu nomhlaba. Kungakhathaliseki inkcubeko apho kuhlalutywa, imbali isibonisa ukuba into efanayo: ebantwini, ngathi kwimeko uAdam noEfa comunero kurhulumente amagunya okulawula uMyezo we-Eden, banelungelo kuba ngaphakathi, uxanduva kuba yintoni na, kunye nezithintelo zokungadli emthini onqatshelwe kunye nemithetho yokuhluthwa kwimeko yokungathobeli.

Loo myezo ngoku ebizwa ngokuba izinto indawo (BAUnits) ezinomlinganiselo namalungelo (RRR) nabathathi-nxaxheba, ezinxulumene kubantu (Party) ngu Imvelaphi kunye kwiintlobo ezahlukeneyo lomfanekiso kwiqumrhu lwesithuba (Units Spacial).

LADM

Inyaniso kukuba njengoko iiprogram zokulawulwa kwamalungelo epropathi zihamba phambili, kukho iingxaki eziyinkimbinkimbi ukuba kwinqanaba lokubhalisa lihlala lilapho kodwa xa ulinde ukulolisela ukumela kwabo, kukho iimeko ezifana:

Isibini ngabanini kubudlelwane 60% - 40% esilungileyo oko kukuthi indawo 23 kwi 4 umgangatho isakhiwo nayo ibandakanya ilungelo kwizithuba ezimbini yokupaka kwi 1 elingaphantsi kwaye tye condominium nabo bonke abahlali ukwakha ahla- kwinqanaba ngalinye kunye nendawo zeBBQ kumgangatho wesibhozo. Ngokusemthethweni kulula, nje elaliqikelelwe nohlobo kodwa sizibuze indlela umzekelo wesixhobo sombane kwindawo 3D kwirejista, okanye ubuncinane 2.5 D.

Kufuneka iLADM, ukuba indlela yokubonisa umgaqo wokulawulwa kwamalungelo omhlaba kwiithuluzi ze-IT iyafana. Ngenxa yokuba ishishini lifanayo, lihluke kumlinganiselo omncinane kwindlela kunye neenkqubo ezizodwa ngqo kwilizwe okanye ukuziphatha. Le modeli ezincinane umkhwa ajongane yenza kubonakale ukuba LADM yi iliza astral computer kuphela, mhlawumbi ngenxa yokuba UML ngumzekelo eziklasini kunye nobudlelwane kunjalo luxanduva yoMhloli ecetywayo Cadastre ye2014: «Imodeli ephilayo ende".

Ngoko ke, kumzekelo we-geospatial semantics, igxile kwimisebenzi ephambili yokulawulwa komhlaba:

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  • Gcina Injongo - Injongo - Ulwalamano olulungileyo oluhlaziyiweyo (P - RRR - RO)
  • kwaye unikele ngolwazi malunga nale rekhodi.

Kwakhona le modeli lifuna lula komgangatho xi obuchwepheshe kwelinye icala isinikezelo (Internet, edatha spatial, imifuziselo esemgangathweni, mvume source open and GIS) Okwesibini kukho imfuneko yeenkonzo ukuba nabamnyama iteknoloji (urhulumente uphuhliso lwezobugcisa, uphuhliso oluzinzileyo, amaxwebhu ekhompyutheni kunye nokuhlanganiswa kwedatha yoluntu kunye neenkqubo). Enye yezinto ezilungileyo LADM kukuba lungqanyaniswe kwilizwe ngalinye, kungakhathaliseki ukuba imithetho yabo, ukwahlulwa yeziko cadastre kunye nokubhaliso, okanye uhlobo lwesixhobo ukuba isetyenziselwe matshini. Iphakamisa iiklasi eziqhelekileyo, kwaye ukusuka apho unokwenza iiklasi ezithile kwilizwe kodwa ekugqibeleni umqondo uyahambelana.

Uloyiso olukhulu LADM kukuba ekunxibelelaniseni umgudu kwizifundo ngokwamanyathelo Isazobe for Standardization ukuba esele likhona, ezifana Linz kunye LandXML of Australia / New Zealand, National System Integrated Land of America (phambi FGDC), izabelo yokumisela iKhomishini yaseYurophu yeSayensi neThekhnoloji (COST), iKomiti ye-ISO / TC211 ye-OGC kwaye, ngaphezu kwako konke, ukuxhomekeka kwiindawo eziphezulu. Kwaye inxalenye enzima yokwenza umgangatho ukubeka okanye ukubuyisela oko abanye abaye bazikhethele.

Umlando omncinci

La IKHIWANE ozalwe kwi-2002, uzama ukulungelelanisa le migudu kunye nokuzibandakanya ngamanyathelo amva nje njengengxelo ye-Inspire kunye ne-IDE ethatha amandla kufuphi ne-2003. Le ndlela yindlela ekufutshane ngayo i-LADM ihamba ngeemeko ezahlukeneyo zentetho, ingxoxo kunye nokulungelelaniswa kweenguqu ezahlukeneyo ezithatha igama lomzi apho zanikwe khona, de kube yi-19152 ISO 2012:

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  • Ngo-Apreli we-2002 inokwenzeka ukwenza into ephakanyisiwe okokuqala.
  • NgoSeptemba we-2002 i-1 inguqu ichazwa kwi-OGC ebizwa ngokuthi nguNoordwijk, ngoko kuDelft kwi-COST Workshop.
  • Ngo-Matshi we-2003 inguqulo ye-2 ebizwa ngokuthi iParis, ngaloo nyaka kwi-FIG kwaye kulo mhla i-OGC izisa i-LPI
  • NgoSeptemba 2003 inika inguqulo ye-3 ebizwa ngokuthi yiBrno, ePoland. Ngaloo mini unyulo lwe-3D eneenjongo ezininzi zokunyuselwa kwe-cadastre. Kwakhona kwaziswa kwi-European Land Information Service EULIS.
  • Kwi-2004 i-4 inguqu ebizwa ngokuba yiBamberg, iboniswa kwiziganeko ze-FIG eJamani naseKenya.
  • Kwi-2005 yi-5 inguqu ebizwa ngokuthi yiCairo, kwisiganeko se-FIG saseYiputa. Ngaloo ndlela, imilinganiselo eyenziwa yi-OGC ngokusebenzisa iKomiti ye-ISO / TC 211 idibeneyo; Nangona le komiti iye yapapasha ngaphezu kwe-50 imigangatho enomdla omkhulu kwintsimi ye-geomatic, i-LADM ithatha ukusuka apha ezimbini: iJometri kunye ne-Topology). Kwakhona kulo mhla kuya kuba yi-Inspire's data cadastral.
  • Kwi-2006 yinguqulelo ye-6 ebizwa ngokuba yiMoscow yahanjiswa, yona le nguqulelo sathetha ngayo kwi-Geofumadas kwinqaku «umzekelo osemgangathweni we-cadastre«. Oku sele kubandakanya ukwakhiwa kwe-RRR kwaye iCandelo lephasele lichazwe ngokwahlukeneyo kwezinye iiklasi zepepile.

Ukususela kwi-2006 ukuya kwi-2008 umgudu ujolise ekuvunyelweni njengemigangatho.

  • Ngo-Oktobha we-2006 i-1.0 Version sele isetyenziswe nangona loo mhla yayibizwa ngokuba yiCCDM (iCore Cadastral Domain Model).

Inkqubo yokuguqula ibe ngumgangatho we-ISO, kwiintlanganiso ezahlukeneyo zengxoxo, ukwandiswa kunye nenkcazo ethile yeekhala; Iphela kwi-2012 nge-PhD ingqungquthela ye-Chrit Lemmen kwi-2012.

Kukho ezininzi, amazwe amaninzi asele ayamkele isiqhelo, nangona kukho phambili. Emva kulo mzamo emgangathweni bekusoloko inkqubo ukuphunyezwa kokwehla kwinto ekhoyo, nto leyo yenze unxulumano kunye JRC (Joint Research Centre of European Commission) kunye UN-HABITAT (Arhente United Nations lokuHlaliswa koLuntu) sokungenela iiprojekthi kudibene nokulawulwa kommandla. Nale uye wabona imizekelo eziqulathwe kumazwe ahlukeneyo, ncamisa Kwimeko ye STDM (loMiwo Social Domain Model) kugqalwa izifundo ka LADM, yi FAO lo Flossola kunye Honduras kwase SIGIT ngoku ningamboniyo ukuba simi SINAP.

Inkcazo yeModeli

Ukusetyenziswa kweli nqaku kukuba sizama ukuqonda imvelaphi ye-LADM esekelwe kwisicwangciso sobugcisa. Ndizama ukusebenzisa imibala efana neeklasi zemizekelo, esele idibeneyo evunyiweyo isahlukileyo isahlulo somthetho, eluhlaza ngumntu, ngezinto eziluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka izinto, kwi-pinpography kunye ne-purple topology. Ngokuqinisekileyo ukusebenzisa iimpawu kuza kusenza sibe nolwalamano olusenziwa ngumbutho kodwa ndiyanxininisa; kufuneka sifunde ukuqonda imizekelo. Ngokudlula imouse phezu kwezinto, intsingiselo yayo iboniswa.

[igama hsmap = »ladm»]

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Amashishini angundoqo.

Iskimu siqala ngobudlelwane phakathi kwezinto ezintathu eziphambili:

  • Iqela elichaphazelekayo (Isihloko), kumgangatho ochazwe njengePhathi
  • Umthetho womthetho, okwangoku uthabatha ingcamango ye-archaic yecebo lomhlaba kwaye uyifake kwindawo yomhlaba. Ngomgangatho obizwa ngokuba yi-BAUnit, kunye neYunithi yayo yeGeometri.
  • Ngokunene, ubudlelwane obudibanisa nomntu, kwinqanaba elichazwe njengeRRR.

Umzekelo udibanisa nabo ngokusebenzisa umthombo. Oku kunokuba yincwadi okanye eqinisweni; yinyani nje. Amanye amanye amacala afanelekileyo:

  • Akukho kuphela umnini kuphela, kodwa liqela lezindlalifa, omnye wabo uvalelwa ebomini,
  • Isalathiso sinesicwangciso, kodwa kwiphepha kwaye asinayo i-georeference,
  • Ukuhlulwa kwesahlulo akukabikwa, kodwa kuphela iipesenteli zokunene ... omnye wabazalwana sele uthengisile ilungelo lakhe kwabanye abantu abane,
  • Esi sabelo sithengisiwe sinomnxeba wenombolo yeselula kunye nokufikelela kwi-servidurmbre,
  • Icandelo leqonga lichaphazelekayo kwindawo ekhuselweyo kunye nolawulo olukhethekileyo,
  • Omnye wabazalwana usemncinci, ngoko umelelwe ngokomthetho ngumama wakhe ongumama ...

Ingaba okanye akukho imephu ekhona, nokuba ingaba yinto esemthethweni, nokuba ingahambelani neenkqubo, kuyinyani ukuba kukho. Ngoko ke, i-LADM iyakwamukela ukuba inyaniso ibhalwe ngendlela elawulwayo, ebonisa imeko yomzimba kunye nomthetho.

Iqela elinomdla (Iqela)

Bona ukuba apha "isifundo" esilula sandisiwe kubantu abahlukeneyo ababandakanyekayo kwintengiselwano. Ke ngoku:

i-copy - ikopi (2)

  • Umntu ngamnye
  • Umbutho wezomthetho, njengokuba kunjalo kwinqanaba okanye kwinkampani
  • Ukuqalwa kwabantu, njengengxaki yeqela lendabuko, umbutho, iqela elincinci, njl.
  • Umntu okanye isikhungo esiqinisekisa ilungelo, njengelinye icala legosa
  • Umntu okanye isikhungo esiqinisekisa ubungeniso, njengebhanki okanye ityala lezemali
  • Umntu owenza uxwebhu lokulinganisa, njengomcebisi.

Ubudlelwane bamalungelo (RRR)i-copy - ikopi (3)

Apha, kwi-cadastre yendabuko, bekuphela kohlobo lokuhlala. Kodwa imodeli yandiswa ukuze iimeko ezihlukeneyo zobudlelwane bomthetho kunye nemithwalo yolawulo zilungiswe:

  • Imboleko okanye ikhonkco
  • Iimpembelelo, ezinokuthi zibe yiZithintelo, izabelo kunye noXanduva.
  • Ubudlelwane bomnini nomthombo.

Injongo yokulungileyo

i-copy - ikopi (4)

Apha kukho amanqanaba ahlukeneyo eeklasi, kodwa zonke izinto ziyinxalenye yento ebizwa ngokuba yunithi yokulawula (BAUnit). Qaphela ukuba oku kukhankanywe kwinto, nokuba okanye asikho imephu okanye uxwebhu.

Oku kungenxa yokuba, ngokwenyani kukho into, eya kuthi ibhalwe ngokuthe ngcembe kodwa i-BAUnit iqala ukusuka apho kwaye kwimeko yokuqala kukho iimeko "ezingafakwanga georeferenced":

  • Into engekho ingashenxiswayo, oko kukuthi, yintoni inokususwa kwisakhiwo, njengokuba kunjalo kwikhaya elisekhaya, i-antenna yefoni, njl njl.
  • Isihlomelo sesiseko sezindlu
  • Umbhalo ongekho-geo-referenced
  • Idilesi engokwenyama echaza indlu ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo, kwaye oku kungabikho kwinqanaba lezindlu ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo.

Emva koko kukho ii-BAUnits ezichongiweyo zendawo, phakathi kwezi zinto zingaba:

  • Isicwangciso esingenakulungiswa (inxalenye yecala), enokuba yinto, isethi yamaphupha kunye nemida.
  • Isakhelo esakhiweyo, esinokuba yunithi, okanye eziliqela ngokumalunga nesakhiwo esisodwa.

Enye yeenzuzo zokufumana imodeli ye-LADM kukuba akukho datha ayikho nto, akukho ncitshwayo okanye i-cadastre embi, kuphela into emele imele. Iiyunithi zolawulo zikhoyo kwaye ziyakwazi ukuphucula ukuchaneka ukusuka:

  • Isiseko sabarhafeleli bomasipala abafake ingxelo kuphela egcinwe kwi-Excel.
  • Kamva banako ukulungelelaniswa, kwaye yintoni i cadastre eneenkcukacha ezinokuqala kodwa isisombululo esisemthethweni.
  • Emva koko unokuba neqhinga, kodwa kungekhona ngokuchaneka okuphezulu.

Yonke into ivalela ekuchazeni kwesithuba somhlaba, ngemigangatho eyahlukeneyo yokumelwa kwesizathu esilula "kwinyani ebonakalayo into yinto enye kuphela." Kukwabalulekile ukuba kungabi ngumthetho wabucala kuphela oboniswayo, kodwa nomthetho kawonkewonke njengesiqhelo sendawo ekhuselweyo okanye indawo yamaqonga achazwe kwimithetho eyahlukeneyo njengommandla wezikhukula obangela ukuphazamiseka kwemihlaba.

ladm - ikopiIimpawu zento.

Olu luhlu lweeklasi ezizodwa, ezivumela ukucacisa iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zokubonakaliswa kwezinto zezobugcisa zento enye, yingakho zidibene nomthombo.

Nantsi into ebalulekileyo kukuba ubuncinci beyunithi yokulinganisa ngumbongo, owuxanduva lomcebisi. Zichazela iinkcukacha ezahlukeneyo ze-2D kunye ne-3D.

Kwimeko yamabini amabini, inqaku, ngoko umda kwintsebenziswano ye-arc-node kunye nokuma kwimizi-geometry evaliweyo. Enye into ekhoyo kwi-3D nangona le yinye imeko yinto ye-3D engabonakali ubuso.

Ukudibanisa ukubonakaliswa kwesimo sezobugcisa kusetyenziswa umthombo, kuqwalasela ukuba kuya kuhlala kusekho uxwebhu oluchaza ukuchaneka okukhulu okungeke kutyalwe kwisiqwenga se-cadastral njengenxalenye yomxholo.

Ekugqibeleni, i-LADM ngumgangatho omele uziwe. Kuyinto yokwenza izinto ezibonakalayo eziphakanyisiwe kwiCadastre ye-2014 apho sele sifikile khona; nangona uphumelelo oluninzi kwizinto zobuchwepheshe kunye nezemfundo kunye nemingeni emininzi kwinqanaba leziko kunye nesigxina.

Iimpendulo ze-8 "Yiyiphi i-geomat emele yazi malunga nomgangatho wokulawula umhlaba we-LADM"

  1. andiyi nkcazelo xa ndidlula imifanekiso kwi mouse

  2. Ngokwenyani, imodeli iyahambelana kwilizwe. Ukuba ilizwe lithatha isigqibo sokuba idatha ethile ayiyi kuyisebenzisa ... ayiyisebenzisi.
    Into ebalulekileyo kukuba imodeli yedatha isebenzisa umgangatho weedatha ezisebenzisayo.

  3. Ukuba sele sele kunzima ePeru ukukwazi ukungena ezindlwini ukufumana iinkcukacha zenkcukacha ezimbalwa, ukufumana yonke inkcazelo eceliwe kwi-LADM yinkimbinkimbi. Kwaye kunzima nakakhulu ukuthabatha idatha ye-fiveths ekhona kwiCallao.

Shiya impendulo

Idilesi yakho ye email aziyi kupapashwa.

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