Yiyiphi i geomat kufuneka ikwazi malunga nomgangatho we-LADM wolawulo lomhlaba

I-LADM yaziwa ngokuba ngumgangatho wokulawula umhlaba (uMmandla woLawulo lweZakhiwo zoMhlaba), owakwazi ukuba yi-ISO 19152 kwi-2012.

Ayisiyo isoftware, kodwa yimodeli yoluvo echaza ubudlelwane phakathi kwabantu nomhlaba; ibeka emgangathweni oko kubonakala kwilizwe ngalinye lahlukile kwaye likhethekile; yinkqubo ebonakalayo yento ethi kwi-Cadastre ka-2014 yathathelwa ingqalelo njengengabonakaliyo. Ifuna ukunqanda ukuphinda kwenziwe kwaye kuphunyezwe ukusebenza kwale misebenzi minye ngesiseko esinokwandiswa kwaye senze ukuba kube lula kumaziko ukunxibelelana neenkonzo ezisemgangathweni kwimeko yelinye ilizwe.

Uyazi ukuba i-geographer kunye nabantu abanxulumene ne-geomatics kufuneka baqonde ukutolika imodeli, senza lo mzobo ukuchaza imvelaphi yalo mgangatho ukususela kuloo mzuzu xa kuqondwa njengeCCDM.

Kuyathakazelisa ukuba i-LADM, ngenxalenye yokubhema kwayo elula, iphakamisa ukuba ukulawulwa komhlaba kungumxholo ongaguqukiyo ngexesha, akuguqukanga kumawaka eminyaka:

Ihlala iquka ubudlelwane obukhoyo phakathi komntu nomhlaba. Nokuba yeyiphi inkcubeko apho ihlalutyiweyo, imbali isibonisa into efanayo: Abantu, abakwimeko ka-Adam no-Eva, abathi kwimeko efanayo bangabathunywa bokulawula iGadi yase-Eden, abanelungelo lokuba ngaphakathi, uxanduva lwento ekhoyo, kunye nezithintelo zokungatyi kumthi owalelweyo kunye nemithetho yokuhluthwa kwimeko yokungayilandeli.

Loo myezo ngoku ebizwa ngokuba izinto indawo (BAUnits) ezinomlinganiselo namalungelo (RRR) nabathathi-nxaxheba, ezinxulumene kubantu (Party) ngu Imvelaphi kunye kwiintlobo ezahlukeneyo lomfanekiso kwiqumrhu lwesithuba (Units Spacial).

LADM

Inyaniso kukuba njengoko iiprogram zokulawulwa kwamalungelo epropathi zihamba phambili, kukho iingxaki eziyinkimbinkimbi ukuba kwinqanaba lokubhalisa lihlala lilapho kodwa xa ulinde ukulolisela ukumela kwabo, kukho iimeko ezifana:

Isibini esine-60% -40% ubudlelwane be-asethi eyakha indawo yokuhlala 23 kumgangatho we-4 wesakhiwo, kwaye oku kubandakanya nelungelo lokufumana indawo ezimbini zokupaka kwigumbi elingaphantsi 1 kunye nelungelo kwikhondomu kunye nabo bonke abahlali Ukusuka kwisakhiwo ukuya kwi-lobby yenqanaba ngalinye kunye nendawo ye-barbecue kumgangatho wesibhozo. Ngokomthetho kulula, kubhaliwe kuphela kodwa masizibuze ukuba siyibonisa njani kwi-3D cadastre, okanye ubuncinci kwi-2.5 D.

Nge-LADM kuye kwafunwa ukuba indlela yokumodareyitha umxholo wolawulo lwamalungelo omhlaba kwizixhobo zekhompyuter ziyafana. Kuba ishishini liyafana, liyahluka ukuya kwinqanaba elincinci, liphakathi kunye neenkqubo ezichazwe lilizwe okanye uqeqesho. Isiko elincinci lokuphatha iimodeli lenza kubonakale ngathi i-LADM yintsimbi ye-astral kuphela yenzululwazi zekhompyuter, mhlawumbi kuba imodareyithwe kwi-UML kwiiklasi nakubudlelwane, nangona kunjalo, umvavanyi ocetywayo kwiprojekthi yinxalenye yoxanduva. Cadastre ye2014: «Imodeli ephilayo ende".

Ngoko ke, kumzekelo we-geospatial semantics, igxile kwimisebenzi ephambili yokulawulwa komhlaba:

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  •  Gcina iNqaku-Isihloko-Ulwalamano lomthetho luhlaziywa (P-RRR - RO)
  • kwaye unikele ngolwazi malunga nale rekhodi.

Imodeli ikwafuna ukuququzelela ukumiselwa komgangatho koxinzelelo lwetekhnoloji olwenziwa kwelinye icala unikezelo (i-Intanethi, iziseko zedatha, iimodeli ezisemgangathweni, iilayisensi zemithombo evulekileyo kunye ne-GIS) kwelinye icala ibango leenkonzo ezisebenzisa obu buchwephesha (urhulumente elektroniki, uphuhliso oluzinzileyo, amaxwebhu ekhompyuter kunye nokudityaniswa kwedatha yoluntu kunye neenkqubo). Enye yeenzuzo ze-LADM kukuba inokulungelelaniswa kwilizwe ngalinye, ngaphandle komthetho wayo, ukwahlulwa kwamaziko e-cadastre kunye nerejista, okanye uhlobo lwesixhobo esiya kuthi sisetyenziselwe ukuzenzekelayo. Iphakamisa iiklasi eziqhelekileyo, kwaye ukusuka apho unokwenza iiklasi ezithile kwilizwe kodwa ekugqibeleni umxholo uyahambelana.

Uloyiso olukhulu LADM kukuba ekunxibelelaniseni umgudu kwizifundo ngokwamanyathelo Isazobe for Standardization ukuba esele likhona, ezifana Linz kunye LandXML of Australia / New Zealand, National System Integrated Land of America (phambi FGDC), izabelo yokumisela iKhomishini yaseYurophu yeSayensi neThekhnoloji (COST), IKomiti ye-ISO / TC211 ye-OGC ngakumbi ukubambela kwiindawo ezinefuthe eliphezulu. Kwaye yinto enzima ukuyenza esemgangathweni kukumiselwa okanye ukuphinda wenze into esele ikhethekile.

 

Umlando omncinci

La IKHIWANE wazalwa ngo-2002, wazama ukulungisa le migudu kunye nokuphembelela ngamanyathelo akutshanje afana ne-Inspire kunye ne-IDE ye-IDE eyabanjwa malunga no-2003. Yiyo ke loo nto, ngamanyathelo amafutshane i-LADM ihamba ngamaxesha ahlukeneyo okubonisa, ukuxoxa kunye nokulungelelanisa iinguqulelo ezithathe igama lesixeko apho zazisiwe khona, de zaba yi-ISO 19152 ka-2012:

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  •  Ngo-Apreli we-2002 inokwenzeka ukwenza into ephakanyisiwe okokuqala.
  • NgoSeptemba we-2002 i-1 inguqu ichazwa kwi-OGC ebizwa ngokuthi nguNoordwijk, ngoko kuDelft kwi-COST Workshop.
  • Ngo-Matshi 2003 ingxelo yesi-2 ebizwa ngokuba yiParis, kwakuloo nyaka kwi-FIG kwaye ngalo mhla i-OGC yazisa i-LPI
  • NgoSeptemba 2003 ingxelo yesi-3 ebizwa ngokuba yiBrno ikhutshwa ePoland. Ukuza kuthi ga kulo mhla, ulwandiso lwe-cadastre ye-multipurpose ye-3D yongezwa. Ikwanikwe nakwiNkonzo ye-European Land Information Service i-EULIS.
  • Kwi-2004 i-4 inguqu ebizwa ngokuba yiBamberg, iboniswa kwiziganeko ze-FIG eJamani naseKenya.
  • Ngo-2005 inguqulelo yesi-5 yabizwa ngokuba yiCairo, kumsitho we-FIG e-Egypt. Ngeli xesha, imigangatho ephethwe yi-OGC ngeKomiti ye-ISO / TC 211 sele idityanisiwe; Nangona le komiti ipapashe ngaphezulu kwama-50 imigangatho yomdla omkhulu kwicandelo le-geomatic, i-LADM ithatha ezimbini ukusuka apha: iJometri kunye neTopology). Kananjalo ngalo mhla iba yi-Inspire's cadastral data.
  • Kwi-2006 yinguqulelo ye-6 ebizwa ngokuba yiMoscow yahanjiswa, yona le nguqulelo sathetha ngayo kwi-Geofumadas kwinqaku «umzekelo osemgangathweni we-cadastre«. Oku sele kubandakanya iRRR yokwakha kunye nenxalenye yepasile icacisiwe ngokwahlukeneyo kuzo zonke iiklasi ezimfusa.

Ukususela kwi-2006 ukuya kwi-2008 umgudu ujolise ekuvunyelweni njengemigangatho.

  • Ngo-Oktobha we-2006 i-1.0 Version sele isetyenziswe nangona loo mhla yayibizwa ngokuba yiCCDM (iCore Cadastral Domain Model).

Inkqubo yokuguqula ibe ngumgangatho we-ISO, kwiintlanganiso ezahlukeneyo zengxoxo, ukwandiswa kunye nenkcazo ethile yeekhala; Iphela kwi-2012 nge-PhD ingqungquthela ye-Chrit Lemmen kwi-2012.

Kusekho indlela ende ekusafuneka yenziwe, amazwe aliqela sele eyamkele imigangatho, nangona kuninzi ekusafuneka kwenziwe. Emva kwalo mzamo wokubekwa emgangathweni, inkqubo yokumiliselwa kunye nokufika kuye kwenzeka, apho amakhonkco enziwe kunye ne-JRC (iZiko eliHlanganisiweyo loPhando leKhomishini yaseYurophu) kunye ne-UN-HABITAT (i-Arhente yeZizwe eziManyeneyo yokuHlaliswa kwaBantu) eza kusetyenziswa kwiiprojekthi inxulunyaniswa nolawulo lwendawo. Ngale nto, imizekelo ebonakalayo ibonwe kumazwe ahlukeneyo, imeko ye-STDM (Social Tenure Domain Model) emi ngaphandle, ethathelwa ingqalelo njenge-LADM ekhethekileyo, kwinxalenye ye-FAO kukho iFlossola naseHonduras i-SIGIT prototype ngoku efuna ukulinganisa kwi-SINAP.

 

Inkcazo yeModeli

Ukusetyenziswa kweli nqaku kukuba sizama ukuqonda imvelaphi ye-LADM esekwe kwisikimu somzobo. Ndizama ukusebenzisa imibala efana neeklasi zemodeli, esele ikumgangatho ovunyiweyo yahlulahlula indawo esemthethweni ngombala otyheli, umntu oluhlaza, izinto eziluhlaza okwesibhakabhaka, ubume bomhlaba ngepinki kunye netopoloji emfusa. Ngokuqinisekileyo ukusebenzisa ii-icon kuyakusizisela ubudlelwane kodwa ngumbutho; Kufuneka sifunde ukuqonda iimodeli. Ukuhamba ngaphezulu kwezinto kubonisa intsingiselo yazo.

[igama hsmap = »ladm»]

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Amashishini angundoqo.

Iskimu siqala ngobudlelwane phakathi kwezinto ezintathu eziphambili:

  • Iqela elichaphazelekayo (Isihloko), kumgangatho ochazwe njengePhathi
  • Umthetho womthetho, okwangoku uthabatha ingcamango ye-archaic yecebo lomhlaba kwaye uyifake kwindawo yomhlaba. Ngomgangatho obizwa ngokuba yi-BAUnit, kunye neYunithi yayo yeGeometri.
  • Ngokunene, ubudlelwane obudibanisa nomntu, kwinqanaba elichazwe njengeRRR.

Imodeli iyazidibanisa ngomthombo (uMthombo). Oku kunokuba yinto ebhaliweyo okanye eyinyani; yinyani nje. Zonke ezinye iimeko ezinokwenzeka:

  • Akukho kuphela umnini kuphela, kodwa liqela lezindlalifa, omnye wabo uvalelwa ebomini,
  • Isalathiso sinesicwangciso, kodwa kwiphepha kwaye asinayo i-georeference,
  • Ukwahlulahlula-hlulwa akuzange kumiswe, kodwa kuphela zizipesenti zomthetho ... omnye wabazalwana sele ethengise ilungelo lakhe kwabanye abantu abane,
  • Esi sabelo sithengisiwe sinomnxeba wenombolo yeselula kunye nokufikelela kwi-servidurmbre,
  • Icandelo leqonga lichaphazelekayo kwindawo ekhuselweyo kunye nolawulo olukhethekileyo,
  • Omnye wabazukulwana usemncinci, ke yena umelwe ngokusemthethweni ngumama wakhe ongcolileyo ...

Nokuba ikhona imephu, nokuba isemthethweni okanye hayi, nokuba iyahambelana na neenkqubo, yinyani ekhoyo. Ke ngoko, i-LADM iyakwamkela ukuba inyani irekhodwe ngendlela elawulwayo, ebonisa imeko yomzimba neyomthetho.

 

Iqela elinomdla (Iqela)

Qaphela ukuba apha "isifundo" esilula sandisiwe kubantu abohlukeneyo ababandakanyekayo kwintengiselwano. Ngaloo ndlela:

i-copy - ikopi (2)

  • Umntu ngamnye
  • Umbutho wezomthetho, njengokuba kunjalo kwinqanaba okanye kwinkampani
  • Ukuqalwa kwabantu, njengengxaki yeqela lendabuko, umbutho, iqela elincinci, njl.
  • Umntu okanye isikhungo esiqinisekisa ilungelo, njengelinye icala legosa
  • Umntu okanye isikhungo esiqinisekisa ubungeniso, njengebhanki okanye ityala lezemali
  • Umntu owenza uxwebhu lokulinganisa, njengomcebisi.

 

 Ubudlelwane bamalungelo (RRR)i-copy - ikopi (3)

Apha, kwi-cadastre yendabuko yayiluhlobo kuphela lwengqesho. Kodwa imodeli iyandiswa ukuze iimeko ezahlukeneyo ezinokubakho zobudlelwane bomthetho kunye nemithwalo yolawulo zilungelelaniswe:

  • Imboleko okanye ikhonkco
  • Iimpembelelo, ezinokuthi zibe yiZithintelo, izabelo kunye noXanduva.
  • Ubudlelwane bomnini nomthombo.

 

Injongo yokulungileyo

i-copy - ikopi (4)

Apha kukho amanqanaba ahlukeneyo eeklasi, kodwa yonke into ngokusisiseko iqala kwinto ebizwa ngokuba yiyunithi yolawulo (BAUnit). Bona ukuba oku kukutsalwa kwento, nokuba sinemephu okanye uxwebhu.

Oku kungenxa yokuba, ngokwenyani kukho into, eya kuthi ibhalwe ngokuthe ngcembe kodwa i-BAUnit iqala ukusuka apho kwaye kwimeko yokuqala kukho iimeko "ezingafakwanga georeferenced":

  • Into engekho ingashenxiswayo, oko kukuthi, yintoni inokususwa kwisakhiwo, njengokuba kunjalo kwikhaya elisekhaya, i-antenna yefoni, njl njl.
  • Isihlomelo sesiseko sezindlu
  • Umbhalo ongekho-geo-referenced
  • Idilesi engokwenyama echaza indlu ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo, kwaye oku kungabikho kwinqanaba lezindlu ngaphakathi kwesakhiwo.

Emva koko kukho ii-BAUnits ezichongiweyo zendawo, phakathi kwezi zinto zingaba:

  • Ipasile engacwangciswanga (icandelo lepasile), enokuba yindawo, iseti yamanqaku kunye nemida.
  • Isakhelo esakhiweyo, esinokuba yunithi, okanye eziliqela ngokumalunga nesakhiwo esisodwa.

Enye yeenzuzo zokwamkela imodeli ye-LADM kukuba akukho datha ayinakuthelekiswa nanto, akukho cadastre ilungileyo okanye imbi, inyani emelweyo kuphela. Iiyunithi zolawulo zikhona kwaye zinokuphucula ukuchaneka ukusuka:

  •  Isiseko sabarhafeleli bomasipala abafake ingxelo kuphela egcinwe kwi-Excel.
  • Kamva banako ukulungelelaniswa, kwaye yintoni i cadastre eneenkcukacha ezinokuqala kodwa isisombululo esisemthethweni.
  • Emva koko unokuba neqhinga, kodwa kungekhona ngokuchaneka okuphezulu.

Yonke into ivala ekuchongeni kwendawo yeploti, ngamanqanaba ahlukeneyo okumelwa kwesizathu esilula "kwinyani ebonakalayo into inye kuphela". Kukwabalulekile ukuba kungabonakali umthetho wabucala kuphela, kodwa nomthetho woluntu, njengemeko yommandla okhuselweyo okanye amaziko esithuba achazwe kwimithetho eyahlukeneyo enje ngomkhukula ochaphazela iipasile.

 

ladm - ikopiIimpawu zento.

Olu luthotho lweeklasi ezizodwa ezivumela ukuchazwa kweentlobo ezahlukeneyo zobume bendawo ngento enye, yiyo loo nto zinxulunyaniswa nomthombo.

Into ebalulekileyo apha kukuba ubuncinci beyunithi yokulinganisa yingongoma, eluxanduva lomvavanyi. Iimeko ezahlukeneyo ze-2D kunye ne-3D zichaziwe.

Kwimeko yamacala amabini, inqaku, umda kulwalamano lwe-arc-node kunye nemilo kwijometri evaliweyo. Kukwakhona okukhoyo kwi-3D nangona nantsi enye imeko eyinto ye-3D engabunjwanga ngobuso.

Ukudibanisa ukubonakaliswa kwesimo sezobugcisa kusetyenziswa umthombo, kuqwalasela ukuba kuya kuhlala kusekho uxwebhu oluchaza ukuchaneka okukhulu okungeke kutyalwe kwisiqwenga se-cadastral njengenxalenye yomxholo.

Ukuqukumbela, i-LADM ngumgangatho owaziwayo. Kukubonakala kwezinto ezibonakalayo kwi-Cadastre ka-2014 esele sifikile kuyo; nangona zinempumelelo ezininzi kwinxalenye yetekhnoloji kunye neyezemfundo kunye nemiceli mngeni emininzi kwicandelo leziko nakwisiqhelo.

8 Iphendula ithi “Yintoni ekufuneka eyiyazi i-geomatist malunga nomgangatho wolawulo lomhlaba we-LADM”

  1. andiyi nkcazelo xa ndidlula imifanekiso kwi mouse

  2. Hayi, unako ukufumana i-ppt ebonakalayo kwisithombe

  3. Eneneni, imodeli apha naphaya lizwe. Ukuba ilizwe lithatha isigqibo sokuba idatha ethile ayizukuyisebenzisa ... ayilisebenzisi.
    Into ebalulekileyo kukuba imodeli yedatha isebenzisa umgangatho weedatha ezisebenzisayo.

  4. Ukuba sele sele kunzima ePeru ukukwazi ukungena ezindlwini ukufumana iinkcukacha zenkcukacha ezimbalwa, ukufumana yonke inkcazelo eceliwe kwi-LADM yinkimbinkimbi. Kwaye kunzima nakakhulu ukuthabatha idatha ye-fiveths ekhona kwiCallao.

Shiya impendulo

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