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Zintoni zodwa - iintlobo kunye nokusetyenziswa

Umgca wokudityaniswa komgca ngumgca odibanisa iinjongo zexabiso elifanayo. Kwi-cartography, ii-kipekeeins zidibana kunye ukubonisa ukuphakama okulinganayo ngaphezulu kwenqanaba eliqhelekileyo, njengenqanaba eliphakathi lolwandle. Imephu ye-contour sisikhokelo sokumela iindawo eziphezulu zobume bendawo esebenzisa imigca. Isetyenziselwa rhoqo ukubonisa ukuphakama, incasa kunye nobunzulu beentlambo kunye neenduli. Isithuba esiphakathi kweendawo ezimbini ukuya ngasemva kwimephu sibizwa ngokuba sisimo esiphakathi kwaye sibonisa umahluko phezulu.

Nge-ArcGIS ungafunda ukusebenzisa iindawo ezizodwa ezingcono, imephu inokunxibelelana ngokwamanqanaba amathathu omhlaba kuwo nawuphi na umhlaba kwimephu enamacala amabini. Ngokuthatha isigqibo semephu yokuzahlula okanye umda, umthengi unokutolika ithambeka lomphezulu. Nokuba ubunzulu okanye ukuphakama kwendawo, ii-geoforms ziyakwazi ukuthetha malunga nejografi yendawo. Isithuba esiphakathi kwezinto ezimbini ezihamba yedwa ecaleni kwemigca sinika umthengi idatha ebalulekileyo.

Imigca inokugotywa, iqonde, okanye indibaniselwano yazo zombini ezingaphambanisiyo. Ubude besalathiso obuboniswa zii-isolines ngokuqhelekileyo bubude obuphakathi kolwandle. Isithuba esilandelelanayo phakathi kwee-isolines sibonisa ukuthambekela komphezulu ophantsi kofundo kwaye ibizwa ngokuba "yethutyana". Kwimeko apho i-isolines isasazwa ngamandla, iya kubonisa i-slope oblique. Kwelinye icala, ukuba iindawo zodwa ziqelelene kakhulu, kubizwa ngokuba yithambeka elithambileyo. Imijelo, imijelo yamanzi entlanjeni iboniswa njenge "v" okanye "u" kwimephu yegophe.

Iigophe zidla ngokunikwa amagama anesimaphambili esithi "iso" esithetha "ukulingana" ngesiGrike, ngokohlobo loguqulo olumatshwayo. Isimaphambili esithi "iso" sinokuthatyathelwa indawo ngo-"isallo" emisela ukuba umgca wefom uyadibana apho uguquko olunikiweyo lutshintsha ngesantya esifanayo kwithuba elithile lexesha. Ngaphandle kwento yokuba igama elithi ijiko lisetyenziswa ngokubanzi, amanye amagama asetyenziswa rhoqo kwi-meteorology, apho kukho amathuba aphawuleka ngakumbi okusebenzisa iimephu ze-topographic ezinemiba emininzi ngexesha elithile. Ngokufanayo, izithuba ezilinganayo kunye nemigca yecontour ibonisa amathambeka afanayo.

Imbali yokuzahlula

Ukusetyenziswa kwemigca yokujoyina amanqaku exabiso elilinganayo sele ikhona ixesha elide nangona beyaziwa ngamagama ahlukeneyo. Usetyenziso lokuqala olurekhodiweyo lwemigca yecontour lwenziwa ukubonisa ubunzulu bendlela yamanzi yaseSpaarne kufuphi neHaarlem ngumDatshi ogama linguPieter Bruinsz ngo-1584. Kuyo yonke i-1700s, imigca isetyenziswe kwimizobo kunye neemephu ukubonisa ubunzulu kunye nobukhulu bamanzi kunye neendawo. U-Edmond Halley ngo-1701 wasebenzisa imigca yecontour ye-isogonal eneentlobo ezinomtsalane ngakumbi. UNicholas Cruquius wasebenzisa ii-isobhath ezinezithuba ezilingana nefathom enye ukuqonda nokuzoba ibhedi yendlela yamanzi yaseMerwede ngonyaka ka-1, ngelixa uPhilippe Buache wasebenzisa ixesha eliphakathi kwiifathom ezili-1727 kwi-English Channel ngonyaka ka-10. Ngo-1737 uDomenico Vandelli wasebenzisa i-contour imigca yokuchaza umphezulu, ukuzoba isikhokelo seDuchy yeModena kunye neReggio. Ngo-1746 wayalela uvavanyo lweSchiehallion ukulinganisa umyinge wobunzima boMhlaba. Ingcamango ye-isolines yayisetyenziselwa ukuhlola amathambeka eentaba njengovavanyo. Ukususela ngoko, ukusetyenziswa kwe-isolines kwi-cartography yaba sisicwangciso esiqhelekileyo. Esi sicwangciso sasetyenziswa ngo-1774 nguJ. Ukususela ngelo xesha, bekukho ukusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwee-isolines kwimephu kunye nezicelo ezahlukeneyo.

Ngo-1889 uFrancis Galton wacebisa ibinzana elithi "isogram" njengomthombo wembono yemigca ebonisa ukufana okanye ukuthelekisa kwiingongoma eziphambili okanye zobungakanani. Amagama athi "isogon", "isoline" kunye "isarhythm" asetyenziswa ngokubanzi ukumela iisolines. Ibinzana elithi "isoclini" libhekisa kumgca ofumana ugqaliselo kunye nethambeka elilinganayo.

Iindidi kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezinto ezizimeleyo

Ii-Isolines zisetyenziswe ngokubanzi kwiimephu kunye nemifanekiso yolwazi oluyimifanekiso kunye nolinganiso. Imigca yokungena inokuthi itsalwe njengolungiselelo okanye njengombono weprofayile. Umbono weflethi sisibonakaliso sesikhokelo, ukwenzela ukuba umbukeli ayibone evela phezulu. Ukujonga iprofayile kuhlala kuyiparameter eyabelwe ngokuthe nkqo. Umzekelo, imihlaba yendawo inokujongwa njengelungiselelo okanye ulungelelwaniso lwemida, ngelixa ungcoliseko lomoya kwingingqi inokubonwa njengombono weprofayile.

Ukuba ufumana ithambeka elimnqantsa kakhulu kwisikhokelo, uya kubona ukuba ii-isolines ziyadibana zibe ludweliso lweemilo “zomthwali”. Kule meko, umgca wokugqibela wecontour ngamanye amaxesha unamanqaku okuphawula abonisa umhlaba ophantsi. Ukuna kwemvula kukwaboniswa ngemigca yecontour enye kwenye kwaye, phantse akukho meko, ngaba bayanxibelelana okanye bazinzile.

Imigca yokulinganisa isetyenziswa kwimimandla eyahlukeneyo, ukubonisa ulwazi oluninzi malunga nendawo. Ngayiphi na imeko, amagama asetyenzisiweyo ukubiza amagama ahlukeneyo angatshintsha ngohlobo lolwazi abathetha ngalo.

 Indalo:  I-Isopleths isetyenziselwa ukwenza imigca ebonisa umahluko ongenakuqikelelwa ngexesha elinye, nangona kunjalo, yinkxaso yolwazi eqokelelwa kwindawo enkulu, umzekelo, ubukhulu bokwabemi.

Ngokuhambelana, kwindawo ye-Isoflor, isoplette isetyenziselwa ukudibanisa izithili kunye neendidi zezinto eziphilayo, ezibonisa imizekelo yokuhamba kunye neepateni zeentlobo zezilwanyana.

Inzululwazi ngendalo: Kukho ukusetyenziswa okwahlukileyo kokuzahlula kwisayensi yendalo. Imephu zobuninzi bokungcola zibalulekile ekuboniseni iindawo ezinamazinga aphezulu naphantsi asezantsi, amanqanaba avumela amathuba okuba ungcoliseko lonyuke kulo mmandla.

Ii-Isoplates zisetyenziselwa ukubonisa ukuhanjiswa kwamachaphaza aguqukayo, ngelixa isobelas isetyenziselwa ukubonisa amanqanaba okungcoliseka kwengqondo kuloo ndawo.

Umbono wemigca yokusetyenzwa usetyenziselwe ukutyala kunye neefom zokwenza umdumba, owaziwa ukunciphisa isiseko somhlaba ukuya kwinqanaba elingaqhelekanga kwimimandla, ecaleni kwemida yeendlela zamanzi okanye eminye imizimba zamanzi

Inzululwazi zentlalo: imigca ye-contour isetyenziswa rhoqo kwimo yentlalo, ukubonisa iintlobo okanye ukubonisa uphando olwenziwayo lokungafaniyo kumhlaba othile. Igama lomgca lefom litshintsha ngohlobo lwedatha esebenzayo kuyo. Umzekelo, kuqoqosho, ii-excluse zisetyenziselwa ukumela amanqaku aphezulu anokuthi aguqule ngaphezulu komda, ngokufana nesodapane esithetha ngendleko yexesha lokuhamba, isotim ibhekisa kwiindleko zothutho ukusuka kumthombo wezinto ezingasetyenziswayo, okt. Incoko ezithandabuzekayo malunga nokwandisa ubungakanani bokusetyenziswa kolwazi olukhethiweyo

Amanani: Kuvavanyo olunokulinganiswa, ii-exclins zisetyenziselwa ukufumana iindlela kunye noqikelelo lobungakanani benokwenzeka, obizwa ngokuba yimigca ye-isodensity okanye i-isodensanes.

Imozulu yeMeteorology: Ii-Isolines zinokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwi-meteorology. Olu lwazi lufunyenwe kwizikhululo zemozulu kunye nakwisatellite yemozulu, inceda ekwenzeni iimephu zemozulu yemozulu, ezibonisa iimeko zemozulu njengemvula, amandla e-pneumatic ngexesha lexesha. I-Isotherms kunye ne-isobars zisetyenziswa kwiiseti ezininzi zokugubungela ukubonakalisa izinto ezahlukeneyo ze-thermodynamic eziphembelela iimeko zemozulu.

Ufundo lobushushu: Luhlobo lwe-excline oludibanisa amanqaku kunye namaqondo obushushu alinganayo, abizwa ngokuba yi-isotherms kunye nemimandla enxibelelana nemitha ehambelana nokukhanya kwelanga ebizwa ngokuba yi-isohel. Ii-Isolines, ezinobushushu obuqhelekileyo bonyaka zibizwa ngokuba yi-isogeotherms kwaye imimandla enxulumene neqondo lokushisa lasebusika okanye elilinganayo ibizwa ngokuba yi-isochemicals, ngelixa iqondo lokushisa lasehlobo libizwa ngokuba yi-isothere.

Isifundo somoya: Kwi-meteorology, umgca wokudityaniswa okunxibelelana nolwazi oluhamba rhoqo lomoya lubizwa ngokuba yi-isotach. Isogon ibonisa umoya oqhubekayo

Imvula kunye nokufuma: Amagama aliqela asetyenziselwa ukubiza iindawo ezikhethekileyo ezibonisa amanqaku okanye iindawo ezinemvula kunye nomxholo wodaka.

  • Isoyet okanye Isoyeta: bonisa imvula yendawo
  • Isochalaz: yimigca ebonisa imimandla ephindaphindeka rhoqo kwisichotho.
  • Isobront: Zizikhokelo ezibonisa iindawo eziphumelele isenzo seqhwithi ngaxeshanye.
  • Isoneph bonisa ukusasazeka kwelifu
  • Isohume: yimigca edibanisa imimandla ngokunamathela ngokuthe ngqo kubambiso
  • Isodrostherm: Ibonisa iindawo ezinendawo yokugcina amazolo okanye ukwanda.
  • Isopectic: Ibonisa iindawo ezinemihla yokuhanjiswa komkhenkce, ngelixa i-isotac ibhekisa kwimihla yokusilela.

Uxinzelelo lweBarometric: KwiMeteorology, uphando loxinzelelo lomoya lubalulekile kulindelo loyilo lwemozulu ezayo. Ubunzima be Barometric buyehla buye kwinqanaba lolwandle xa luboniswe kumgca. I-isobara ngumgca odibanisa izithili ngobunzima bemozulu ethe rhoqo. Isoallobars zikhokela ngokutshintsha kwesisindo kangangexesha elithile. Ii-isoallobars, ke, zinokuzahlula kwi-ketoallobars kunye nee-anallobars, ezibonisa ukuncipha kokunyuka kokutshintsha kwesisindo ngokwahlukeneyo.

I-Thermodynamics kunye nobunjineli: Nangona la macandelo ekugxininisa kuwo ngamanye amaxesha kubandakanya umgca wesikhokelo, bafumanisa ukusetyenziswa kwabo kwimifanekiso ebonisa ulwazi kunye nemizobo yeqonga, inxenye yeendlela eziqhelekileyo zokuzisebenzisa zodwa kwezi nkalo zezi:

  • Isochor simele ixabiso levolumu engaguqukiyo
  • Isoclines zisetyenziswa kwiimeko ezahlukeneyo
  • Isodose kubhekisa ekugcinweni kwenxalenye efanayo yemitha
  • Isophote kukukhanya okuqhubekayo

Magnetism: imigca ye-contour iluncedo ngokumangalisayo ekucingweni ngentsimi yomhlaba enomtsalane. Uncedo kuphando olunomdla kunye nokwala komazibuthe.

I-Isogonic okanye i-isogonic contour imigca ibonisa imigca yokuwohloka komtsalane okuqhubekayo. Umgca obonisa ukwala okungu-zero ubizwa ngokuba ngumgca we-Agonic. I-kipekeeine edibanisa nganye yezi ndlela, kunye namandla ahlala enomtsalane abizwa ngokuba ngumgca we-isodynamic. Umgca we-isoclinic udibanisa zonke iindlela zokucwangciswa komda nge-dive ekhangelekayo efanayo, ngelixa umgca we-aclinic udibanisa zonke iindawo ezine-dives ethandekayo. Umgca we-isophoric ufumana zonke iindlela kunye neendlela ezahlukeneyo zonyaka zokuncipha.

 Izifundo zeJografi: Olona hlobo lusebenzayo lwezinto ezizimeleyo - imida, yindawo yokubonisa ukuphakama nobunzulu bommandla. Le migca isetyenziswa kwiimephu zedrafti ukubonisa imitha ukuphakama, kunye nebymetric ukubonisa ubunzulu. Ezi mephu zingasentla okanye zemephu yokuhlambela zingasetyenziselwa ukubonisa indawo encinci okanye imimandla efana nobukhulu bomhlaba. Isithuba esilandelanayo phakathi kwemigca ye-contour, ebizwa ngokuba yiphakathi ibonisa ukwanda okanye ubunzulu phakathi kwezi zimbini.

Xa kuthethwa ngommandla onemigca yecontour, imigca ekufutshane ibonisa ithambeka okanye i-engile ephakamileyo, ngoxa iicontour ezikude zithetha ngethambeka elingekho nzulu. Izangqa ezivaliweyo ngaphakathi zibonisa amandla, ngelixa umphandle ubonisa ukuthambeka okuhla. Esona sangqa sinzulu kwimephu yecontour sibonisa apho ummandla unokuba neendawo zokudakumba okanye iicraters, apho imigca ebizwa ngokuba zii "hachures" iboniswa ngaphakathi kwesangqa.

IJografi kunye neLwandlekazi lweLwandle: Imephu zaselwandle zisetyenziswa kuphando lwezinto ezincedisayo, imiba ebonakalayo neyezezimali eboniswe kumhlaba wehlabathi. Isopach yimigca yethambeka efumana i-foci kunye nobungqingqwa obulingana beeyunithi zejometri.

Ukongeza, kwi-olografish yolwandle, imimandla enamanzi e-contour iyalingana kwimigca ye-contour ebizwa ngokuba yi-isopicnas, kunye ne-isohalins zidibanisa iindawo kunye ne-saline yaselwandle efanayo. Isobathytherms igxile kubushushu obufanayo elwandle.

I-Electrostatics: I-electrostatics kwindawo ihlala iboniswa nemephu yesopotopiki. Ijika elihlanganisa amanqaku kunye nombane osoloko ubizwa ubizwa ngokuba yi-isopotential okanye i-equipotential line.

Iimpawu zemigca yokubonelela ngemephu

Imephu ze-contour ayisiyomfuziselo yokunyuka, okanye isikhokelo sonyuko okanye ubunzulu bendawo, kodwa iindawo eziphambili zodwa zivumela ukuqonda okumangalisayo komhlaba okoko kugxilwe kwimephu. Nazi ezinye zezinto eziphezulu ezisetyenziswa kakhulu kwimephu:

  • Uhlobo lomgca: Inokuchatshazelwa, yomelele okanye ibaleke. Intambo enamachaphaza okanye abalekayo idla ngokusetyenziswa xa kukho ulwazi kwisiseko esingumda esiboniswe ngumgca oqinileyo.
  • Ubungqingqwa bomgca: Kuxhomekeka ekubeni umgca uqine okanye uqengqele kangakanani umgca utsaliwe. Imephu zemephu zihlala zitsalwa ngemigca yobukhulu obahlukeneyo ukubonisa iimpawu zamanani okanye iintlobo kwiindawo eziphakamileyo zommandla.
  • Umbala womgca: Olu hlobo lomgca wokubamba umda luyaguquka kwisikhokelo sokuyazi ukusuka kwi-contour yesiseko. Ukutshixwa kwemigca kusetyenziswa kwakhona njengenye indlela yeempawu zamanani.
  • Isitampu samanani: Kubalulekile kuzo zonke iimephu zemephu. Ihlala yenziwa kufutshane nomgca wokudibana okanye inokuvela kwicala lesikhokelo. Ixabiso lamanani linceda ukwahlula uhlobo lwethambeka.

Izixhobo zeMephu eziphezulu

Imephu zamaphepha aqhelekileyo ayisiyiyo kuphela indlela yokubonisa iimephu ezizodwa okanye i-contours. Ngaphandle kwinto yokuba zibalulekile, kunye nenkqubela phambili ekusetyenzisweni kwezinto ezintsha, iimephu okwangoku zikwisakhiwo esiqhubele phambili ngakumbi. Kukho izixhobo ezahlukeneyo, ukusetyenziswa kwezinto ezahlukeneyo kunye nenkqubo efikelelekayo yokuncedisa koku. Ezi mephu ziya kuchaneka ngokuthe kratya, zikhawuleza zenziwe, zinokuguquguqulwa ngokufanelekileyo kwaye ungazithumela kumaqabane akho nakwabo usebenza nabo! Emva koko, kubhekiswa kwinxalenye yezi zixhobo kunye nenkcazo emfutshane

iimaphu zikagoogle

Iimephu zikaGoogle zingumsindisi wobomi kwihlabathi jikelele. Isetyenziselwa ukuhlola isixeko, kunye nezinye iinjongo ezimbalwa ezahlukeneyo. Inokufikelela "kwimibono" emininzi, umzekelo: i-traffic, i-satellite, i-topography, indlela, njl. Ukuvula i-"Landscape" umaleko kwimenyu yeenketho kuya kukunika umbono we-topographical (kunye nemigca yecontour).

I-Gaia, i-ArcGIS, i-Backcountry Navigator (Izicelo eziVakalayo)

Njengezinye iinkqubo ezininzi ezinokusetyenziswa ze-Android kunye ne-iOS, abathengi be-iPhone banokusebenzisa iGaia GPS. Inika abathengi iimephu eziphezulu kunye neentlobo ezahlukeneyo. Ezi zicelo zingasimahla okanye zihlawulwe kuxhomekeka kulungiselelo olubhengeziweyo. Izicelo zendlela azisetyenziselwa kuphela ukufumana idatha ephezulu, kodwa ziluncedo kakhulu. Izicelo ze-ArcGIS kunye nokusetyenziswa ezahlukeneyo kwe-ESRI kunokusetyenziselwa ukwenza imephu.

ICaltopo

Awunakudlala nabo bonke ubuchule kwiifowuni eziphathwayo, kwaye le yindawo apho imisebenzi yendawo kunye nePC ngamagorha. Kukho amanqanaba akwi-intanethi kunye nohlengahlengiso oluhlengahlengiswayo lokukunceda ugqibe umsebenzi wakho olandelayo. ICapopo sisixhobo esisikhokelo esisekwe kwinkqubo esikuvumela ukuba uprinte iimephu zedrafti ezihlengahlengisiweyo. Ukongeza, ikuvumela ukuba ubathumele / ubashukumisele kwizixhobo zakho ze-GPS okanye iifowuni eziphathwayo. Ukongeza, ixhasa ukwenziwa ngokwezifiso okanye iimephu kunye nokunikeza abathengi abahlukeneyo.

I-Mytopo

Inokubonwa njengomboneleli wenkxaso. Kukuba kwinqanaba elithile njengeCaltopo (elikhankanywe ngasentla), nangona kunjalo, igxile kwiCanada naseMelika (siyathemba ukuba nabo bazakubandakanya amazwe ahlukeneyo!). Banikezela ngemephu zesiko ezinenkcukacha, kubandakanya iimephu ezibalaseleyo, imifanekiso yesatellite kunye neemephu ezivulekileyo zokusukela nakweyiphi na indawo yase-US. UU. Iimephu ezikumgangatho ophezulu kakhulu, onokuzijonga kwi-intanethi ngaphandle kwendleko okanye uzithumele njengezona nqanaba zokuqala ngexabiso elincinci.

Ungabhalisela Uqeqesho lweArcGIS Phila kwi-Edunbox ene-24 / 7 inkxaso kunye nokufikelela ebomini.


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Golgi Alvarez

Umbhali, umphandi, ingcali kwiiModeli zoLawulo loMhlaba. Uthathe inxaxheba ekucingeni nasekuphunyezweni kweemodeli ezifana ne: INkqubo yeSizwe yoLawulo lwePropati SINAP eHonduras, iModeli yoLawulo loMasipala abaManyeneyo eHonduras, iModeli eDityanisiweyo yoLawulo lweCadastre - iRegistry eNicaragua, iNkqubo yoLawulo lweTerritory SAT eColombia. . Umhleli weblogi yolwazi lwe-Geofumadas ukususela kwi-2007 kunye nomdali we-AulaGEO Academy equka izifundo ezingaphezu kwe-100 kwi-GIS - CAD - BIM - Digital Twins izihloko.

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