Yintoni eyahlula-iindidi kunye nokusetyenziswa

Umgca wokudityaniswa komgca ngumgca odibanisa iinjongo zexabiso elifanayo. Kwi-cartography, ii-kipekeeins zidibana kunye ukubonisa ukuphakama okulinganayo ngaphezulu kwenqanaba eliqhelekileyo, njengenqanaba eliphakathi lolwandle. Imephu ye-contour sisikhokelo sokumela iindawo eziphezulu zobume bendawo esebenzisa imigca. Isetyenziselwa rhoqo ukubonisa ukuphakama, incasa kunye nobunzulu beentlambo kunye neenduli. Isithuba esiphakathi kweendawo ezimbini ukuya ngasemva kwimephu sibizwa ngokuba sisimo esiphakathi kwaye sibonisa umahluko phezulu.

Nge-ArcGIS ungafunda ukusebenzisa iindawo ezizodwa ezingcono, imephu inokunxibelelana ngokwamanqanaba amathathu omhlaba kuwo nawuphi na umhlaba kwimephu enamacala amabini. Ngokuthatha isigqibo semephu yokuzahlula okanye umda, umthengi unokutolika ithambeka lomphezulu. Nokuba ubunzulu okanye ukuphakama kwendawo, ii-geoforms ziyakwazi ukuthetha malunga nejografi yendawo. Isithuba esiphakathi kwezinto ezimbini ezihamba yedwa ecaleni kwemigca sinika umthengi idatha ebalulekileyo.

Imigca iyakwazi ukugoba, ngokuthe tye okanye ukudibanisa kokubini okungadibaniyo. Isalathiso sokuphakama esiboniswe ngabodwa, ubukhulu becala bububanzi bolwandlekazi. Isithuba esilandelanayo phakathi kwezinto ezikhethekileyo zibonisa ukubekwa komphezulu ophantsi kophononongo kwaye ibizwa ngokuba "yethutyana". Kwimeko apho ii-exclins zisasazeke ngokuqinileyo, ziya kubonisa ukutyekela. Kwelinye icala, ukuba iindawo ezihlala zodwa zibonakalisiwe kude, kukho intetho yesithambeka esibuthathaka. Imilambo, imijelo yamanzi entlanjeni iboniswa njenge "v" okanye u "u" kwimephu yeejika.

Ijikajiki zihlala zinikwa amagama kunye nezimaphambili "iso" elithetha "elifanayo" ngesiGrike, ngohlobo lwenguqu ebonakalisiweyo. Isimaphambili «iso» sinokufakwa endaweni ye-«isallo» emisela ukuba umgca weefom ujoyine apho utshintsho oluguqukayo lwenzeka ngesantya esifanayo ngexesha elinikiweyo. Ngaphandle kwento yokuba ijika lesigama lisetyenziswa ngokubanzi, amanye amagama asetyenziswa rhoqo kwi-meteorology, apho kunokwenzeka khona ukuba kusetyenziswe iimephu eziphezulu ezinemiba eliqela ngalo naliphi na ixesha. Ngokufanayo, iindawo ezimahlulwe ngokulinganayo kunye neebhlanti zibonisa utyekelo olufanayo.

Imbali yokuzahlula

Ukusetyenziswa kwemigca eqhagamshela amanqaku exabiso elilinganayo, ibikhona ixesha elide nangona babeyazana ngamagama ahlukileyo. Ukusetyenziswa kokuqala okurekhodiweyo kwemigca ye-contour kwenziwa ukubonisa ubunzulu bendlela yamanzi ase-Spaarne ekufuphi naseHaarlem ngumntu waseDatshi ogama linguPieter Bruinsz ngonyaka we-1584. Isolines zithetha ukuba ubunzulu obungaguqukiyo okwangoku babizwa ngokuba yi "isobats." Ngalo lonke ixesha leshumi le-1700, imigca kwimizobo kunye neemephu zisetyenziselwe ukubonisa ubunzulu kunye nobukhulu bemizimba yamanzi kunye neendawo. U-Edmond Halley kwi-1701 esetyenziswe kwimigca ye-isogonic eneentlobo ezikhangayo. U-Nicholas Cruquius wasebenzisa i-isobatas eneempawu eziphakathi kunye ne-1 fathom yokuqonda kunye nokuzoba umandlalo wamanzi e-Merwede kunyaka we-1727, ngelixa u-Philippe Buache wasebenzisa ixesha eliphakathi le-10 fathoms ye-English Channel kwi-1737 yonyaka. Kwi-1746 u-Domenico Vandelli wasebenzisa u-contours ukujonga umphezulu, uzoba isikhombisi se-Duchy yeModena kunye ne-Reggio. Kwi-1774 walathisa kuvavanyo lweSchiehallion ukuba ikhuphe ubungakanani obukhulu beMhlaba. Umbono wokuzahlula usetyenziselwe ukujonga ukuthambeka kweentaba njengobungqina. Ukusuka apho, ukusetyenziswa kweendawo ezizodwa kwimephu ibe sisicwangciso esiliqili. Esi sicwangciso sasetyenziswa kwi-1791 nguJL Dupain-Treil kwisikhokelo esivela eFrance kwaye kwi-1801 Haxo basisebenzisela iinkampani zabo eRocca d'Aufo. Ukususela ngalo mzuzu ukuya phambili, kuye kwakho ukusetyenziswa ngokubanzi kwezinto ezikhethekileyo kwimephu kunye nezicelo ezahlukeneyo.

Kwi-1889 uFrancis Galton uphakamise ibinzana elithi "isogram" njengomthombo wokujonga imigca ebonisa ukufana okanye ukuthelekiswa kwezinto eziphezulu okanye ubungakanani. Amagama athi "isogon", "pekee" kunye "isarithm" asetyenziswa ngokubanzi ukumela abodwa. Ibinzana elithi "isoclins" libhekisa kumgca oya kugxila kunye notyekelo olufanayo.

Iindidi kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezinto ezizimeleyo

Ii-Isolines zisetyenziswe ngokubanzi kwiimephu kunye nemifanekiso yolwazi oluyimifanekiso kunye nolinganiso. Imigca yokungena inokuthi itsalwe njengolungiselelo okanye njengombono weprofayile. Umbono weflethi sisibonakaliso sesikhokelo, ukwenzela ukuba umbukeli ayibone evela phezulu. Ukujonga iprofayile kuhlala kuyiparameter eyabelwe ngokuthe nkqo. Umzekelo, imihlaba yendawo inokujongwa njengelungiselelo okanye ulungelelwaniso lwemida, ngelixa ungcoliseko lomoya kwingingqi inokubonwa njengombono weprofayile.

Ukuba ufumana indawo ethe tyaba kakhulu kwisikhokelo, uya kubona ukuba iindawo zodwa ezihlangeneyo zidityaniswe kwicala lesimo se "transporter". Kule meko, umgca wokugqibela we-contour ngamanye amaxesha unamanqaku okuphumelela abonisa umhlaba ophantsi. Ubungakanani bukwaboniswa kwakhona ngemixokelelwane esondeleyo omnye komnye kwaye, phantse akukho meko, bayanxibelelana okanye bazinziswa ngokuqinileyo.

Imigca yokulinganisa isetyenziswa kwimimandla eyahlukeneyo, ukubonisa ulwazi oluninzi malunga nendawo. Ngayiphi na imeko, amagama asetyenzisiweyo ukubiza amagama ahlukeneyo angatshintsha ngohlobo lolwazi abathetha ngalo.

Indalo: I-Isopleths isetyenziselwa ukwenza imigca ebonisa umahluko ongenakuqikelelwa ngexesha elinye, nangona kunjalo, yinkxaso yolwazi eqokelelwa kwindawo enkulu, umzekelo, ubukhulu bokwabemi.

Ngokuhambelana, kwindawo ye-Isoflor, isoplette isetyenziselwa ukudibanisa izithili kunye neendidi zezinto eziphilayo, ezibonisa imizekelo yokuhamba kunye neepateni zeentlobo zezilwanyana.

Inzululwazi ngendalo: Kukho ukusetyenziswa okwahlukileyo kokuzahlula kwisayensi yendalo. Imephu zobuninzi bokungcola zibalulekile ekuboniseni iindawo ezinamazinga aphezulu naphantsi asezantsi, amanqanaba avumela amathuba okuba ungcoliseko lonyuke kulo mmandla.

Ii-Isoplates zisetyenziselwa ukubonisa ukuhanjiswa kwamachaphaza aguqukayo, ngelixa isobelas isetyenziselwa ukubonisa amanqanaba okungcoliseka kwengqondo kuloo ndawo.

Umbono wemigca yokusetyenzwa usetyenziselwe ukutyala kunye neefom zokwenza umdumba, owaziwa ukunciphisa isiseko somhlaba ukuya kwinqanaba elingaqhelekanga kwimimandla, ecaleni kwemida yeendlela zamanzi okanye eminye imizimba zamanzi

Inzululwazi zentlalo: imigca ye-contour isetyenziswa rhoqo kwimo yentlalo, ukubonisa iintlobo okanye ukubonisa uphando olwenziwayo lokungafaniyo kumhlaba othile. Igama lomgca lefom litshintsha ngohlobo lwedatha esebenzayo kuyo. Umzekelo, kuqoqosho, ii-excluse zisetyenziselwa ukumela amanqaku aphezulu anokuthi aguqule ngaphezulu komda, ngokufana nesodapane esithetha ngendleko yexesha lokuhamba, isotim ibhekisa kwiindleko zothutho ukusuka kumthombo wezinto ezingasetyenziswayo, okt. Incoko ezithandabuzekayo malunga nokwandisa ubungakanani bokusetyenziswa kolwazi olukhethiweyo

Amanani: Kuvavanyo olunokulinganiswa, ii-exclins zisetyenziselwa ukufumana iindlela kunye noqikelelo lobungakanani benokwenzeka, obizwa ngokuba yimigca ye-isodensity okanye i-isodensanes.

Imozulu yeMeteorology: Ii-Isolines zinokusetyenziswa okukhulu kwi-meteorology. Olu lwazi lufunyenwe kwizikhululo zemozulu kunye nakwisatellite yemozulu, inceda ekwenzeni iimephu zemozulu yemozulu, ezibonisa iimeko zemozulu njengemvula, amandla e-pneumatic ngexesha lexesha. I-Isotherms kunye ne-isobars zisetyenziswa kwiiseti ezininzi zokugubungela ukubonakalisa izinto ezahlukeneyo ze-thermodynamic eziphembelela iimeko zemozulu.

Ufundo lobushushu: Luhlobo lwe-excline oludibanisa amanqaku kunye namaqondo obushushu alinganayo, abizwa ngokuba yi-isotherms kunye nemimandla enxibelelana nemitha ehambelana nokukhanya kwelanga ebizwa ngokuba yi-isohel. Ii-Isolines, ezinobushushu obuqhelekileyo bonyaka zibizwa ngokuba yi-isogeotherms kwaye imimandla enxulumene neqondo lokushisa lasebusika okanye elilinganayo ibizwa ngokuba yi-isochemicals, ngelixa iqondo lokushisa lasehlobo libizwa ngokuba yi-isothere.

Isifundo somoya: Kwi-meteorology, umgca wokudityaniswa okunxibelelana nolwazi oluhamba rhoqo lomoya lubizwa ngokuba yi-isotach. Isogon ibonisa umoya oqhubekayo

Imvula kunye nokufuma: Amagama aliqela asetyenziselwa ukubiza iindawo ezikhethekileyo ezibonisa amanqaku okanye iindawo ezinemvula kunye nomxholo wodaka.

  • Isoyet okanye Isoyeta: bonisa imvula yendawo
  • Isochalaz: yimigca ebonisa imimandla ephindaphindeka rhoqo kwisichotho.
  • Isobront: Zizikhokelo ezibonisa iindawo eziphumelele isenzo seqhwithi ngaxeshanye.
  • Isoneph bonisa ukusasazeka kwelifu
  • Isohume: yimigca edibanisa imimandla ngokunamathela ngokuthe ngqo kubambiso
  • Isodrostherm: Ibonisa iindawo ezinendawo yokugcina amazolo okanye ukwanda.
  • Isopectic: Ibonisa iindawo ezinemihla yokuhanjiswa komkhenkce, ngelixa i-isotac ibhekisa kwimihla yokusilela.

Uxinzelelo lweBarometric: KwiMeteorology, uphando loxinzelelo lomoya lubalulekile kulindelo loyilo lwemozulu ezayo. Ubunzima be Barometric buyehla buye kwinqanaba lolwandle xa luboniswe kumgca. I-isobara ngumgca odibanisa izithili ngobunzima bemozulu ethe rhoqo. Isoallobars zikhokela ngokutshintsha kwesisindo kangangexesha elithile. Ii-isoallobars, ke, zinokuzahlula kwi-ketoallobars kunye nee-anallobars, ezibonisa ukuncipha kokunyuka kokutshintsha kwesisindo ngokwahlukeneyo.

I-Thermodynamics kunye nobunjineli: Nangona la macandelo ekugxininisa kuwo ngamanye amaxesha kubandakanya umgca wesikhokelo, bafumanisa ukusetyenziswa kwabo kwimifanekiso ebonisa ulwazi kunye nemizobo yeqonga, inxenye yeendlela eziqhelekileyo zokuzisebenzisa zodwa kwezi nkalo zezi:

  • Isochor simele ixabiso levolumu engaguqukiyo
  • Isoclines zisetyenziswa kwiimeko ezahlukeneyo
  • Isodose kubhekisa ekugcinweni kwenxalenye efanayo yemitha
  • Isophote kukukhanya okuqhubekayo

Magnetism: imigca ye-contour iluncedo ngokumangalisayo ekucingweni ngentsimi yomhlaba enomtsalane. Uncedo kuphando olunomdla kunye nokwala komazibuthe.

I-Isogonic okanye i-isogonic contour imigca ibonisa imigca yokuwohloka komtsalane okuqhubekayo. Umgca obonisa ukwala okungu-zero ubizwa ngokuba ngumgca we-Agonic. I-kipekeeine edibanisa nganye yezi ndlela, kunye namandla ahlala enomtsalane abizwa ngokuba ngumgca we-isodynamic. Umgca we-isoclinic udibanisa zonke iindlela zokucwangciswa komda nge-dive ekhangelekayo efanayo, ngelixa umgca we-aclinic udibanisa zonke iindawo ezine-dives ethandekayo. Umgca we-isophoric ufumana zonke iindlela kunye neendlela ezahlukeneyo zonyaka zokuncipha.

Izifundo zeJografi: Olona hlobo lusebenzayo lwezinto ezizimeleyo - imida, yindawo yokubonisa ukuphakama nobunzulu bommandla. Le migca isetyenziswa kwiimephu zedrafti ukubonisa imitha ukuphakama, kunye nebymetric ukubonisa ubunzulu. Ezi mephu zingasentla okanye zemephu yokuhlambela zingasetyenziselwa ukubonisa indawo encinci okanye imimandla efana nobukhulu bomhlaba. Isithuba esilandelanayo phakathi kwemigca ye-contour, ebizwa ngokuba yiphakathi ibonisa ukwanda okanye ubunzulu phakathi kwezi zimbini.

Xa uthetha ngomhlaba onemigca engqiniweyo, imigca ekufuphi ibonakalisa utyekelo oluphezulu okanye i-engile, lo gama umgama omde uthetha ngokutyekela okungekho mthethweni. Izangqa ezivaliweyo ngaphakathi zibonisa amandla, ngelixa elingaphandle libonisa ukwehla. Isangqa esinzulu kwimephu ye-contour sibonisa ukuba le ndawo inokuba ne-depressions okanye i-craters, kuloo ndawo imigca ibizwa ngokuba yi "hachures" ibonakalisiwe ngaphakathi kwesangqa.

IJografi kunye neLwandlekazi lweLwandle: Imephu zaselwandle zisetyenziswa kuphando lwezinto ezincedisayo, imiba ebonakalayo neyezezimali eboniswe kumhlaba wehlabathi. Isopach yimigca yethambeka efumana i-foci kunye nobungqingqwa obulingana beeyunithi zejometri.

Ukongeza, kwi-olografish yolwandle, imimandla enamanzi e-contour iyalingana kwimigca ye-contour ebizwa ngokuba yi-isopicnas, kunye ne-isohalins zidibanisa iindawo kunye ne-saline yaselwandle efanayo. Isobathytherms igxile kubushushu obufanayo elwandle.

I-Electrostatics: I-electrostatics kwindawo ihlala iboniswa nemephu yesopotopiki. Ijika elihlanganisa amanqaku kunye nombane osoloko ubizwa ubizwa ngokuba yi-isopotential okanye i-equipotential line.

Iimpawu zemigca yokubonelela ngemephu

Imephu ze-contour ayisiyomfuziselo yokunyuka, okanye isikhokelo sonyuko okanye ubunzulu bendawo, kodwa iindawo eziphambili zodwa zivumela ukuqonda okumangalisayo komhlaba okoko kugxilwe kwimephu. Nazi ezinye zezinto eziphezulu ezisetyenziswa kakhulu kwimephu:

  • Uhlobo lomgca: Inokuchatshazelwa, yomelele okanye ibaleke. Intambo enamachaphaza okanye abalekayo idla ngokusetyenziswa xa kukho ulwazi kwisiseko esingumda esiboniswe ngumgca oqinileyo.
  • Ubungqingqwa bomgca: Kuxhomekeka ekubeni umgca uqine okanye uqengqele kangakanani umgca utsaliwe. Imephu zemephu zihlala zitsalwa ngemigca yobukhulu obahlukeneyo ukubonisa iimpawu zamanani okanye iintlobo kwiindawo eziphakamileyo zommandla.
  • Umbala womgca: Olu hlobo lomgca wokubamba umda luyaguquka kwisikhokelo sokuyazi ukusuka kwi-contour yesiseko. Ukutshixwa kwemigca kusetyenziswa kwakhona njengenye indlela yeempawu zamanani.
  • Isitampu samanani: Kubalulekile kuzo zonke iimephu zemephu. Ihlala yenziwa kufutshane nomgca wokudibana okanye inokuvela kwicala lesikhokelo. Ixabiso lamanani linceda ukwahlula uhlobo lwethambeka.

Izixhobo zeMephu eziphezulu

Imephu zamaphepha aqhelekileyo ayisiyiyo kuphela indlela yokubonisa iimephu ezizodwa okanye i-contours. Ngaphandle kwinto yokuba zibalulekile, kunye nenkqubela phambili ekusetyenzisweni kwezinto ezintsha, iimephu okwangoku zikwisakhiwo esiqhubele phambili ngakumbi. Kukho izixhobo ezahlukeneyo, ukusetyenziswa kwezinto ezahlukeneyo kunye nenkqubo efikelelekayo yokuncedisa koku. Ezi mephu ziya kuchaneka ngokuthe kratya, zikhawuleza zenziwe, zinokuguquguqulwa ngokufanelekileyo kwaye ungazithumela kumaqabane akho nakwabo usebenza nabo! Emva koko, kubhekiswa kwinxalenye yezi zixhobo kunye nenkcazo emfutshane

iimaphu zikagoogle

Imephu zikaGoogle zisindisa ubomi kwihlabathi liphela. Isetyenziselwa ukukhangela isixeko, kunye nezinye iinjongo ezahlukeneyo. Ine "izimvo" ezininzi ezifikelelekayo, umzekelo: traffic, satellite, iTrafikhi, indlela, njl. Ukwenza isebenze i "Landscape» ungqimba ukusuka kwimenyu yeenketho kuya kukunika umbono we-topographic (ngemigca yeebala).

I-Gaia, i-ArcGIS, i-Backcountry Navigator (Izicelo eziVakalayo)

Njengezinye iinkqubo ezininzi ezinokusetyenziswa ze-Android kunye ne-iOS, abathengi be-iPhone banokusebenzisa iGaia GPS. Inika abathengi iimephu eziphezulu kunye neentlobo ezahlukeneyo. Ezi zicelo zingasimahla okanye zihlawulwe kuxhomekeka kulungiselelo olubhengeziweyo. Izicelo zendlela azisetyenziselwa kuphela ukufumana idatha ephezulu, kodwa ziluncedo kakhulu. Izicelo ze-ArcGIS kunye nokusetyenziswa ezahlukeneyo kwe-ESRI kunokusetyenziselwa ukwenza imephu.

ICaltopo

Awunakudlala nabo bonke ubuchule kwiifowuni eziphathwayo, kwaye le yindawo apho imisebenzi yendawo kunye nePC ngamagorha. Kukho amanqanaba akwi-intanethi kunye nohlengahlengiso oluhlengahlengiswayo lokukunceda ugqibe umsebenzi wakho olandelayo. ICapopo sisixhobo esisikhokelo esisekwe kwinkqubo esikuvumela ukuba uprinte iimephu zedrafti ezihlengahlengisiweyo. Ukongeza, ikuvumela ukuba ubathumele / ubashukumisele kwizixhobo zakho ze-GPS okanye iifowuni eziphathwayo. Ukongeza, ixhasa ukwenziwa ngokwezifiso okanye iimephu kunye nokunikeza abathengi abahlukeneyo.

I-Mytopo

Inokubonwa njengomboneleli wenkxaso. Kukuba kwinqanaba elithile njengeCaltopo (elikhankanywe ngasentla), nangona kunjalo, igxile kwiCanada naseMelika (siyathemba ukuba nabo bazakubandakanya amazwe ahlukeneyo!). Banikezela ngemephu zesiko ezinenkcukacha, kubandakanya iimephu ezibalaseleyo, imifanekiso yesatellite kunye neemephu ezivulekileyo zokusukela nakweyiphi na indawo yase-US. UU. Iimephu ezikumgangatho ophezulu kakhulu, onokuzijonga kwi-intanethi ngaphandle kwendleko okanye uzithumele njengezona nqanaba zokuqala ngexabiso elincinci.

Ungabhalisela Uqeqesho lweArcGIS Phila kwi-Edunbox ene-24 / 7 inkxaso kunye nokufikelela ebomini.


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